1. Substantive provisions of a new direction of research of special abilities (on an example of abilities to chemistry) in which frameworks special abilities are surveyed as property of mental structures, referential a certain subject domain of a reality are formulated, proved and verified.
Patterns and mechanisms of formation of mental structures as mental basis of special abilities are opened.

2. The results testifying are received, that development of special abilities in an ontogenesis is realised as change of the organisation of mental structures: transition from global level, through base level to the detailed level that corresponds to rules of growth of formed structure, konstantnosti mature structure, the form of orderliness of structure. Differently, the quantity of structural levels on which it is carried out mental reprezentatsija properties and validity relations is enlarged.

3. Specific implications of the general and special (chemical) abilities at different stages of age development are characterised by presence of "intellectual thresholds»: «the bottom intellectual threshold» makes chemistry development 110 IQ (under Vexler's test); a threshold of a divergence of the general and special chemical abilities – 125-129 IQ; a threshold of a divergence of indicators of intelligence and kreativnosti – 110 IQ; a threshold of a divergence of indicators verbal and nonverbal kreativnosti – 130 IQ. Besides, in an ontogenesis selective rising of sensitivity to specific properties of object takes place: in the early childhood – to external properties of substance; during the teenage and youthful periods – to chemical process. As a whole the teenage period is optimum for formation of conceptual structures of chemistry.

The major psychological condition of development of special abilities is formation of mental structures of a special sort – conceptual structures of the detailed level of generalisation, referential corresponding area of a subject reality.

4. The system of techniques of studying and diagnostics of special abilities on the basis of indicators sformirovannosti the mental structures laying in their basis is developed and verified: techniques «Chemical memory», «Chemical differentiations», «the Chemical dictation», «Chemical coding», «GreatСhemist», "MIKOSS". Possibility of use of the test of E.Torrensa (the nonverbal battery) as projective technique in applied psychodiagnostic researches of chemical abilities is proved.

5. Existence of special chemical abilities on the basis of data correlation, regressionnogo, variance (ANOVA) and factorial analyses is proved; comparisons of indicators of intelligence, kreativnosti and efficiency of development of chemistry (in groups of examinees with different level of success in chemistry); comparisons of indicators of intelligence and special chemical abilities; results of forming experiment; istoriko-psychological reconstruction of occurrence and development of special chemical abilities in kulturogeneze.

6. It is shown, that the chemistry nature as object of activity, makes certain demands to individuality of the subject, setting: high level of sensorno-perceptual sensitivity to structural and substantial characteristics of a chemical reality («feeling of substance and chemical process»); sformirovannost relevant to a subject material of ideational actions and conceptual structures («chemical thinking»); ability from outwardly observable characteristics of substance and its changes to pass to treating of its internal structure and to code this information by means of chemical signs and symbols («chemical tongue»); thin distinctive sensitivity to characteristics of chemical interaction (such, as weight, hardness, density, temperature, a consistence etc.) («Chemical arms»); selectivity and durability of memory on the chemical information («chemical memory»); sformirovannost such lines of the person as responsibility, accuracy and accuracy in affairs, good self-checking; sanguine and admixed is high-active temperament types.

7. Features of the thinking operating with the subject maintenance of chemistry, its qualitative specificity, and also sformirovannost relevant to a subject material of ideational actions are taped and described. It is shown, that ideational operations are mediated by is qualitative-quantitative relations of chemistry. The the chemical reality is more precisely reflected, the the thinking of the chemist is more productive.

8. As a result of forming experiment the program of school training of the chemistry, constructed according to patterns of development of mental structures reprezentatsii chemical knowledge (first of all, conceptual structures of chemistry), playing integrating role in the organisation of intelligence and personal properties is developed. The given program allows quickly and to master strongly knowledge in a subject and conducts to development of the general and special (chemical) abilities.
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A source: Volkova E.V.. Development of mental structures as bases of special abilities. 2011

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