Personal qualities in system of professional skill of shots of management and a problem of their perfection

In the various researches spent for the purpose of revealing of the most important components of professional skill of managing directors, bringing the greatest contribution to maintenance of efficiency of all professional work, authors come to that conclusion, that, besides a various sort of the remedial skills, essential, and at times and the solving contribution to achievement of high efficiency of administrative activity bring such characteristics of the subject of administrative activity which traditionally concern not remedial abilities - to abilities, but to personal qualities - to specific features of thinking, character, temperament, special characteristics motivatsionno-potrebnostnoj spheres of the person, its valuable representations and practically-valuable orientations.

So, extensive basic research under the analysis and revealing of professional qualities of managers of the top skills, spent at Institute of applied researches (USA) within 18th years and 1500 persons [1] who have captured in total, has shown, that following ten qualities among which very big place is occupied with actually personal qualities of managers have the greatest importance:

1. Strongly pronounced ability to strategic planning and forecasting.

2. Acceptance of correct and timely perspective decisions on allocation and distribution of resources.

3. Aspiration to enlarge number of the duties at the expense of expansion of scales of activity or as a result of transition to work of higher level.

4. Uncommon ability to make creative and rational decisions in the conditions of the big degree of risk. An avoidance of a long finding in "a comfort zone".

5. Exclusive confidence of own forces: failures are perceived only as time disorders.

6. Aspiration to have the appreciable rights and, hence, to bear the big responsibility.

7. The big predilections to an intuitive prediction and the abstract analysis of process of difficult processes and critical situations.

8. Understanding of work as main value, in which vkladyvaajutsja all abilities and forces. Possession feeling of "an internal estimation" actions which are not always compounded with associates.

9. Concentration of attention on the problem decision, instead of on revealing of originators. Desire to work with such subordinates who are not afraid of risk and independent decisions are able to make.

10. The proprietary relation to realised ideas and results of their introduction.

Though such allocation of the most typical qualities inherent in effective professional work of management, represents very difficult and hardly in the universal image razreshimuju a problem (to what can testify also, for example, the spent R.Kalpanom the review of key factors of the managerial effectiveness allocated with authorities conventional in the field of management [2]), use in some researches of sociological methods and methods of processing of the information allows to specify nevertheless groups of abilities and the skills most closely bound to maintenance of efficiency of administrative activity.

So, I.Brienes describes research in which by the analysis of the big number of interrogations of principals of the top echelon from vysokopribylnyh the companies some hundreds private characteristics of administrative activity [3] have been taped, then they have been classified in 37 categories covering base skills, abilities and the qualities inherent in principals, achieving high results.
Then, these categories have been united in three basic groups - analytical, social, emotionally-psychological. The idea of model of efficient control of Katz parting the controlling personnel on three categories has been thus used: the higher, average and the lowest - and for each category the special characteristic quality providing efficiency of management was allocated: For bosses - development of conceptual thinking, for averages - ability to provide corresponding motivation of executors and a psychological climate, for the lowest - detailed knowledge of technical aspects of carried out problems.

The analytical group of qualities was made by abilities:

• to develop long-term and short-term objectives;

• to tap essentially important characteristics of environment;

• in time to realise necessity of basic changes etc.

The social group of qualities was made by abilities:

• to focus people on achievement of objects in view;

• competently to adjust dialogue in collective;

• to co-ordinate joint efforts of executors;

• to compound individual, group and obshcheorganizatsionnye interests and so forth

The emotionally-psychological group of qualities has been made of abilities:

• it is productive to work in stressful situations;

• quickly psychologically to be reconstructed, adapting to a new situation;

• to transfer regular emotional overloads;

• to have boldness to go on defensible risk, etc.

If we compare now this classification of qualities of outstanding managers with presented by us in chapter 1 universal functional model of professional work of N.V.Kuzminoj, we will see, that the first group of qualities make, mainly, gnosticheskie, and the second - communicative remedial abilities while the third represents a complex of psychological characteristics and professionally important personal qualities.

