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Historical and cultural sources of special abilities

Detection of a source of special abilities assumes an establishment of that stage of historical development when the individual mental features providing success of performance of activity at one individuals, began to differ from individual mental features of other individuals, less successful in these kinds of activity.
The fixed facts against which we can lean, instruments of production are? In them of ability and knowledge of the people who have made these tools, finds the material embodiment.

Reconstruction of process of genesis of special abilities on the basis of the analysis of tools and technologies of their manufacturing shows, that throughout two millions years the basic form of the tool remained invariable is manual stone cut with raspingly processed working edge. To make such tool, probably, each adult could, for this purpose it was not required neither the long period of training, nor special natural skill or ingenuity (Kliks, 1983; Gordon, 1948). But, thanks to "opening" of thin crystalline structure of a flint, the manufacturing techniques of tools vary. There is the way of activity known as technician Levallua (on the basis of knowledge of qualities of a stone material and ability to see features of a crystalline structure of a flint exact blows on a stone receive "otshchepy" the necessary size and the form) which mastering is unconditional, was accessible not to everyone (Kliks, 1983, with. 52). Thus, technics Levallua is that objective indicator which allows to speak about origin of special chemical abilities.

The stages of development caused by substance from which were produced tools, everywhere have the same sequence: a stone, bronze, iron. This fact allows to assume, that formation of mental structures and the chemical abilities substantiated in given tools, also everywhere correspond to certain sequence: chemical process, its external signs is originally reflected in is evident-effective level (heat and light allocation at burning reaction) and its essence (ability to change property of substance); further features of a crystalline structure of substance (technician Levallua) and only after that – all kinetic system in whole (constructive methods of use of fire, such as blasting, hashing) are allocated.

Origin of components of chemical abilities, apparently, too occurs in certain sequence: the mind orientation on useful properties of chemical process (heat and light allocation in burning reactions) is originally formed; then – feeling of substance and chemical process (deliberate getting of fire, ability to change property under the influence of fire); further – chemical arms (technics Levallua). A wreath of development of chemical abilities of the ancient person is origin of originally chemical thinking when from two or several substances received the new substances which earlier are not meeting in the nature. Possibly, in parallel with origin of chemical thinking, ability to carry out chemical calculations (at level "more", "less", it it is "enough") as without revealing of necessary proportions the demanded substance is rather inconvenient to receive was formed. Ideographic signs for record of substances and minerals it is possible to find out in drevneegipetskoj writings (Lejdensky and Stockholm papyruses) that it is possible to survey as origin signs of "chemical tongue.

If as indicators of origin of special abilities to use primary differentiation of objects and its properties which become further a subject of special activity (for art abilities – the object form (rock paintings, an ornament on tools); for mathematical – bracing of quantity of subjects etc.) chemical abilities (allocation of chemical properties of substance) are, perhaps, one of the most ancient (in particular, the technology of maintenance and fire delution has appeared 400-320 thousand years BC) .
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A source: Volkova E.V.. Development of mental structures as bases of special abilities. 2011

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