research Methods

At revealing of genesis of views and the representations reflecting istoriko-psychological bases of elite, the problemno-chronological method was applied. The characteristic of the historico-philosophical, sociopolitical, cultural urological, psychological ideas reflecting the major positions of the psychological concept of elite, was spent with a leg on a comparative-historical method.

In search and disclosing of a required material the analogy method, allowed to involve the data already available in a science opening intrinsic aspects of elite, as comparison to the studied phenomena in the field of psychology of elite has been used.

The special attention was given to the content-analysis thanks to which according to the purpose and problems of dissertational research the defined substantially-kriterialnye, structurally functional, structurally functional and remedially-forming components of theoretical model of psychology of elite have been allocated.

The most essential results received personally by the competitor, and their scientific novelty consist in a substantiation of conceptual bases of psychology of the elite including following positions.

1. For the first time it is proved integrativno-elitopsihologichesky the approach promoting integration and generalisation key elitologicheskih of ideas from various areas of scientific thought, arisen in the certain historical periods, knowledge from different directions of psychology; allowed to frame theoretical model of psychology of elite and to open its components, and also on its basis to characterise types of elite, their the general and specific in a modern Russian society.

2. The basic phenomena, categories and concepts of psychology of elite are taped and proved. Base phenomena ("elite" and types of elite), reflecting essence of a real reality and surveyed as the phenomena of the modern validity determined by subjestive-objective factors are surveyed; the major categories of psychology of elite ("elitnost", "elitism"), reflecting most essential communications, relations and features of a subjestive-objective reality and knowledge are characterised; and also key concepts: elitologicheskie ("counterelite", "pseudo-elite", "aelita", "aelitizm", "elitizm", "elitarizm", "elitologija"), reflecting features of the person as subject of activity ("readiness", "responsibility", "self-development", "self-realisation", "competence", "kreativnost"), reflecting features of self-realisation of subjects of elite in their activity ("professionalism", "professional work", «professional competence», «professional development», "professional").

3. Are taped separate elitologicheskie ideas.

During the various historical periods:

- Antiquity: idealistic representations on essence elite, the reason leading part is underlined;

- The Middle Ages: dualisticheskoe opposition of the divine and earth has begun; the sanctity is surveyed, as top of self-improvement of the person;

- Revival: the original nature of a political lead, idea of "superperson" is investigated;

- New time: representations about the free person develop, capable to create to (frame) the own world, and ideas of maximum use by the person of the experience and intellectual possibilities for achievement is elite-sti.

In approaches of different directions of a science:

- Cultural urological, underlining value of a spiritual and creative openness of the person;

- Sociological, taping the social status of elite;

- Sociopolitical, opening features of political elite;

- elitologicheskom, surveying elite as multidimensional social formation;

In the western psychology of the XX-th century:

- biheviorizme, surveying prevalence of behavioural elite making in interaction and masses and degree of "efficiency" of the leader;

- frejdizme, noting influence of psycho-sex factors on formation of the uncommon person;

- neofrejdizme, underlining influence of socially-psychological factors on development of the elite person, and also predilection of people to a lead or submission;

- geshtaltpsihologii, opening representations about the various forms of the power based on motivation, and «motive of the power» as a distinctive sign of the representative of elite;

- The humanistic psychology taping requirement of the person to self-actualisation;

- The existentialism underlining ability of the person to samotranstsen-dentsii (aspiration to sense).

In domestic psychological approaches:

- pedologicheskom, investigating intellectual possibilities of the person;

- Cultural-historical, studying features of formation of the higher mental functions;

- motivatsionno-dejatelnostnom, underlining, that the consciousness of the person defines type of its activity, and smysloobrazujushchaja motivation - elitiziruet consciousness;

- Individually-psychological in which importance of studying of specific features and personal qualities of elite, original styles of cerebration and creative efficiency becomes perceptible, and also the personification phenomenon (a phenomenon of social immortality) is investigated;

- akmeologicheskom, opening requirements of the person to reach "akme" (professional, personal, spiritual, creative), "professionalism" and "competence".

In modern psychological directions:

- Creativity psychology: the importance of creative-converting activity of elite is underlined;

- Lead psychology: importance of acceptance by elite of key strategic decisions and efficiency of tactical actions, character of its influence on historical events, a sociopolitical and economic situation in a society, and as degree of its authoritativeness in the country and the world becomes perceptible;

- Problems of studying of the subject, reflecting aspiration of the person to achievement of the higher stage of activity (subektivatsija).

The analysis of representations and views on a problem of psychology of elite promoted allocation of components of theoretical model (substantially-kriterialnye, structurally functional, remedially-forming).

The major components of theoretical model of psychology of the elite, taped on a basis integrativno-elitopsihologicheskogo the approach and genesis elitologicheskih the ideas, including are proved.