The carried out formalized analysis of the given three groups of professional qualities has shown presence of the highest correlation between a level of development of group of qualities and level of a managerial effectiveness at thirds of group of qualities - emotionally-psychological.

Results of the given research can be interpreted as the indicating on necessity of the reference of special attention within the limits of systems of perfection of professional skill of experts-managers on the psychotherapeutic help to experts and training to their methods of a psychotherapeutic self-care, i.e. introduction of corresponding psychotechnologies. At the same time, results of the given research underline great value of professionally important personal qualities of managing directors and, accordingly, the big urgency of statement of a problem of possibility of their development.

The problem of personal qualities of managers gets special value in connection with the tendencies which have outlined recently of development of the economic life, made in relation to management new demands. The companies working in highly technological areas, have got now to a situation characterised by very fast course of changes in technological sphere and, accordingly, by very fast change of priorities in the consumer market that demands from control systems of such companies unprecedented before flexibility at feasible participation in management of all workers of the company.

In the management theory these changes contact transition from an industrial society to postindustrial and, accordingly, from formal to the informal approach to management. The initial postulate of informal school has been entered into an administrative science by D.Makgregorom who has described still in the early sixties two approaches to an estimation of the relation of the person to work in the form of the theory "X" and the theory "Y".

According to theories "X", the person is initially lazy and bezynitsiativen, all its thoughts are concentrated to that, as though to shirk work and to avoid responsibility. It proves necessity vsepronikajushchego the control and the most detailed regulation. Such approach demands strict hierarchical submission and leads to growth of administrative personnel which sees the reserving in rational distribution of all to a trifle of resources and the control over their use.

Under the theory "Y", the person, on the contrary, is more likely hardworking, than is lazy, he aspires to cause a stir on work, willingly incurs responsibility, is full of ideas and ambitious plans, the main thing for it - realisation of the creative potential, material compensation departs thus on the second plan. Such precondition means necessity of granting to people of the maximum independence liberating and turning on advantage of business their creative energy. Need for intricate and bulky organizational structures thus disappears; level of the control and degree the regulations relying according to the theory "X" necessary, become now unnecessary and harmful.

Some companies, for example, IBM, applied theory elements "Y" at an industrial stage of development of manufacture [4], but theory time "Y" has come with the beginning of transition of an industrial society in information, having qualitatively other industrial base which has changed character of the work. About the changes occurring in the tideway of this theory bound to introduction of the group form of the organisation of work, we told in the previous paragraph. Now it is necessary to notice, that these changes consisting in transfer of the increasing independence to local structures, in connection with appreciable redistribution and diversifikatsiej the decision-making and responsibility rights assume also existence of special corporate values and even the corporate culture, assuming special demands to personal qualities of managers. So, David Merser, studying activity IBM, has come to conclusion, that "not so usual guidelines, and very strong microculture of the company" which it defines as "aspiration to perfection" [5] were the key instrument of management of actions. It, allocating 10 most important principles IBM, puts on the first place "strong belief which frame trust between workers", behind them on the second - "ethical values parted by workers" [6]. If to add to it, that in IBM the number of principals has increased to one person on 9 workers and that, according to principles IBM, each worker is involved in decision-making (on the basis of a consensus) becomes obvious, that in modern conditions the possession quite certain personal characteristics becomes for achievement at all tops, and simply good level of professional skill it is so necessary, however and remedial professional abilities.

The problem of professionally important personal qualities of the managing director gets special value in the light of understanding of professional skill as integrated phenomenon and tematizatsii this integrity through disclosing of substantial interrelations of the professional psychotechnologies concerning, on the one hand, to various technological complexes of the remedial party of professional work, and with another, - to sphere of professionally important personal qualities.

Let's show it on a following example.

