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Remedially-technological aspect of perfection of professional work of shots of management

As we specified the BASIC DIRECTIONS And PSYCHOLOGICAL PATTERNS of PERFECTION of PROFESSIONAL SKILL of SHOTS of MANAGEMENT, one of the most essential methodical moments offered akmeologicheskogo training is preliminary maintenance of its programmno-target orientation by studying of technological structure of a corresponding kind of professional work, construction of a working variant of ideal functional model of the given kind of activity, revealing of tendencies of development of professional skill in corresponding area on the basis of studying of the literature, carrying out of socially-psychological and psychotechnological researches. Preliminary researches of a certain kind of professional work allow to provide in the course of training carrying out realisation of the programmno-target approach at the expense of as much as possible full account of various functional components of a remedial component of a concrete kind of professional skill, diagnostsirovanija level of knowledge and abilities of professionals in corresponding areas of professional work and the subsequent concentration of efforts of organizers of training and its participants on the decision of the most important and actual problems of optimisation of psychotechnological structure and perfection of the maintenance of concrete professional psychotechnologies. In the given paragraph we will survey the characteristic problems arising in connection with a problem of perfection by a remedial component of professional skill of administrative shots.

On veneering of a concrete configuration of the given problems the big and diverse influence was rendered mentioned by us in the beginning of chapter 1 by the factor of a condition and the social production development, always of great importance for akmeologii as for a science closely bound to the decision of practical problems.

So, on the one hand, the fundamental reorganisation of economic relations in the country, bound to transition to market relations, puts before managers a decision problem of essentially other circle of the problems rather than arising in conditions of "a planned socialist national economy". And, and it already became abundantly clear, these changes affect not only actually remedially-economic aspect of professional work of the management, directly bound to change of economic conditions and restructurization of economic relations, but also a technological macrostructure of professional work of management that is caused by occurrence of the whole groups of new professional problems and with finding by traditional problems earlier it not inherent paramount value for maintenance of efficiency of administrative activity. Structural changes of professional work the managements observed now in our country, extend and on semantic sphere of the person, making in many respects new demands to personal qualities of the manager, it is essential differently defining a circle of professionally important qualities.

On the other hand, changes observed now in psychotechnological structure of professional work of management are bound to caused integration of economic space of Russia into world economic space more and more amplifying inclusiveness of domestic economic structures in world processes of development and transformation of norms and traditions of an economic life that leads to implication of universal tendencies of development of professional work of management in our country.

All these changes in structure and psychotechnological structure of administrative activity lead in the natural image to growth and change of demands to systems of preparation of principals to professional work and perfection of their professional skill.
On the one hand, there are of little use traditionally applied courses and even techniques of preparation of principals of "national economy", and on the other hand, far from possible efficiency of preparation of experts in this area can provide and traditional western techniques simply transferred to our conditions that is bound, first, from them orientirovannostju on in many respects already out-of-date representations about character of the economic life, undergoing recently fast changes and defining demands to the administrative personnel, and secondly, to necessity of the adaptation of any western techniques to economic, cultural and so forth To features, characteristic for an existing and prognosticated condition of an economic life of Russia.

On the decision of a problem of creation of effective system of preparation of the administrative personnel and perfection of its professional skill numerous efforts made now on transformation standard in the past of branch institutes and courses of improvement of qualification of the administrative personnel are referred. We are convinced, that rather appreciable place among framed systems of a professional training of management can occupy offered by us akmeologichesky training of the programmno-target orientation, one of which most essential features just and is it orientirovannost on regular privnesenie in process of preparation of experts of experience of realisation of a various sort akmeologicheskih projects, and also results various akmeologicheskih, including own problem and psychotechnological researches.

One of the important sources of training used in methodical luggage akmeologicheskogo a material is studying of a wide experience of preparation and professional perfection of shots of management in the developed capitalist countries where there are developed systems of preparation of professional managers.

So, now in the USA experts in management are let out by 1100 educational institutions: from 650 business schools third appropriates the diploma of the master of business administration. Thus demand for the vocational education constantly grows in this area. Recently the quantity of annually let out diplomaed experts in the field of management was enlarged in the USA to 75 thousand. Besides, about 500 thousand persons end 2 year courses of business administration.