Psychology of elite substantially-kriterialnye making to theoretical model which concern socially-psychological, potrebnostno-motivational, emotionally-strong-willed and intellectually-kreativnostaja maturity, reflecting integrated representation about the elite person.

Structurally functional components of theoretical model of psychology of elite:

- Obrazovatelno-developing, reflecting necessity of constant perfection of system of elite formation, prevalence of the creative approach in the course of carried out activity, search of research decisions in concrete situations;

- The creative-converting persons opening poiskovo-converting requirement, expressed in overcoming of stereotypic behaviour and thinking for the purpose of creation something qualitatively new in the course of activity;

- Spiritually-moral, reflecting high level of world outlook judgement of the validity, spiritually-moral bases of the person, and also the tsennostno-semantic, ideally presented, humanistic aspects elitnosti;

- Cultural-ethical, taping essence of occurrence, development and character of influence art and cultural values on consciousness of the person, on formation of its private world;

- Administrative persons revealing in ability to influence public processes and historical events, in an orientation on creation and respect of all live on the earth;

- Social and economic, reflecting such signs of psychology of elite, as oof, the power, prestige, advantage, and also essence of economic consciousness and behaviour.

The major socially-psychological functions: subordination to the public duties, the responsible relation to all event, influence of elite on historical processes and events, prognostic, creative and reformative, humanistic, stabilising, integrativnaja, strategic. The given functions allow to tap character of influence of various types of elite on society vital activity as a whole, to open degree of the responsible relation of representatives of elite to all event, to prove value of their humanistic orientation promoting rallying of various levels of population, harmonisations of social interests, to consensus achievement, and also to open strategic prospects of development of a society.

Remedially-forming components of theoretical model of psychology of the elite, reflecting essence of process elitizatsii the persons, including a number of stages: 1) integration of knowledge, the skills making base of the further development of elite signs of the person; 2) the self-education, differing aspiration of the person to self-expression and disclosing of the abilities by means of poiskovo-informative activity; 3) the productive creativity characterised by requirement of the person to creative work, invention, generating of new ideas; 4) the self-improvement promoting formation of a world outlook, spiritually-moral values and orientation to creative-reformative activity; 5) the professionalism including efficiency of activity and professional competence, ability of the person samoaktualizirovatsja; 6) the personification reflecting aspiration of the person to be ideally presented in other people.

5. It is proved, that modern Russian elite (political, business-and cultural-intellectual) has the general features corresponding to base components of theoretical model of psychology of elite:

- In substantially-kriterialnom plan the general tendency to rising by representatives of various types of elite of the professional level is traced. They are distinguished by competence, enthusiasm, persistence, working capacity, organising abilities, and also the high social status and prestige. The Socially-psychological maturity, reflects ability of elite to influence public consciousness, political culture, to form behaviour models.

- To structurally-funktsionalnem making concern: obrazovatelno-developing, reflecting an educational level and self-education of representatives of elite, and function: stabilising, co-ordinating, integration and a subordination, intergroup and interethnic communications.

- Base remedially-forming components are: professionalism, aspiration to improvement of professional skill, rising of professional level, self-education.

Specific psychological features political, business-and cultural-intellectual elite are proved.

Psychological features of modern Russian political elite reflect following components of theoretical model:

- Substantially-kriterialnye, opening prevalence of klanovo-egoistical orientations and private motives of representatives of political elite (a potrebnostno-motivational maturity);

- Structurally functional: cultural-ethical, reflecting low level of political and legal culture; social and economic, taping adherence of political elite to the programmno-target methods focused on near and average prospect, a leg on administrative methods and resources;

- Remedially-forming occurrences taping character in political elite at the expense of protectionism and trajbalizma. Formation of political elite is carried out at the expense of possibility of conversion and rekonversii various kinds of the capital.

Psychological features of modern Russian business elite reflect following components of theoretical model:

- Substantially-kriterialnye: emotionally-strong-willed, opening readiness of representatives of business elite for risk, their ability to self-control, aggression; potrebnostno-motivational, taping uzkogruppovye and private interests; the is intellectual-creative maturity reflecting economic innovatsi-onnost and ability quickly to make unexpected decisions;

- Structurally functional: creative-converting, opening orientation of business to fast success, to posrednichesko-redistributive forms of economic activities; the cultural-ethical component reflecting nesformirovannost of corporate ethics, neglect to public norms of behaviour;

- Remedially-forming receptions of prestigious higher education reflecting necessity.