There are such areas of human activity, in which explicit analysis of the technological party: methods used in the course of activity, receptions, operations - always took very important place. One of such areas - having powerful cultural tradition and centuries-old history dispute area. The European cultural tradition, by the nature assuming existence of the democratic elements causing by a life such specifically "western" forms of a public life as: democratic decision-making process on the character on the state questions, arisen in antique democracies, sostjazatelnoe legal proceedings, theological debates and scientific discussions, whether various sort negotiations between independent subjects of an economic, public, state or international life - every time assumes presence of dispute, competition of opinions and theories, and consequently, and presence of professional debaters and peregovorshchikov. To art of dispute, discussion conducting the steadfast attention was always paid. Tradition of studying of technology of dispute - various receptions applied during dispute: from rhetorical figures to modern "technics" of negotiating - totals already more than two millenia. And though, from the point of view of, for example, psychotechnological analysis leaning against modern psychological knowledge, the developed methods of conducting dispute can seem and imperfect, their value including for modern practice, remains nevertheless very big. Traditional methods of conducting dispute continue to be developed intensively and now. One of mainstreams of their development is research of technics of negotiating.

Traditional technologies of the negotiating, representing two basic traditional trunk-call strategy - so-called "rigid" and "soft", - it is accepted to carry to the concept of "auction" assuming preliminary formation by each of the parties of the position at negotiations, representing a complex of demands put forward by the party, and, then, already actually in the course of negotiations, upholding of each of the parties of own position and-or the coordination the parties of the positions on the basis of cash balance of forces of the parties.

Force of the party thus is understood as the certain integrated factor developing of the importance of set various vneperegovornyh of circumstances. Most close as it seems to us, it could be defined as size, return interest under the authority of the given concrete negotiations. Force, thus, directly depends on, whether can peregovorshchik and if can, with what probability of success, with what expenses etc., to achieve realisation of the interests not trunk-call by (i.e. by application of force, a reference to the court, the decision of any problem own agents, etc.), or as a result of negotiations with other persons (for example, with other partner or the client), or in other conditions which can be framed various agents. Thus, it will be logical to assume, that there is some maximum of a difference of forces at which one of the parties is absolutely not inclined to carry on negotiations.

In the literature devoted to researches of various strategy and tactics of negotiating, it was repeatedly specified, that traditional approaches and the technologies of negotiating united in the concept of "auction", mismatch modern conditions of an economic and international life and lose in them the efficiency [7]. The problem of opening of new strategic possibilities of negotiating and working out of their technological maintenance was put.

R.Fisher and U.Juri, researches of negotiations representing the Harward project, have put forward the new concept so-called "basic negotiations" [8], and have offered the special technological arsenal of the negotiating essentially distinguishing the given concept from all strategy of negotiating corresponding to it, concerning to "the auction concept".

Strategy of basic negotiations, starts with intention of development in the course of negotiations of such agreements which would be based not on the demands making a position of one of the parties, and not the compromise between demands of the various parties, but on the analysis of a being of a discussed problem. The basic demand of the concept of "basic negotiations", shown to peregovorshchiku and distinguishing it from the "auction" concept, consists in necessity "to concentrate on interests, instead of on positions". Such equipment, according to authors, will allow the peregovorshchiku-subject not to be involved in the item auction with the opponent concerning the one who and what will make concessions, but together with the opponent to analyse the developed situation and to try to resolve problems containing in it on the basis of the account of interests of both parties.

This strategic demand is realised further by authors in the tactical problems of various level referred on that by means of application of a various sort of the trunk-call technologies including both research of a problem situation, and various methods of influence on the opponent, to withdraw process of negotiations from the item auction and to refer it on joint search with the opponent of mutually acceptable effective decisions.

