«realisation of the psychosocial approach to a development problem in working out of the theory of identity»

In the second chapter the review of the basic approaches to an identity problem in a modern psychological science is presented, theoretical bases of the psychosocial concept the developments which have been put in pawn in researches of identity E are stated.
Ericson and its followers, the basic problems bound to completion of the given concept to polydisciplinary level and its use in socially-psychological researches are taped.

In the first paragraph the review of the basic directions of research of identity in a psychological science is presented, specificity of treating of the given problematics in frameworks bihevioralnogo the approach, kognitivnoj psychology and symbolical interaktsionizma is designated. It is shown, that, first, without dependence from initial theoretical base identity is surveyed as intrapsihicheskaja the structure which is carrying out important reguljativnuju the function in a context of social activity of the person. And secondly, even within the limits of those theoretical approaches in which isolation personal and social identichnostej was initially postulated, there is distinctly expressed tendency to treating of the given phenomenon as integrativnogo the formation uniting to ontogenetic and socially-psychological development of the person in uniform structure.

The reasons on which the concept of psychosocial identity of E.Ericson originating in a psychoanalysis is surveyed as basic from the point of view of the purpose and problems of dissertational research are allocated. First, the question on value and identity functions as special intrapsihicheskoj structures has been lifted and analysed for the first time in a bed of the given theoretical scheme. Secondly, put in pawn in idea E.Ericson's concepts are represented by the most perspective in respect of the decision of variety of practical problems both actually psychological, and sociological, cultural urological, pedagogical character. Thirdly, allocation as one of major factors of development of identity of social mutual relations allows to estimate variety of the socially-psychological phenomena from essentially new positions. Fourthly, introduction of a principle of time conditionality of stages of development of identity in a combination to idea of convertibility of negative development allows to survey identity not as certainly set formation, and as set of changeable characteristics and properties that opens wide prospects of effective psychocorrectional work.

In the second paragraph theoretical bases of the psychosocial concept the developments which have been put in pawn in works of E.Ericson are stated. It is shown, that epigenetichesky E.Ericson considered a principle universal, operating both on ontogenetic, and on sotsiogeneticheskom levels and consequently, allowing to survey these two lines of development in their organic interrelation.

Within the limits of the age periodization offered by E.Ericson, life cycle of the person is represented in the form of sequence of eight age crises, each of which can be surveyed as a rotary point in development. At the heart of each crisis the conflict between the positive, vital beginning in a human nature and the negative, destructive beginning in their specific implications inherent in given age lays. The permission of these conflicts is defined genetic zadannostju, results of previous development and a social context.

The permission of such conflict means interiorizatsiju specific experience in a kind of a steady component of structure of the Ego — "contribution" in organic, functional whole in case of positive permissions (ego-force) or in disfunktsionalnuju confusion (ego-alienation) — in case of negative.

First four crises of psychosocial development are lawful for surveying as basic at least on two bases. First, E.Ericson quite parted Z.Freud's point of view according to which pregenitalnye development stages play a critical role in formation of the person. And secondly, in the logician of the psychosocial scheme as qualitative features of identity, and actually results of the permission of the basic conflict of the fifth stage are mediated, first of all, by previous development as egos-forces of first four stages represent those parts which at this stage are integrated into the functional whole. The negative resolution of conflict at least one of first four stages of psychosocial development means absence at least one of key components of developing structure that leads to psychosocial confusion.

Actually identity, from the point of view of the psychosocial approach, is some kind of epicentre of life cycle of each person. It is made out as psychological konstrukta at teenage age, and functionality of the person depends on its qualitative characteristics in an adult independent life. Identity causes ability of the individual to assimilation of personal and social experience and maintenance of own uniqueness and subektnosti in an external world subject to changes. From the point of view of E.Ericson's concept, treating personal and social identichnostej as independent and furthermore — the categories isolated from each other as it takes place in a number of the concepts based on another theoretical approaches, it is represented absolutely unreasonable.

In the logician of the psychosocial approach the interrelation mechanism onto - and sotsiogeneticheskih development lines is represented in the form of enough simple and clear scheme. In more or less productively functioning society the conditions promoting the permission favorable as a whole of age crises of development are framed. As a result of such permission develop and the elements of the identity adequate both genetically set requirements of development of the person, and to fundamental components of social structure of a society are made out. The positive permission of each crisis of an ontogeny it means finding by the individual of the specific ego-force, which energy, in turn, in the course of social functioning puts in corresponding institutes of a society, supporting thereby vitalnost the last.

On the other hand, in disfunktsionalnom, for example totalitarian, a society which basic institutes not only do not support, but also suppress nursery initially inherent in the person vitalnost, the objective conditions promoting the negative permission of age crises of development take place. As a result of the negative permission of the basic conflict of this or that stage at the individual the steady specific ego-alienation as destructive alternative to an ego-force is formed. As well as in the first case, destructive energy of such alienation is put in corresponding social institutes, strengthening disfunktsionalnost the last. Certain referential figures and groups serve in all cases as the immediate channel of interaction between the person and a society at each stage of psychosocial development.

However at all logicality, psychologicality and depth of the concept of E.Ericson in it there is a number of the problem moments essentially limiting its use in praktikoorientirovannyh, first of all socially-psychological, researches.

So, the mechanism of interrelation of the person and a society is insufficiently concretised. E.Ericson, first, does not result the bases on which it allocates those or other social institutes as basic and universal, and, secondly, only in the most general lines designates the reasons of correlation of concrete social institute with a concrete stage of psychosocial development.

Process of interaction of a nursery and institutsionalnoj vitalnostej which as it is possible to assume hypothetically on the basis of the analysis of works of E.Ericson, is the basic motive power of psychosocial development, has not received due illumination in its works. As consequence, the ego-force and the egos-alienations bound to each stage of individual psychosocial development, were surveyed by E.Ericson mainly in clinical aspect, by and large out of a socially-psychological context.

At last, one more problem moment to which to the greatest degree paid attention as criticism E.Ericson, and its followers, is bound by that E.Ericson in the researches used exclusively analytical and psychoanalytical methods and, similar, considered absolutely excessive working out of the standardised methods of studying of psychosocial development and identity. Besides, as notes variety of researchers, complexity and width of theoretical generalisations of E.Ericson are so great, and the way of their statement so obrazen and is metaphoric, that it essentially complicates allocation of variables of empirical research.

In the third paragraph the review of development of the concept of E.Ericson in researches of J is presented. Adams, R.Baumastera, J. A cat, C.Levin, J. Marsia, S.Marshalla, D.Mattesona, D.Tajs, E.Shahter. On the basis of the analysis of works of these researchers it is shown, that the most essential contribution has been brought by them in studying of the nature, a functional orientation, qualitative features and process of formation of identity as intrapsihicheskoj structures of the person. Also the big attention has been given working out of empirical methods of research of identity. At the same time, having concentrated on an identity problem in narrow enough, intrapersonalnom the sense, practically all aforementioned authors have actually left out of a foreshortening of treating process of psychosocial development as a whole, and potential of the concept of E.Ericson in respect of socially-psychological researches — practically not realised. As consequence — vysheoboznachennye lacunas in the psychosocial concept, concerning interrelations of stages of individual psychosocial development and basic institutes of a society, remained blank.
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A source: Ilyin V. A.. The psychosocial theory as the polydisciplinary approach to the analysis of social processes in a modern society. 2009

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