As it is found out, however, the considerable quantity of the professional managers who have received special higher education can have and the minuses, and it even at such level of this formation which is provided in the USA. The matter is that presence at corporations of the USA, at structure of the higher managing directors, the big number of economists and the financiers, considerably exceeding a share of such managing directors in corporations of Japan and the Western Europe was in the early eighties found out, that, is one of the reasons concerning low efficiency of the American management on hi-tech directions. So, at this time 36 % of bosses of 200 largest Japanese companies had base technical education, whereas in the USA - only 18 % [1].

Last years the American management managed to overcome negative tendencies in this area, having transferred the attention centre in preparation of experts-managers in area of retraining of the engineering personnel. Practice of retraining and perfection of professional skill of managers has received now wide recognition worldwide. Thus if the Japanese corporations traditionally lean against own centres of training, characteristic line American (and partly West European) experts is the special accent on external forms of training.

For example, in Germany in 1987 on the purposes of improvement of professional skill and retraining of workers and managers by private concerns it has been spent 10 billion brands. In the USA expenses of a private sector for improvement of professional skill and training of workers make now more than 30 bln. dollars in a year, thus on retraining in various high schools the private companies is spent to 1/3 all volumes of their budgets for these purposes.

Spent thus, carefully developed in common high school and the company the programs which have been picked up under concrete categories of the personnel and the purpose of training, as a rule are calculated for 1-2 weeks (such programs spend for the employees "Dzheneral motors", "J.S.Dzhipsum", etc.) At the same time there are, for example, in the Uortonovsky business school, and longer courses proceeding till 6 weeks. The large American companies, realising the big importance of systems of retraining of the personnel, frame recently, by an example of the Japanese companies, own training centres. So, for example, in the educational centres of Japanese "Sleepyhead" and American "Copier" for a year pass internal and correspondence course over 20 thousand workers. Internal systems of retraining of experts are adjoined by systems of preceptorship providing the organizational veneering, an exchange of experience, self-preparation on a workplace, etc. For example, in IBM, whose expenses for personnel retraining only in 1985 have made 900 mln. dollars, from principals it is required to give within a year to rising of the qualification and retraining not less than 40 hours of operating time.

As have shown our researches among the interrogated domestic workers of sphere of management all have higher education, but only 5,9 % from them - economic and 4,4 % - legal. More all among managers is presented experts with an engineering education - 50,0 %, not providing reception of special knowledge and abilities for administrative activity, that as we see, in larger degree, rather than in the developed western countries, demands introduction in practice of effective systems of retraining of the administrative personnel.

Promotion in the centre of attention of a various sort of systems of retraining of experts-managers puts before corresponding akmeologicheskimi projects and set of new problems. So, on the one hand, demands to economic knowledge of the principals having base engineering preparation, with another, - to orientirovannosti training systems on requirement of concrete manufacture that conducts to an establishment of a close connection of a studied material with characteristics and requirements of concrete manufacture and to mass introduction in training of a various sort of techniques of contextual type considerably raise. Communication of training with manufacture is carried out by various image. The American corporations, for example, activly interfere with training process of business schools, influence formation of courses and perfection of programs. More than half from such educational institutions develop the curricula on the basis of concrete orders of firms-clients. Together with firms working out and programs of courses of retraining of the personnel is conducted. Intrafirm programs of training include, as a rule, treating of a various sort of theoretical themes, employment on development of computer technics and mathematical methods in management, but the main attention is always given to a practical training on analysis of concrete economic situations.

The approach to training of the principals, widely applied by experts of Boston Northern regional centre in management (NRMC) - training on the basis of the contract [2] is interesting. More than seven-year experience of its use for improvement of professional skill of the administrative personnel of the diversified organisations has confirmed its high efficiency. The contract on training of the principal represents the written agreement between the principal (trainee) and the teacher (training), defining, which knowledge the trainee wishes to receive and what methods of teaching for it are most desirable. Even the fact of signing of the agreement has here not so much legal, how many informative value: the contract allows the future listener is realistic to present priorities in training, to tap the disadvantages and key problems which it regularly faces in the course of work, to plan ways of the further perfection of administrative skills.