Psychological features of modern Russian cultural-intellectual elite reflect following components of theoretical model:

- Substantially-kriterialnye: socially-psychological, opening delicacy of influence of representatives of the given type of elite on social processes and on national consciousness; the is intellectual-creative maturity taping high level of creative achievements, width of knowledge, interest to new, independence of thinking, feature scientific and life experience;

- Structurally functional: cultural-ethical, reflecting ability to provide balance of cultural traditions and innovations; spiritually-moral, opening features of creation and reproduction by elite of moral regulators and spiritual bases of vital activity of the person in a society; the creative-converting component taping character of creative self-actualisation of the person, stimulating occurrence of qualitatively new product, as result of a certain kind of activity;

- Remedially-forming, reflecting requirement of representatives of the given type of elite for self-actualisation and personification, aspiration to come nearer to a moral ideal and intellectually to be improved.

6. Influence akmeologii as confirmed last decade a new direction in psychology, first of all, on a substantiation of conceptual bases of psychology of elite is surveyed.

The theoretical model of psychology of elite (substantially-kriterialnye making) was essentially enriched with the following positions opening essence "akme":

- High level of claims of the person, motivation of self-realisation and the highest level of activity of the person, promoting the greatest efficiency of its professional work (a potrebnostno-motivational maturity);

- Aspiration of the person to tops of its personal and professional development interfaced to constant processes of integration of individuality with conditions of medium, promoting formation of its individual style (activity, vital activity, etc.) (socially-psychological);

- Realisation of personal potential at the expense of replenishment of knowledge, expansions of an outlook, perfection of abilities (is intellectual-creative);

- The realised self-control of the person including degree of strong-willed effort for achievement of the purpose (emotionally-strong-willed).

Structurally functional making models are enriched by representations:

- Reflecting character of creative potential of the person shown in innovative activity, creative search, ability to make the non-standard effective decisions, the professionalism of the person bound to level and activity (creative-converting);

- Opening features of is personal-professional potential of the person, progressive development of the person in the course of professional work, professionalism, professional readiness and suitability of the person (obrazovatelno-developing and social and economic);

- Taping ability of the person to keep and transform universal resources of development of a civilisation (cultural-ethical).

Remedially-forming components are strengthened by the position opening essence of ascending movement of a line of a life at which continuous lifting with strongly pronounced intermediate "akme" is possible, promoting preumnozheniju human resources.

The theoretical importance of research consists in a substantiation of a new direction in the psychology, reflecting the major positions of the psychological concept of the elite, including:

- For the first time proved integrativno-elitopsihologichesky the approach as a new component in the psychology methodology, given the chance to carry out istori-to-theoretical the analysis elitologicheskih ideas, their developments to open the kategorialno-conceptual apparatus, functions of psychology of elite, its psychological essence, to develop the theoretical model reflecting substantial, structurally functional characteristics;

- The istoriko-psychological analysis, allowed to tap development presence elitologicheskih views and representations of researchers during the various historical periods, in different areas of a science and psychological directions that has led to their integration and differentiation for the purpose of definition of components of theoretical model of psychology of elite;

- Components of theoretical model of psychology of the elite, reflecting it it is substantial-kriterialnye, the structurally functional, remedially-forming aspects, which realisation in aggregate conducts to development of the elite person, and also given the chance to tap the general and specific in psychology of types of elite, real-life in a modern Russian society;

- Theoretical positions akmeologii as new direction in the psychology reflecting akmeologicheskie features of personal, professional, creative potential of the person, level of professional readiness, responsibility and suitability of the subject of activity, have essentially enriched modern positions of the concept of psychology of elite.

Practical value of work consists in creation of scientific base for complex researches of psychology of various types of elite. Components of theoretical model of psychology of elite prilozhimy to all types of elite also can have a wide spectrum of application: from individual practice of psychodiagnostic consultation and psychocorrection before working out treningovyh the employment promoting optimisation of process elitizatsii of the person, and also disclosing of psychological features of various types of the elite inappropriate to theoretical model, for the purpose of their correction.

The developed bases of psychology of elite will promote formation of the elite person aspiring to self-improvement and transformation of the surrounding validity, opened for constructive forms of interaction. Dissertation positions can be used with a view of designing of new type of the outlook which are taking out extreme measures elitarizma.

The uchebno-methodical complex «Elitologichesky psychology», including the program, tasks and tests, practical references and the list of the recommended literature is prepared. According to the developed program the course of "Elitologichesky psychology» on units of psychology of the Russian university of friendship of the people and the International independent ekologo-politological university is read. Separate positions of the psychological concept of elite are realised in courses of "psychology History», «the General psychology», «Social psychology», «conflict Psychology», «management Psychology», «creativity Psychology» at the specified universities.

The positions which are taken out on protection:

1. The Integrativno-Elitopsihologichesky approach has given the chance to study conceptual bases of psychology of elite, their substantial making and functional implications.

