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«Empirical research of formation and development of polyethnic competence of subjects of formation»

In the third chapter is offered a general characteristic of empirical research of 2127 respondents. Pupils of an elementary school have been involved in process of empirical research – 402 children, pupils of high school with 5 on 11 classes – 250 pupils, parents of pupils of an elementary school – 83 persons, students of high schools – 489 persons, teachers of high school – 184 persons, psychologists, social workers, the doctors serving on of Pskov and the Pskov area (17 - 65 years) – 719 persons.

In table 1 27 psychodiagnostic techniques of studying of polyethnic competence and its components which analysis of results is described in the third, fourth and fifth heads are presented.





Table 1. Techniques of research of polyethnic competence

Subjects of formation






The third chapter is devoted the detailed analysis of results of empirical research of ethnic potential of pupils and their parents, the analysis of the social order, social requirement for experts with polyethnic competence, and also to a substantiation of an urgency of working out akmeologicheskoj to the concept of formation and development of polyethnic competence of subjects of formation.

By results of psychodiagnostic research of ethnic potential of pupils of 2-10 classes it is possible to draw the general conclusions: ethnic identity passes a number of stages from diffusive to real, and result of this process is development at younger school age of emotionally-estimated comprehension of an accessory to an ethnic generality; children's representation about ethnic groups not always correlates with the information on them, the bias precedes knowledge; ethnic knowledge becomes more differentiated to the senior school age; the tendency to etnoreljativizmu remains from an elementary school to the senior classes, the ethnodominance goes down to the senior school age, the ethnocentrism appears only at senior pupils, and the tendency to ethnoconformism disappears to the senior classes (fig. 3).



Fig. 3. Expression of ethnotendencies of pupils (%, n=211)



On the basis of the analysis of exponents of expression of ethnic potential of parents of the Pskov area it is possible to conclude, that for overwhelming majority of representatives of contacting ethnic groups positive identity or identity as "norm" is characteristic. In its structure the positive image of own ethnic group corresponds with the positive valuable relation to other ethnic groups. In other words, positive ethnic identity is a certain balance of tolerance in relation to own and to other ethnic groups which allows to survey it, on the one hand, as a condition of independent and stable existence of an ethnic group, and with another – as a condition of peace intercultural interaction in polietnichnom the world. At the same time an appreciable part of respondents (the quantity indicator fluctuates over a wide range: From 20 % to 60 %) simultaneously shows the equipments in such forms, as an ethnoisolationism, ethnoegoism or ethnofanaticism (fig. 4).



Fig.
4. Ethnic identity of parents of pupils (%, n=83)

Especial concern was caused by the fact of presence in an appreciable share of respondents of Russian parents of the tendency of ethnofanaticism which is the extreme form of implication ethnic intoleratnosti and testifies to high level of interethnic intensity, about readiness to go on any actions for the sake of ethnic interests, up to ethnic "cleanings", about refusal in the right of use of resources and social privileges to representatives of other people, recognitions of a priority of the ethnic rights of the people over human rights, justifications of any victims in struggle for well-being of the people. The expressed tendency to ethnic intolerantnosti was showed and at studying of the tolerant equipments though the average level of development of ethnotolerance (64,7 %) prevails, however negative level of tolerance 12,4 % of parents, and uncertain, dim level of tolerance at 18,1 % (have fig. 5).



Fig. 5. Ethnic tolerance of parents of pupils (%, n=83)

On the basis of research of satisfaction by educational medium by parents and their estimation of psychological safety of a finding of their children at school it is possible to draw following conclusions: 1) the majority of parents are satisfied by educational and educational medium of school where their children study. However parents, Russian on a nationality, feel less protected and uncertain in educational medium, than representatives of other ethnic groups; 2) parents, Russian on a nationality, show a smaller level of development of polyethnic competence and tolerance, than parents of other ethnoses; 3) ethnopsychological features of parents positively correlate with satisfaction educational medium and psychological safety of a finding at school of children.