The idea of wide use of a contract method has arisen at experts NRMC during preparation of the program "Prospectus" - a course calculated on jobless managing directors. As the educational level, experience and specialisation of listeners of this course very strongly differed, the decision on independent working out by listeners of the programs of improvement of professional skill was accepted; teachers of the centre rendered them thus only advisory-methodical help. As distinctive features of a contract method of preparation of experts-managers are allocated:

? orientirovannost training on the concrete listener;

? Active participation of listeners in the course of preparation for training;

? Flexibility in the organisation of educational process;

? Close informal contact between listeners and teachers.

A number of researchers allocate as the special form of rising of a professional maturity of administrative shots also daily professional work [3]. We will notice, that natural training here is understood described by us in chapter 1 as an anthropotechnology of the first sort - nauchenie in the activity, the preparations of controlling shots realised and investigated with reference to problems. Characteristic line of natural training is self-regulation of process of training by each worker depending on a warehouse of its character, interest in reception of additional knowledge, an educational level and other factors. Thus researchers allocate the main elements of process of natural training:

- Individual life experience of the person with which help it estimates this or that situation;

- Character of personal perception and the understanding, influencing a choice the given person of possible decisions of a problem;

- Conclusions and the decisions accepted by an individual in the given concrete situation.

By researchers it is underlined, that the major role in maintenance of process of natural training belongs to the immediate principal of the worker. Thus the majority of managers considers the training spent by the direct chief with its subordinates of one of the basic forms of rising of professional qualification. By researchers it is underlined also, that process of similar training has many aspects and principals should allocate the most important questions on which it is necessary to concentrate attention. Experts thus consider, that managers first of all should improve the ability to maintain normal relations in collective, to render professional consultations, to tap and eliminate the factors, stirring to process of natural training.

However, natural training frequently encounters objectively existing borders. For example, character of performed work not always demands from the worker of the indispensable appendix of efforts on improvement of professional skill. Besides, some part of principals considers, that they are not obliged to carry out function of instructors and to train the workers. Following results of the research spent for the purpose of finding-out of the relation of principals to natural training of subordinates are resulted, for example: Questioning of 80 managers has taped among them four various approaches to such training:

? The first group of principals sees the functions, first of all, in creation of favorable conditions for training of workers;

? The second - in realisation of the general management and granting of consultations in necessary cases;

? The third - in joint with each of subordinates discussion and decision-making concerning professional study and improvement of professional skill;

? The fourth group of principals denies necessity of participation for creation of favorable conditions and stimulation of natural training.

Besides, for the given kind of training there are fair those restrictions and disadvantages in which we have specified, analyzing an anthropotechnology nauchenija in activity.

Perfection of professional skill of shots of management within the limits of special systems of retraining, in a kind of limitation of time, should be very strictly organised from the point of view of the thematic organisation and a selection of a material of the program that enters into frameworks of realisation of a complex of programmno-target procedures of training. At a preliminary stage the given complex includes the analysis of structure of skills of administrative activity and definition of global priorities in formation of a technological arsenal of training. For the decision of this problem, we have carried out the analysis of the modern literature on the given problem, and also some own researches referred on correlation of results of the analysis of the given problem by foreign authors with modern realities of a domestic situation.

Various foreign authors, investigating the basic components of professional work of management, allocate in it the similar components rendering, in their opinion, solving influence on maintenance of efficiency of the given kind of professional work. So, analyzing structure of skills of administrative activity, R.Benett spends the following classification of "labour skills":

- "Technical skills", including work with physical objects and processes;

- "Interpersonal skills", providing an overall performance in a command, managements of other people and interactions with them;

- "Seizing the decision" skills and the technicians providing ability of the decision of problems, and also

- Skills of "information processing", opening concerning methods, estimations and processings of the information [4].