The detailed analysis of technology of the negotiating offered by R.Fisher and U.Juri, however shows, that, despite obvious logical validity and practical efficiency of application of the given technology in comparison with traditional, that proves to be true the analysis of its numerous cases resulted in given work ipolovanija, application of simple criterion of efficiency nevertheless is not enough for a choice of this trunk-call strategy. Presence testifies to it such, provided by technology of "basic negotiations" office problems as "aspiration to search of the fair decision of a problem", "insisting on use of objective criteria and objective procedures", etc., for example, That at simultaneous presence constantly mentioned vneperegovornyh ways of achievement of "the fair decision" on a basis of "objective criteria" to which at any moment can resort peregovorshchik, testifies about favorable for peregovorshchika balance of forces at which can be applied and vneperegovornye agents of achievement of required result and the "rigid" concept of the auction is effectively used. Including testifies to the importance of positive balance of forces as preconditions for strategy realisation "basic negotiations" in its structure of special methods of research of a situation for the purpose of search vneperegovornyh alternatives of the decision of problems for the purpose of avoidance of unprofitable arrangements also.

Unique unique advantage of the concept of "basic negotiations" thus there is only a possibility of the permission with its help of a various sort of problem situations at conservation of good relations with the partner in negotiations or good moral atmosphere in collective (if it is a question of conflict occurrence at the enterprise) for which it is not necessary besides to pay off with the concessions, causing injury to purely business mutual relations. However the given criterion is not bound not so on a straight line to purely business efficiency of offered technology that means, that its choice assumes presence at the subject of corresponding qualities of character or motivation on maintenance of good informal relations with the opponent.

Thus, a problem of introduction of effective psychotechnologies, especially such which it is close svjazanny with an establishment of a various sort of mutual relations of the individual with people surrounding it and the world in general - and those are especially characteristic for management activity, - it appears bound to a problem of professionally important personal qualities of the subject of professional work as necessary basis that this or that psychotechnology in general has been selected by the concrete professional and has found the applications in its activity. In the absence of a corresponding personal orientation on reception of corresponding effect, in this case - on maintenance of informal relations, training of professionals of a various sort simply it is not meaningful to new effective psychotechnologies of management, that with special force puts a problem of professionally important personal qualities, the structure and which level of development should correspond to character of introduced psychotechnologies.

The problem of personal qualities of the principals having as we have shown, the big weight in the general structure of professional skill certainly finds the reflexion at creation is concrete-practical akmeologicheskih projects.

Frequently, however, in such projects personal qualities are surveyed exclusively in the long term performance akmeologicheskimi by projects of function of selection of candidates on employment of a vacant post. Thus also frequently does not become differences between remedial abilities and actually personal qualities, but selection on the basis of the analysis of synthetic professional or "business" qualities of applicants is led.

Various researchers [9] become perceptible, that procedures of traditional testing (for example, tests IQ) are of little use for an estimation of perspective efficiency of candidates on various, including supervising, posts. For this purpose check of candidates in the real industrial situations demanding implication of qualities, necessary for the future work much more approaches. As concrete forms and methods of such selection the following is offered:

1. The analysis of professional work of the candidate in the past (thus the special attention is given to results of work of the candidate in a similar post and to implication of its such qualities as ability to overcome an obstacle to work well together with colleagues and to adapt to new conditions).

2. Viewing of the questionnaire of the candidate and the job application which is spent for the purpose of initial selection and the further studying of the candidate.

3. The series of conversations including "deep" interview, spent by the managing director having vacancy, the "control" interview which is carried out by the principal of this managing director (or the expert in personnel administration) and "poruchitelskoe" interview which is spent usually by the skilled representative of employees - the future colleague of the candidate.

Thus as the most important for primary selection and arrangement of the managerial personnel following seven aspects of the person are allocated:

1. Skills of social interaction (ability effectively to communicate, build interpersonal interaction).

2. Orientation to success (presence of such qualities as persistence, persistence, azartnost, working capacity, predilection to risk).

3. A social maturity (presence is enough sformirovannnyh the personal purposes, ability to correction of own behaviour).

4. Practical intelligence (ability to define a problem and to find possible ways of its decision).

5. Ability to difficult work (fastness to stress, ability to plan difficult work and to establish prioritetnost problems at deficiency of time).

6. Social adaptability (srabatyvaemost with colleagues and a management, the adaptation to organizational sotsiokulture, to traditions, norms and rituals).