Revealing of interrelations and typologies psihologo-akmeologicheskih features of pupils and their parents as subjects of polyethnic educational medium has allowed to carry out the factorial analysis of the empirical data describing 60,8 % of the general share of a dispersion

The first factor describes 23,6 % of a dispersion and includes following variables: positive ethnic identity (0,860), knowledge of the native language (0,652), interest to culture and history of the people (0,548). Representatives of all ethnic groups interrogated in given research, including Russian have shown researches, that, take a positive view of it. The positive ethnic identity as a whole characterising all ethnic groups, serves as the powerful precondition of integration processes in the interethnic interaction, therefore the given factor it is possible to name «Polyethnic cooperation».

The second factor describes 17,4 % of a dispersion and includes all variables concerning negative implications of ethnic identity, to hostile reactions concerning other ethnic groups and intolerantnosti in this connection the given factor has received the name "Negativism": ethnonihilism (0,823), ethnofanaticism (0,785), an ethnoisolationism (0,694), ethnoegoism (0,680).

The third factor describes 12,6 % of a dispersion and includes following variables: ethnic tolerance (0,844), readiness to co-operate all the same with whom on nationalities (0,795), the positive relation to raznonatsionalnym to marriages (0,548). The given factor has received the name "Tolerance".

The fourth factor describes 7,2 % of a dispersion and includes following variables: ethnic indifference (0,760), comprehension of by the assistant in education of other children (0,437). The first component has positive weight, and the second - negative. The given factor has received the name «Razmytost and indifference».

For definition of groups of pupils of school with similar level of expression socially-psychological the determinant of polyethnic mutual relations was used the cluster analysis (K-Mean Cluster Analysis). It has been taped four klastera into which examinees with similar psychological features have entered:

The first klaster included 47,3 % of examinees which are characterised by the greatest expression of positive ethnic identity in the form of the tendency to reljativizmu, but at the same time and the greatest ethnic indifference. They do not give the big importance of a nationality, but in a sufficient measure realise that all cultures are peer, but thus they are excited not so strongly with national and ethnic problems, at them low requirement for an ethnic accessory (low ethnic affiljatsija) and approximately identical average level ethnic tolerance and a conflictness. The most part of pupils 9 and 10 classes here has entered. They are ready to interaction but only in the event that children of other nationality show the initiative. It is possible to tell, that they do not incur national obligations and not strongly value traditional national values, feel «citizens of the world».

The second klaster included 23,6 % of pupils which value national identity, not differing thus blind devotion in all national. They show evasion from close interaction, are assured, that dialogue is much more desirable among the national group – the people possessing similar features, understand each other is better, such relations, from their point of view, less konfliktny and are difficult. Pupils are not ready to communicate with representatives of other national groups, they possess biases to representatives of other nationalities, show the tendency to submission, suppression of representatives of other cultures.

The third klaster included 20 % of examinees for which implication of the general ethnic tolerance and nekonfliktnosti is characteristic, they possess the developed ethnic identity in which structure the positive image of own ethnic group co-exists with the positive relation to other ethnic groups. Pupils of 9-10 classes have not got to this klaster, it is formed mostly only of pupils 8 classes. They show active acceptance of representatives of other national groups. Pupils of the given category are ready to co-operate at any level of relations (it can be friendship, love or even marriage).

Into the fourth klaster has entered 9,1 % of examinees, with obvious prevalence of ethnocentrist stereotypes, biases to representatives of other ethnic groups. Implication of high level ethnic affiljatsii which is accompanied by high disputed potential is peculiar to them and in situations of interaction with representatives of ethnic cultures causes high konfliktogennost interethnic relations. These are not adapted and intolerantnye persons.

By results of empirical research in the third chapter conclusions are drawn: the ethnic potential passes in the development a number of stages. At children of younger school age the ethnic consciousness is at a formation stage. Results of research of ethnic potential of parents show implication of positive ethnic identity or identity as "norm", at them is expressed ethnic intolerantnost and razmytost the tolerant equipments, in the relation to educational process between parents of different nationalities essential differences are taped. Non-uniformity of development of ethnic potential of pupils and their parents confirms real requirement for experts of formation with the developed polyethnic competence which would be ready and capable to realise in practice akmeologicheskie programs of development of polyethnic competence.
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A source: Manojlova M. A.. Acmeological development of polyethnic competence of subjects of formation. 2011

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