We find similar structure and in other modern references leaning, mainly, for works of Katz and the God-send on classification of administrative skills, skills allocating three basic group:

1. "Special (technical) skills" - knowledge of processes, possession of methods, procedures and technicians, and also ability to work with the equipment used in the given kind of activity.

2. "Interpersonal skills" - knowledge of human behaviour and interpersonal interaction, ability to understand feeling, relations and motives of other people through their words and acts, and also abilities accurately and effectively to keep in contact and effective, favourable mutual relations with them.

3. "Conceptual skills", providing abilities to logic analytical thinking, to creativity in creation of ideas and the decision of problems, recognition of problems and preguessing of possible problems "[5].

The given classification allows to tap difference between professional work, for example, in certain branch of manufacture, and management activity to underline an originality of last which includes both knowledge of productions, and the specific professional abilities providing efficiency of mutual relations with other people and ability to organise, mainly, their activity. Therefore the main complex of the problems bound to retraining and improvement of professional skill of the controlling personnel, is defined by essential shift of accents in the is functional-technological maintenance of professional work at transition, for example, from engineering activity to management, as to activity on type "person-person".

So, V.Dzh's researchers. Evans and K.V.Bredir specify, that promotion of engineers on supervising posts often occurs as encouragement for good design work, thus presence at the candidate of any abilities to administrative activity is considered extremely weakly [6]. However, the majority of the role equipments at the engineer and the principal are opposite. Difference thus, mainly, is bound by that the engineer has got used to work independently, the principal should be focused on collective activity; the engineer achieves result at the expense of own efforts, the principal - at the expense of integration of efforts of others; activity of the engineer is based on knowledge of physical laws, activity of the principal - on the account of behaviour of people; for the engineer technical experience, for the principal - skills of interpersonal dialogue is thus essentially important.

Thus among principal causes of unsuccessful work of the engineer on a supervising post authors allocate:

? Absence of skills to interpersonal dialogue;

? Inability to delegate the right and responsibility;

? A motivation disadvantage to administrative activity;

? Inability to adapt to a new role;

? Inability to use the power;

? Inability to allocate the purpose and priorities.

According to authors, on these characteristics it is necessary to pay special attention for maintenance of productive work of the principal who is possessing experience of engineering work and not having special preparation in the field of management.

Researchers Kvik and Nelson have come to similar conclusions, carrying out the analysis of validity of the opinion extended in the USA that those principals who are inclined to acceptance of independent decisions [7] can achieve success only. They have come to conclusion, that independence and independence quite often confuse to inability to come into contacts and to keep in touch mutually advantageous cooperation. In researches of the given authors examples from practice of succeeding principals in various fields of activity which substantially bind the success to ability are resulted:

? To select employees on key posts;

? To delegate powers for independent acceptance of critical decisions at various levels;

? To support business contacts and openly to exchange opinions with representatives of various sectionings at the decision of problems;

? To tap and consider various vital, and not just industrial, interests of employees.

Researchers believe, that isolation of the principal, excessive aspiration to independence, to independence lead to that he aspires to incur more works, than in a condition to execute. The similar behaviour can be a sign of that the principal simply is not able to adjust the relation with subordinates, does not trust them, is not able to plan and distribute work and, hence, is not capable to be the principal. As a condition of successful work authors name also involving in work of such experts which in the best way supplement each other and the principal.

Here it is important to notice, that research Kvika and Nelson, concerns any more only allocation of private problems of managers-engineers and, accordingly, those parties of professional skill on which it is necessary to pay special attention at creation of system of their retraining, but already concerns psychotechnological structure of professional work of management as that, allocating in it the most important for maintenance of efficiency of activity of management the elements, which perfection (including within the limits of specially aimed at it akmeologicheskih projects) the greatest effect of optimisation of all activity gives, achievements in it of tops of professional skill, and not only for in the past of engineers, but also for experts with a base economic education.