7. A lead (ability to induce to action of others to inspire trust to associates).

At the same time, there was a number of researches in which the special attention is given to the valuable equipments of professional managers. Caused by tendencies mentioned by us in development of world management such researches do difference between managers of old type more often (in different works them name: "bureaucrats", "managers", "managers") and managers-innovators ("leaders", "businessmen"). And in this case distinction is spent already practically strictly by criterion of personal qualities and character of the valuable equipments of the professional. Such researches in the practical plan are referred still on theoretical maintenance of various techniques of selection, for example, questioning [10], applicants for employment of certain posts or performance of certain work, such, as a project management.

In the interesting research spent by Howard Stevenson and William Salmanom [11], substantial comparison of remedial strategy of professional work, on the one hand, personal characteristics of managers and leaders, technological and economic conditions of manufacture - with another is carried out. This rather rare research in which accurate distinction of remedial features of professional work of management and personal qualities of managers, first, is spent, and secondly, substantial conformity are established between them, i.e. at concrete enough level is spent and substantially the idea of integrity of professional skill in the field of management reveals. Thus, however, personal qualities of managers appear rjadopolozhennymi from a various sort characteristics of manufacture and an economic life, and together with them are understood as the external factors leading to structural changes of professional work of management.

Stevenson and Salman result results of the research in the following table:

Robert Hizrich and Michael Piters, results of the given research [12] resulting in the work, separately allocate knowledge and abilities which businessmen and whom they should receive within the limits of the special education system should possess, called to form defined, able to be fixed administrative skills. Thus authors use data of researches of Robert Ronshtadta [13], believing necessary for the businessman reception of following administrative skills:

1. Clear vision of business, unit of the facts from myths.

2. Ability to give the weighed estimations.

3. Ability to find non-standard decisions.

4. Ability to behave and make of the decision in the conditions of uncertainty.

5. Ability to develop new commercial ideas.

6. Ability to estimate perspectivity of new ideas.

7. Knowledge and the skills necessary for creation of new business.

8. Management of small enterprises.

9. Ability to state a professional estimation to results of the activity.

10. Ability to estimate an external situation.

11. Ability to estimate any action from the point of view of ethics and morals.

12. Ability to conclude the transaction.

13. Ability to come into contacts to carry on negotiations.

14. Ability to receive the due.

At the same time personal qualities of businessmen to which authors pay the big attention, considering, that: "to become the winner in practice, it is necessary to become even earlier the winner in a shower" [14], are surveyed by them separately from knowledge, skills and are bound any more to formation received by them, and with various factors of its biography which are classified as follows [15]:

Thus, naturally, it is supposed, that the personal qualities which are not giving in to direct formation in the course of training, but formed throughout all course of life of the person, can be taken into consideration practically focused akmeologicheskimi by projects only from the point of view of selection of controlling shots, but in any way from the point of view of perfection and development of personal qualities of managing directors within the limits of such systems.

It is necessary to notice, however, already that circumstance, that in the set of the necessary administrative skills resulted above which formation is considered education system business, are present such, for example "Ability to estimate any action from the point of view of ethics and morals", mastering with which directly assumes presence of corresponding personal qualities, besides, as we have shown on an example of treating of the problems bound to introduction of new technologies of negotiating, the psychotechnologies at first sight thematically removed from personal qualities, appear having close substantial communication with those qualities. The given circumstance testifies, at least, that the problem subject to formation and development of skills and accessible only diagnostsirovaniju personal qualities cannot be solved introduction of the simple classification, called to separate one from others. By the way, for this reason professionally important personal qualities and professional remedial skills often at all do not differ with the researchers, preferring to deal integrated by the nature with "business qualities". So, among J mentioned to 20 most "solving" abilities. Smith there is an ability "to make on itself responsibility for the problem decision", characterising, more likely, moral qualities of the professional.

The given problem as follows from the estimations of its importance resulted by us various authors, demands however more serious, special treating. As we believe, in it it is necessary to allocate two aspects, bound to two parties akmeologicheskoj experts - the psychotechnological analysis and an anthropotechnology.

