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Research hypotheses

In process cultural-historical development there is a formation of the special abilities reflecting public requirement for specialisation of activity.

• In the course of ontogenetic development more and more exact reflexion of a subject domain of activity is carried out, thus in process of growth of special abilities character of communications between indicators of intelligence and kreativnosti as implications of the general abilities and indicators of special (chemical) abilities changes.

• Features of the organisation of mental structures in groups of examinees with different level of special (chemical) abilities will significantly differ.

• Indicators of a chemical orientation of mind, chemical tongue, chemical memory, chemical thinking, is formal-dynamic properties of individuality and personal lines in groups of examinees with different level of chemical abilities will significantly differ.

• the Key factor defining level of interest to a subject and success of its development in the conditions of school and high school training, is kognitivnaja differentsirovannost and integrirovannost conceptual structures, referential areas of chemical activity (further – conceptual structures of chemistry).

• the Training organised taking into account patterns of development of special abilities, should lead to higher growth of indicators of special abilities in comparison with the training which is not considering given patterns.

Working out and experimental substantiation of methodology of special abilities has demanded statement and realisation of following problems:

1. Working out of the basic theoretical positions, concerning understanding of the nature of special abilities: the analysis of a category of "ability"; the concept analysis mental structures as object of theoretical research; a teoretiko-empirical substantiation of the ontologic status of mental structures.

2. Working out of methodology of system research of mechanisms and factors of development of special abilities: working out of the conceptual scheme of system reconstruction of structures of mental experience as mental carriers of the special abilities, allowing to integrate theoretical and empirical data on makro - meso-and microlevels (kulturogenez, subektogenez and a microgenesis of separate components of special abilities).

3. Teoretiko-experimental working out of substantive provisions of the differentsionno-integration concept and system methodology of research of special abilities on an example of a substantiation of the ontologic status of special (chemical) abilities: the analysis of a subject domain "chemistry" as object of activity; the theoretical analysis konstrukta chemical abilities; search of objective quantitative characteristics of mental structures as mental carriers of special abilities and working out of methods of their measurement; a teoretiko-experimental research of chemical abilities: the description of age patterns of occurrence, functioning and transformation of chemical abilities; empirical research of a parity of the general informative and special (chemical) abilities; studying of dynamics of formation of special abilities in the conditions of forming experiment.

For the decision of tasks in view following methods of research were used:

Theoretical – istoriko-psychological reconstruction of process of genesis of special abilities and mental structures laying in their basis on the basis of the analysis of tools and technologies of their manufacturing in mankind history; the historical and cultural analysis of development of the subject maintenance of chemistry; the logiko-psychological analysis of features of the thought processes involved at the decision of chemical problems; modelling of a structure of conceptual system of chemistry;

Empirical – observation, the analysis of products of activity, the biographic method ascertaining and forming experiments. The complex of diagnostic techniques was used:

1 block.
Techniques of diagnostics of special chemical abilities: 1) the author's computer test GreatСhemist; 2) MIKOSS (a technique of research of components of the general and special abilities); 3) techniques on diagnostics of the separate parties of chemical abilities (a chemical dictation, chemical coding, chemical memory, chemical differentiations); 4) progress indicators in a chemistry subject (Volkova, 2008); 5) test tasks for total quality assurance of knowledge in the field of chemistry (Lidin, Andreeva, 1994); 6) a card of interests of A.E.Golomshtoka (1968).

2 block. Techniques of diagnostics of the general informative abilities:

1) a children's variant of the test of D.Vexler (Panasjuk, 1973); 2) a scale of intelligence for D.Vexler's adults (WAIS) (Muljar; 1995); 3) standard progressive matrixes (SPM) J. Ravena; 4) the test of intellectual and professional abilities (Shmelev, 2004); 5) E.Torrensa's test for revealing verbal and nonverbal kreativnosti (Imaton, 1998); 6) a computer variant of high-speed classification of stimulus-objects for an estimation kognitivnoj differentsirovannosti structures of mental experience (CHuprikova, Ratanova; 1991); 7) a technique the Included figures G.Uitkina for diagnostics kognitivnogo style polezavisimost/polenezavisimost.

3 block. Techniques of diagnostics of individually-psychological features:

1) questionnaire OFDSI of V.M.Rusalova (1997) for revealing of is formal-dynamic properties of individuality; 2) a questionnaire for revealing of a parity of two alarm systems B.R. Kadyrov (1990); 3) a questionnaire 16 PF Kettella; В5 + (Shmelev, 2004); 4) a differentsialno-diagnostic questionnaire (DDO) E.A.Klimov (1974).

Statistical methods of processing of experimental data (descriptive statisticans; parametrical and nonparametric methods of revealing of differences and methods of revealing of communications: the correlation analysis, the factorial analysis, linear regressionnyj the analysis, the variance analysis (ANOVA) and its nonparametric analogue – Jonckheere-Terpstra Test). Mathematical data processing was carried out by means of software package SPSS 10.

Reliability and validity of results is provided initial obshchemetodologicheskimi with positions; adequacy of methods to object of research; coincidence of results of theoretical deduction to data of observations, experiment and vital practice; conformity of theoretical model of conceptual system of chemistry to results of empirical research of conceptual structures, referential areas of chemical activity; conformity of indicators of a maturity of conceptual structures of chemistry to a level of development of special chemical abilities; correlation of the data received by the author with results of other researches; use of the big number of the complementary techniques (18), allowing to receive a number of the dependent and independent indicators characterising features of development of special abilities of chemists at different stages of age development.

In an experimental research which was spent with 1997 for 2007, 1011 persons participated: 428 pupils of 8-11 classes of comprehensive schools from 25 cities and districts of Ekaterinburg and Sverdlovsk area and 575 students of 1-5 courses of chemical faculty UrGu. Biographies of outstanding chemists of the past and the present (more than 200 biographies) are Besides, analysed.
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A source: Volkova E.V.. Development of mental structures as bases of special abilities. 2011

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