This position corresponds to the powerful tendency which have outlined recently in development of world management. It is a question about appeared in Japan and intensively adopted by the most progressive (and succeeding) the western companies methods of the group organisation of manufacture. Their short consists what even in very large companies the personnel is divided into the small groups focused on the decision of a certain circle of the important problems for all firm, but free in a choice of ways of the organisation of the work and decision-making. E.Fogel describes this group organisation as follows: " The basic cell of the Japanese corporation is the sectioning... Concerning the bottom level of organizational hierarchy, the sectioning, nevertheless, within the limits of the activity is free in a choice of decisions and does not wait for indicatings from above "[8]. It is obvious, that, besides good general awareness in affairs of all firm, such way of the organisation demands from the principal of sectioning on whom efficiency of its work entirely depends, and high level of the communicative abilities, able to it to allow to organise business interaction in group in the most effective image. The same system of the organisation of work of D.Merser finds and in IBM, in the late eighties it with success has been applied at the enterprise" Ameriken transtek ", the sixfold growth which has reached with its help of the assetses only at staff doubling. Its further diffusion among the western firms is bound as well to development of design forms of the organisation of the manufacture, now intensively used in hi-tech both high technology areas and assuming allocation and the organisation concerning small group of workers on realisation of the certain project, reporting to firm only by results of the work. For such groups depression of the importance officially-administrative and intensifying of the importance of informal forms of the organisation of labour interaction is characteristic, that also demands from the project head of maintenance of effective intragroup interaction and healthy psychological atmosphere in group and assumes possession from its party a rich arsenal of communicative psychotechnologies.

In the literature [9] it becomes perceptible, that today all over the world in practice of the advanced hi-tech corporations, and also in the fast-growing companies following phenomena become perceptible:

? Orders, orders give way to belief, the strict control - to trust. It reflects transition from intraorganizational relations of type "chief-subordinate" to relations of cooperation, cooperation of the partners peerly interested in success of business.

? Managing directors-innovators aspire to develop collective forms of work as a uniform command, that sharply enlarges mutual information interchange between members of working groups.

? Managers-innovators are always open for any new ideas - from the colleagues subordinated, clients. The behaviour, priorities and the valuable equipments of these managing directors frame for surrounding medium in which the free statement of ideas and an exchange of opinions become the natural form of working mutual relations.

? The managing director-innovator in every possible way aspires to frame and support a good psychological climate in collective, he tries not to infringe upon interests of one workers at the expense of others, with readiness and, the main thing, publicly recognises merits of employees.

"The effective leader", meeting the requirements, shown to it new philosophy of management, is that person who realises, that its authority immediately depends on respect of subordinates, instead of from its formal status. Among qualities of the effective leader are thus allocated:

? Availability to any worker, invariably benevolent tone of discussion of any problems.

? A deep involvement into managerial process by the personnel, constant paying of attention to encouragement systems, personal acquaintance to an appreciable part of workers.

? The intolerant relation to a room management style, the principal prefers to appear among ordinary employees and to discuss problems on places, is able to listen and hear, is resolute and persevering, has not a reputation for the sly fellow.

? Tolerance to expression of active disagreement, delegation of powers to executors, construction of relations on trust.

? During the difficult moments the principal does not aspire to find guilty, prefers the oral information before the written.

? At promotion the leader recommends for responsible posts, as a rule, employees of the company - people having values close to it and only in special cases invites experts from the party.

The interrogation of 1.500 managers of the European companies spent in 1988 has shown, that liderskim to qualities principals carry to the most important:

? Ability to form an effective command (96 %).

? Ability to listen to opinion of colleagues and subordinated (93 %);

? Ability to make of the decision (87 %) and

? To involve others in their realisation (93 %).

Similar sort organizational abilities can be generated at the principal only in the conditions of constant group work and cannot be developed in the course of individual preparation, that certainly should be considered at creation of systems of perfection of professional skill of shots of management.

Very often, however, are made a various sort of observations about essential disadvantages of group preparation and its unacceptability for preparation of principals of the high level possessing strongly pronounced individual style.

So, for example, J. Boak and M.Stefenson results which have theoretically analysed in the article [10] of realisation of the program of contract training mentioned by us "Prospectus", have come to a number of conclusions, most important of which, in their opinion, consists in advantage of an individual principle of training before the group. In a substantiation of this thesis following arguments are put forward:

? Personal and professional features of the principals performing even similar work, essentially differ, while during group employment this difference is ignored;

? Responsibility for qualitative development of a teaching material in the conditions of group training is sprayed.