2. Intrinsic signs of a phenomenon "elite": the socially-psychological, reflecting high social status of the person, character of its influence, authoritativeness, a demand society, level of achievements, possession degree imperious powers; administrative, reflecting ability and readiness of the person to make the major strategic and tactical decisions, successfully to carry out socially significant functions for efficiency of activity in concrete sphere; a professional, opening high educational level, a professional knowledge and experience; world outlook, including necessary knowledge of religious, racial, national, cultural features; is personal-effective, reflecting character of motivation of the person on the elito-focused activity and success of its self-realisation in certain spheres of vital activity of a society; aksiologichesky, taping tsennostno-orientatsionnuju an orientation of the person in a concrete field of activity; Moral-strong-willed, opening high level of development of moral-strong-willed qualities and specific elite qualities, characteristic for representatives of certain type of elite.

The major categories of psychology of elite "elitnost" and "elitism" are characterised by specific signs: degree otnesennosti to elite, universality and openness level.

Base concepts of psychology of elite: elitologicheskie, and also reflecting features of the person as subject of the activity, taping features of self-realisation of subjects of elite in their activity.

3. The major elitologicheskie the ideas which have found reflexion during the certain historical periods, in various directions the sciences opening: tsennostno-informative bases of development elite persons (Antiquity); the spiritual bases of process elitizatsii persons, a religious orientation and various aspects beliefs (Middle Ages); a role and value of the elite person in a society, its abilities (Revival) and creative-creative potential (New time); representations about elitnosti as to a creative basis of the person (the cultural urological approach); legality and efficiency of activity of modern elite (sociological); character of hierarchy in political elite (sociopolitical); essence of elite as the multidimensional social formation providing stability in a society, consolidation of system of a state system and realisation of innovative potential (elitologichesky); Specificity of the individually-personal and socially-psychological differentiation based on criterion elitnosti; a view on the person, motivirovannuju on development of the uncommon qualities and the possibilities, possessing feeling of a self-trust and ability to give sense of the life, aspiring to self-actualisation (foreign psychological approaches); ability of the person by means of the activity and thanks to work products to influence social processes, and also essence of moral development and perfection of the person (domestic psychological approaches); variety of features of the creative person and its activity (creativity psychology); essence of the control system based on interdependence between commanding and executing and different representation about essence of authoritativeness and a lead (lead psychology); a view on the person as subject of activity (problem of studying of the subject).

4. Components of theoretical model of psychology of elite: substantially-kriterialnye (socially-psychological, potrebnostno-motivational, emotionally-strong-willed and intellectually-kreativnostaja maturity), reflecting integration of representations about what should be the elite person, opening essence of a socially-psychological category "elitnosti"; structurally functional (obrazovatelno-developing, creative-converting, spiritually-moral, cultural-ethical, administrative and social and economic) and socially-psychological functions (subordination to public duties, function of the responsible relation to all event, influences of elite on historical processes and events, prognostic, creative and reformative, humanistic, stabilising, integrativnuju, strategic); remedially-forming, reflecting essence of process elitizatsii the persons, including a number of stages: integration of knowledge, skills; Self-education; productive creativity; self-improvement; professionalism developments; personification.

5. The general psychological lines characterising modern Russian types of elite (political, business-and cultural-intellectual): professionalism, competence, enthusiasm, persistence, working capacity, the high social status, authority, possession imperious powers; ability to influence public consciousness, social changes and historical events.

The major specific psychological features of modern Russian elite:

- In the political it is inherent: prevalence of klanovo-egoistical orientations and private motives; comprehension by elite of importance of a problem of the social safety solved by means of attraction of an administrative and power resource; low level of political and legal culture; loss of strategic prospect; protectionism and trajbalizm as ways of occurrence in elite;

- For business elite it is characteristic: innovations in economy and business sphere; prevalence uzkogruppovyh and private interests of representatives of elite; orientation to fast success, and on occasion on not civilised forms of business dealing; predilection to risk and ability to make unexpected decisions;

- Prominent features of cultural-intellectual type of elite are: low elite unity and a self-rating; weakening of sociopolitical influence; high level of creative achievements, predilection to reasonings, deep judgement of the vital phenomena, an openness to the new; strongly pronounced creative-converting activity; requirement for creative self-actualisation and personification of the person.

6. The major positions akmeologii, allowed essentially to enrich theoretical model: value "akme" in professional development, in a course of life of the person, in personal and an ontogeny of the person; akmeologicheskie features of personal, is personal-professional, creative potential of the person; level of professional readiness, responsibility and suitability as major properties of achievement by the subject of the higher results in professional work; and also key stages of movement of self-development to self-realisation of the subject of activity.

Objectivity and reliability of the received results are provided by application as the teoretiko-methodological bases of the workings out, obtained a scientific recognition and the past all-round practical check, selection of methods of the research adequate to the teoretiko-methodological bases of work, validity theoretical prorabotannosti problems.
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A source: Karabushchenko N.B.. The phenomenon of the elite: historical and psychological foundations and ways of development. 2009

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