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Patterns of formation of conceptual system of chemistry in historical and cultural development of a science

One of ways of studying of mechanisms, patterns and conditions of formation of the mental structures underlying special abilities, the historical and cultural analysis of development of the subject maintenance of chemistry as sciences is.
Such reconstruction of a subject of chemistry allows to reproduce fixed and opredmechennuju in culture a chemical picture of the world. The decision of the given problem probably from the point of view of two complementary approaches: substantial and chronological.

The substantial approach allows to tap quantum leaps in development of the subject maintenance of chemistry: from all stream of the chemical form of movement of a matter the consciousness of the person originally allocates element structure of substance, then its structure and only after that all kinetic system as a whole starts to be surveyed. Ability to distinguish the increasing number of the signs defining properties of substance, such as structure and substance structure is formed; the nature and relative quantities of reagents; external conditions in which there is a system; substances, stehiometricheski not participating in reaction (an impurity, the catalyst, a dissolvent, etc.) But influencing course of chemical process. Deeper studying of chemical process leads to opening of transitive conditions. In concept «a transitive condition» all abstract moments himizma are united: a structure, kinetika, thermodynamic properties, conditions of course of process, in it are as though entered initial and end-products. Thereby more thin differentiation conducts to the integration erasing a side between concepts «a chemical particle» and «chemical reaction» Chemical process and a chemical particle are united in a single whole; transformation of one stable chemical form into another occurs through «a shapeless condition», through lomku all characteristics of usual stable molecules (Zhdanov, 1977). In the elementary chemical systems open some kind of mechanisms of prebiological adaptation, the conceptual system of chemistry comes to the end and the scientific-theoretical substantiation is given to conceptual systems of biology (Rudenko, 1983).

The chronological approach allows to open in more details process of formation of conceptual systems of chemistry. In the antique period of development of chemistry it is possible to find out the prototypes of key concepts making a skeleton of a modern science, – an element, atom, communication, bond (miksis), the chemical phenomenon, specificity chemical interactions (proportionality), a structure; the basic ideas necessary for definition of concept "element", – "atom", the atom characteristic (weight, the size, the form), limitation of number of forms of atoms are stated. That is the element is a set of atoms of a certain kind. But as the concept "element" has not been separated from concept "body", "substance", «a modular condition», operatsionalizatsija this key concept of chemistry was tightened forever – while there was a remission of an objective chemical picture of the world of subjective views of scientific different epoch. Only then there was a possibility of integration of these concepts, possibility operatsionalizatsii concepts "element".

Analyzing the doctrine about a chemical structure of substance, it is necessary to notice, that for the first time the idea of geometrical structure of different kinds of a matter can be found at Platon, idea of a structure of bonds – in chemical symbolics of the Dalton. This idea is global. Then there are the first experimental data proving influence of a structure on properties substances (isomerism). However uncertainty of concepts atom, a molecule, an element, nuclear mass stirred long time to revealing of a structure of bonds.

Use of blasting and parulises in technology of reception of iron (II millenium BC) testifies to intuitive application of laws of thermodynamics and kinetiki chemical processes which will receive experimental acknowledgement and a theoretical substantiation only in the XX-th century. But this knowledge is global, then it is dismembered on elements – "warmth" as a component, a material substance is allocated; then connection between warmth and movement of particles is established. The further differentiation of the validity has led to necessity of accurate distinction of such parties of "warmth" as «the quantity of warmth» and «intensity of warmth», "calorific capacity" and «the latent warmth of change of a modular condition of substance» etc. Begins ordering of properties and relations between components of reacting system, various interrelations and relations are established, fundamental laws of thermochemistry, thermodynamics and chemical kinetiki are formulated.

The analysis of the facts shows, that process of evolution of special abilities and the mental structures laying in their basis, fixed and opredmechennyj in instruments of production and written sources, submits to a differentsionno-integration principle. Thus, leaning against evolutionary criterion, it is possible to speak about existence of special chemical abilities and the mental structures laying in their basis in the affirmative.
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A source: Volkova E.V.. Development of mental structures as bases of special abilities. 2011

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