? As a rule, in group there are leaders who start to fit process of training of collective for the needs, and the passive part, trying to "sit out" behind backs of active listeners.

If we, however, analyse the given arguments it becomes obvious, that authors support necessity of an individual approach to each trainee and assume thus, that such approach cannot be provided at application of group methods of preparation.

We believe, that the individual approach to trainees not only can be we will combine with group work in akmeologicheskih projects, but should be by all means provided systems of group preparation, otherwise speech simply should go about imperfection of such systems. Thus systems of group preparation, certainly, cannot and should not apply for disposal of the expert of, certainly, necessary independent work and to substitute for itself long-term programs of individual preparation possessing larger flexibility, but, certainly, can include individual employment of the trainee with the teacher and the skilled expert. Individual approach maintenance as we believe, should be understood not as a choice problem between group and individual approaches in preparation of professionals, but as a problem of the organisation of systems of training and the perfection of professional work which is in frameworks of the group approach.

This position proves to be true also Z.Djurkana and P.Kirkbirda's which have analysed experience of the organisation of study of executives of the various companies of the Great Britain the conclusions, based on formation of educational groups and stimulation of intensive intragroup interaction in the course of mastering by administrative knowledge and skills. In a surveyed case study has been organised for the high-ranking principals of the companies and consisted in mastering by modern management methods by the personnel and labour relations. Researchers notice, that the major precondition of efficiency of group study of principals is careful planning of the educational process, allowing to achieve high results and to eliminate the undesirable effects, able to be bound to the given form of training. During planning questions of selection of teaching personnel, definitions of the maintenance of the curriculum, methods of studying of a subject, selection of teaching materials and the equipment, definition of the general duration of a course should be solved.

Authors consider, that planning of employment should be aimed at creation of preconditions for realisation of following principles of the organisation of educational process:

? Performance on each employment by one of participants of function of the leader which initiates and focuses discussion of an educational problem.

? Maintenance by all pupils of continuous visual contact among themselves.

? Active use of technical educational agents, including: tables, slides, films, video equipment with which help the teaching material is illustrated.

? An active intervention of the teacher in a course of discussion in case of occurrence of unforeseen difficulties, and also with a view of the explanatory of positions of the curriculum new to listeners.

? A heavy use of individual employment and individual abilities of separate pupils in group employment.

? Constant maintenance by the teacher of active intragroup interaction, putting off of intensity by it in mutual relations between participants, neutralisation of "acute" actions of separate pupils.

? Careful selection of working terms, educational lexicon, conditional concepts.

? The analysis of concrete examples of administrative activity at which pupils carry out various role functions.

?

According to authors, efficiency of use of the given principles of the organisation of study of principals depends on strict observance of ethical demands of professional relations, suitability and otrabotannosti used methodical receptions of a statement of a teaching material and discussion of problems, confidence of the teacher of the forces, its ability to prevent possible intragroup conflicts.

Harold Dzh. Smith, spending detailed classification of abilities of managers, allocates from them 20 "solving", and has them in a following order on "an importance scale" [11].

As we see, the most essential to maintenance of efficiency of administrative activity of ability, on Smith, represent in essential degree the abilities providing effective communications with other people, subordinates and members of a command. However, not the small role is played also by the abilities bound to the analysis of a situation, ability to make of the decision to put and correct the activity purposes.



The big specific gravity of abilities gnosticheskogo a complex, and also essential change of character of solved problems at transition to administrative activity define the high importance of this complex of abilities in the program akmeologicheskogo training. The big role at realisation akmeologicheskogo training plays also not only development of separate abilities of managers, communicative or gnosticheskih, but also formation of a certain integrated ability to analyze a situation, to make the decision and to achieve its performance. On importance of the similar approach we find indicatings and in the modern literature. So, American researcher MakKann, studying skills of administrative activity, builds the following structure of the "influencing" skills providing the decision of a problem:



Skills, on MakKannu, are parted on two interconnected groups: "Concentrated to a problem", allowing "to get to the bottom the problem" and "Concentrated to the decision", allowing during short time to organise the decision of a problem [12]. Thus the skill of summarising being in the centre of all complex and belonging at once to both groups, represents as though "a technological ponticulus" between two groups of abilities.