The first. We believe, that distinction of remedial skills and personal qualities in substantial aspect rather conditionally. It can have absolute value only until the psychological science has no theoretical agents for the psychotechnological analysis of personal qualities therefore the last and can act only as something atomic and naturally developing, ostensibly by the nature not having components and not subject to possibility to be theoretically analysed, presented in the form of spatial structure which ex definitio is accessible to a manipulation, to alteration and assemblage on universal, i.e. accessible to conservation and transfer to other people, a technique.

The modern psychological science, however, already possesses rather effective remedies of the psychotechnological analysis and development of personal qualities. Agents of autogenic training, an autohypnosis, being presented in the form of the developed psychotechnologies, just also are such techniques which it is already possible, so, and it is necessary to include in programs of systems of perfection of professional skill for those kinds of professional work in which professionally important personal qualities have very big weight for maintenance of efficiency of all activity, that we have shown for management activity. Occurrence of a universal technique of formation or development of this or that personal quality, actually, also means already that the possession can be surveyed by that quality any more as naturally generated character trait but as methodically, i.e. it is artificial, formed skill. So, if, for example, the psychological fastness allowing the person not to be lost in a stressful situation and to make in it responsible administrative decisions, being naturally inherent in the given person, in the absence of a universal technique of its maintenance should be estimated as quality integrally inherent in the person which should be diagnostsirovano at a stage of primary selection and arrangement of administrative shots already in the presence of universal, able to be the psychotherapeutic technique of maintenance of psychological fastness transferred to the professional in stressful situations, such quality already should be surveyed as an indicator of possession of the professional a corresponding technique i.e. as the skill, able to be generated in the course of preparation of the professional within the limits of corresponding systems of perfection of professional skill.

Thus, we consider, that professionally important personal qualities - for example, the principal, - in process of their processing by agents of the psychotechnological analysis and creation of effective anthropotechnical systems for introduction of corresponding psychotechnologies, also can be understood as professional skills.

The given position proves to be true also that circumstance, that even if presence of those or other personal qualities is necessary researchers of professional skill as naturally given, not having technological structure and not developed by training already ability to show this quality frequently is regarded as remedial skill giving in to training even more often. So, as that skill Ability to estimate any action from the point of view of ethics and morals ", including, besides obviously present characteristic of motivational sphere of the person, diverse knowledge and the skills concerning ability to analyze a concrete situation of business interaction or interpersonal dialogue is fixed mentioned by us", already without any doubt able to be surveyed in is substantial-psychotechnological aspect.

Presence in structure of professional skill of such remedially-personal complexes confirms and concretises our position about integrated character of professional skill and demands its further working out.

The second. We believe, that a problem of existence wide personal and sotsiokulturnogo a context traditionally represented in biographic aspect, there is no the problem bound only with formation of personal qualities. As we have shown, influence of that context on the remedial party of the professional skill, able to be presented as mediated by possession corresponding personal qualities, also cannot be ignored at all.

Thus the impossibility of replacement of the biography which has led to occurrence of a certain personal context and a complex of developed personal qualities, does not mean, of course, impossibility of introduction of a various sort of the psychotechnologies assuming (if it is a question of remedial technologies) or even representing such personal qualities which have not been historically generated in the course of an ontogeny.

Not saying that there is no unequivocal communication between the biographic and ontogenetic events, presented to some taken out kind in semantic sphere of the person its biography not is something fallen asleep, not subject to changes. Events, during any moment able to happen in a human life, can render and at times make essential impact on all semantic sphere of the person, transforming a personal context of professional skill.

Therefore, we believe, that the problem of formation and development of personal qualities of professionals should be surveyed in the long term creations of conditions for occurrence sobytijnogo a component of professional skill. Differently, seeming insuperable the problem of a biographic context of professional skill dares at the expense of embedding in this context of real events of realisation by the subject of the psychotechnological complexes comprising either assuming those or other elements of semantic sphere of the person. Occurring in real human activity, such events are capable to transform semantic sphere of the person, to frame in it new priorities. On creation of conditions for svershenija such events transforming semantic sphere of the person, forming a personal context of professional skill, also it is referred, on the idea, an anthropotechnology of contextual training.

Thus, we assert, that application of modern anthropotechnical methods gives basic possibility in the practical plan to bring an attention to the question on development and perfection of professionally important personal qualities within the limits of systems of perfection of professional skill.

Such basic possibility yet does not mean, of course, that various systems of perfection of professional skill including offered akmeologichesky training of a programmno-target orientation, can apply for substitution of all educational system itself and, thus, elimination of function of selection of candidates on the basis of revealing and diagnostsirovanija their professionally important personal qualities. Into training problems can enter only

• fixation of presence at the professional of barriers on a way of perfection of its professional skill, its personal qualities bound to an insufficient level of development;

• rendering to the professional of the necessary psychotherapeutic help;

• training to its methods of a psychotherapeutic self-care;

• introduction in structure of professional skill of the trainee of the separate psychotechnological complexes comprising elements of semantic sphere of the person;

• overcoming of conservative influence of cash components of semantic sphere the persons interfering introduction in structure of professional skill foreign it of semantic elements.

• maintenance of conditions for transferring of the mastered psychotechnological complexes to real activity of the professional within the limits of specially provided procedures.

Thus in the training program it is necessary to give special attention to development of following groups of personal qualities of professionals-managers:

• confidence of own forces;

• aspiration to run risks, an avoidance of long stay in "a comfort zone";

• aspiration to possess the big rights and to bear the big responsibility;

• the tolerant relation to criticism from colleagues and aspiration of creation of business and good psychological atmosphere in collective;

• aspiration to constant perfection of the professional skill.

At all basic possibility of effective stimulation of development of professionally important personal qualities controlling agents akmeologicheskogo training, last nevertheless cannot practically eliminate necessity of primary selection by criterion of development of personal qualities. In the practical plan the dilemma "selection-perfection", basic possibility for which permission frames occurrence of modern effective methods of the psychotechnological analysis and an anthropotechnology, should dare on the basis of application of criterion of practical expediency.

Function of selection of candidates by revealing and diagnostsirovanija their personal qualities at primary selection and arrangement of administrative shots is not specifically inherent akmeologicheskomu to training, however treningovye procedures can be applied with success and to performance of function of selection. This quality treningovyh procedures also is bound to methodically provided reduction of the cash behavioural stereotypes, allowing to receive more exact representations about semantic sphere of the person of the participant of training. Thus use treningovyh procedures for reception of the information intended for use in personnel work, should be rigidly caused observance of psychoecological demands and demands of an ethical order.

At the same time, a presentation of new demands to the controlling personnel, and also augmentation of quantity of the managers, provided by introduction of group methods of the organisation of production management, expansion of number of the workers involved in management by firm - all these circumstances testify that recently there is a mass requirement for the professionals-managers possessing a certain level of development of personal qualities. And that requirement as we noted in chapter 1, is that social factor which causes change of priorities in orientation akmeologicheskih projects from performance of function of selection on performance of preparation function by them, at the same time - demand on corresponding akmeologicheskie technologies, their development and mass diffusion. In this plan we can speak about the big perspectivity offered by us treningovyh the procedures aimed at development and perfection of professionally important personal qualities.

With development of procedures of the psychotechnological analysis and working out of more and more effective anthropotechnical approaches development of relations akmeologicheskih projects to semantic sphere of the person as we believe, in many respects will repeat history of their relation to remedial abilities of professionals at which early stages the basic there was a problem of selection of candidates with suitable impellent skills and psychophysiological characteristics, then - a problem of the organisation of mass training of workers and maintenance with its corresponding techniques, and recently the problem of perfection of professional work, contribution to advancement of professionals to skill tops became the most priority as we have shown in the previous paragraph, in many respects.
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A source: Sitnikov A.P.. Acmeological training: the theory a technique of psychotechnology. 1995

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