On the basis of the spent analysis of the literature and own researches, the most essential psychotechnological components of remedial making professional work of management concerning definition and agents of their perfection, we can draw following conclusions:

• In modern conditions all over the world and especially in the conditions of economic and sotsiokulturnoj situations in Russia more and more powerful value among all complex akmeologicheskih projects get systems of retraining of the administrative personnel and perfection of professional skill.

• the Unconditional demand shown to those systems is use in their programs of contextual methods of training.

• Special attention of system of perfection of professional skill of experts-managers should give to perfection of their communicative abilities having for maintenance of efficiency of activity of management essentially great value, and introduction of corresponding productive psychotechnologies.

• the Great value has also development gnosticheskih abilities of the professionals-managers allowing them to tap, analyze and make of the decision concerning specific administrative problems.

• For maintenance of necessary conditions of introduction of the given psychotechnologies of system of perfection of professional skill should be focused on application of group methods of training in a combination to an individual approach to trainees.

Thus, we can judge good prospects of introduction in akmeologicheskuju practice offered by us akmeologicheskogo training of a programmno-target orientation which, being the system initially aimed at perfection of professional skill, is very actual akmeologicheskim a methodical complex, and also corresponds in the methodical basis to those main demands which should be shown to those systems.

Thus, the carried out analysis allows us to define thematic priorities in selection of the psychotechnologies which are subject to introduction in the course of carrying out of training.

From the resulted positions follows, that the special attention should be given a complex of communicative psychotechnologies, possession with which is most often mentioned as a necessary condition of high efficiency of professional work of management, and also represents the big problem for experts more often. As we believe, last circumstance is bound as well to that state of affairs at which traditional systems of training of professionals in the given area are focused, mainly, on use of such anthropotechnical approaches which by the nature are not calculated on formation at trainees of a various sort of communicative skills. Thereupon importance of detailed working out of communicative psychotechnologies even more increases by preparation and training carrying out. Therefore to the organisation akmeologicheskogo training we consider as the unconditional demand presence in the program of training of development of the big number of the new effective communicative psychotechnologies received as a result of preliminary spent psychotechnological researches.

Besides great value in the training program, certainly, its function diagnostsirovanija should have conditions of individual psychotechnological structure of professional work of each participant and its necessary correction. That function should provide:

• definition of degree of development at the participant gnosticheskogo, designing and constructive complexes of skills;

• orientation of the participant to development of abilities lacking to it and mastering by skills necessary for it in corresponding areas;

• granting to the participant of training of instruments for mastering by abilities necessary for it - concrete knowledge and skills in the field of the psychotechnological analysis;

• creation of conditions for an exchange of experience between participants of training in their interesting areas at an essential intensification of this exchange at the expense of use in its course of operations of the psychotechnological analysis;

• the organisation of working off and strong development of the received productive professional psychotechnologies during business games;

• activization and development of creative thinking of participants of the training referred on search and independent designing of productive psychotechnologies of professional work in the course of the decision of creative problems within the limits of procedures included in training of contextual type.

Thus it is necessary to mean, that entering into the program of training of preliminary developed psychotechnologies concerning specified technological complexes of professional work, can have only limited character which is not assuming coverage of all thematic area as it is beyond problems, practically vypolnimyh within the limits of the training, not able to apply for substitution of all system of vocational training itself.

At the same time, special attention at drawing up of the program of training it is necessary to give to perfection, besides remedial, motivatsionno-potrebnostnoj spheres of professional work of shots of management, to rendering of the psychotherapeutic help by it and to contribution to development in them of professionally important personal qualities, at professional managers we will survey the problems bound to allocation, understanding and which formation in the following paragraph.
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A source: Sitnikov A.P.. Acmeological training: the theory a technique of psychotechnology. 1995

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