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the BASIC MAINTENANCE of WORK

In work becomes perceptible, that within the limits of psychology and akmeologii (A.A.Derkach, V.G.Zazykin, N.V.Kuzmina, A.K.Markova, etc.) Appreciable experience in research of problems of professionalism is saved up.
As professionalism acts as result of interaction of two systems: the person and professional work in the logician psihologo-akmeologicheskogo the approach professional work and the person are surveyed as the interconnected and co-operating systems. In their interaction it is possible to allocate a number of stages: occurrence of professional intentions, vocational training, professional adaptation, a stage of stable functioning, a skill stage (the period of the higher mastering by the person of professional work) etc. At each stage occurs an interpenetration and interference of the person and professional work. Result of the given processes is on the one hand formation of the personal structures providing effective professional work, on the other hand the person as though fills with itself norms of professional work.

System character of professionalism is shown in operational, motivational and semantic spheres of pedagogical activity and caused by the communications established between its structural components. The basis of the given communications is made by processes of self-control which provide fastness of professionalism at change of external and internal conditions. Self-control affects all mental levels of the person of the teacher. At the lowest level self-control is shown as reaction in the form of rising or dropping of temperature, change of frequency of breath and pulse, a mydriasis etc. the Second level consists in self-control of behaviour by means of the equipments not realised in a given situation, skills, habits, experience. The highest level of self-control - conscious change of the condition, maintenance and activity intensifying, adjustment of the actions according to the purpose and a situation. It is the original form of influence of the person on the activity, promoting most to an effective utilisation of all forces.

In motivational sphere self-control is shown in transition from rja-dopolozhennyh, neuporjadochnyh to hierarchically organised motives, in movement from narrowly productive motives of genesial activity to motives of self-realisation, in transformation of situational motives to the steady. In semantic sphere self-control acts as interaction kognitivnoj, emotional and behavioural substructures of the relation "the person - a trade". Result of interaction are professional positions, senses, professional consciousness. Interaction can be realised through the mechanism of putting off of an internal conflictness or through process oznachenija senses and judgement of value (V.P.Zinchenko,

1991).

There is a number of internal and external psychological conditions of formation of professionalism in pedagogical activity. In real pedagogical activity external conditions act in the form of new professional problems. The basic sign of the given problems is high degree of uncertainty.

Uncertainty is understood as objective obexes in achievement by the teacher of the purposes of pedagogical activity which are subjectively shown in operational aspect in the form of reaction "do not know, how", in moti-vatsionnom - in the form of reaction "I do not know, that", in semantic - in the form of reaction "I do not know, what for".
Uncertainty is a consequence of ambiguous communications between situational changes and character of arising reactions and arises in connection with geterohronnnostju developments of psychological structures of professionalism. The mechanism of putting off of uncertainty can be described through reflective processes of self-control.

Comprehension of absence or backwardness of certain skills, knowledge, abilities of the subject of activity, as a rule, serves in operational sphere as start of processes of self-control at uncertainty occurrence. In this case at the expense of actualisation of motivational sphere (motives of self-improvement, self-education) the subject takes out the arisen difficulty.

In motivational sphere of feature of process of self-control at uncertainty occurrence are caused by importance of the given sphere for professional development of the person. Initiation of process of self-control contacts such changes in professional work which result: to disturbance in operational sphere of the subject of activity (because of purpose change it is impossible to use the received knowledge, skills, abilities); to impossibility in realisation of the I in the field of professional work; to parity disturbance between adaptive and substantial motives of professional work; to pauperisation of motivational sphere, presence only separate promptings, for example, orientation to performing activity in the absence of motives of creativity; to conflicts between separate promptings, motives; to inadequacy of motivational sphere to an actual state of affairs. The permission of the developed difficulty I assume deeper reorganisation the subject of activity, use of psychological mechanisms which help the subject to open for itself new areas of realisation of the I in professional work, and simultaneously to keep integrity, fastness of the I.

In semantic sphere uncertainty acts as the reason of occurrence of the crisis phenomena. Crisis as a stage of a course of life is characterised by necessity of search of the semantic bases, directions, ways of realisation of activity that is shown in processes of development and acceptance of lich-nostno-significant decisions for long enough period of a life (A.A.Derkach, E.B.Starovojtenko, A.J.Krivokulinsky, 1994). In such conditions processes of professional self-control are focused on reconsideration of and perestraivanie own J.Pri it the teacher tests a dissatisfaction with possible prospects in professional work (the professional future sees unpredictable and disturbing, and its pre-crisis model does not possess sufficient semantic value); the present becomes intolerable, and last achievements are called into question; there is a generation of the negative relation to a life.

In the present work uncertainty acts in the form of difficulty outwardly set in relation to the teacher.

In domestic and foreign psychology of difficulty are investigated as the moment of implication of internal contradictions of the person (A.abulhanova-Slavsky, 1980; L.I.Antsiferova, 1974; V.G.Aseev, 1976; B.V.Zejgarnik, b.s.bratus, 1980; G.S.Kostjuk, 1969; S.L.Rubinshtejn, 1976). Development of a problem of internal contradictions is closely bound to researches of internal conflicts and crises of the person (L.I.Bozhovich, 1981; F.E.Vasiljuk,

1984; A.I.Zaharov, 1982; V.S.Merlin, 1966; V.V.Stolin, 1983). Internal

The conflict is surveyed as a culmination stage of the ripened contradiction (L.M.Mitina, 1995; L.M.Mitina, O.V.Kuzmenkova, 1998).

The complex approach to research of a problematics of difficulties in pedagogical activity is realised in the works united in psihologo-akmeologicheskoe a direction.

As the central category of the given direction the activity category acts. Problems of activity of the person are surveyed in A.A.Derkacha's works in a context of cultural parametres of the person (A.A.Derkach, 1994) as which major indicator common cultural level acts. The concept "common cultural level" persons reflects degree of familiarising with universal values, ideas, volume and quality of the acquired knowledge, the got abilities, skills. Common cultural level of the person characterises in the general view degree of mastering by that is saved up by mankind during historical development. As the basic sources of rising of common cultural level formation, education, self-improvement act. Activity acts on the one hand as intensity of development as the person of set of potential possibilities represented by a society for worthy vital activity, and on the other hand as realisation by the person of the social functions, a social role.

From the given positions of difficulty are surveyed as barriers on a way of realisation by the person of the activity, determined on the one hand objective conditions of activity, and with another - psychological features of the person.

The theoretical analysis of the researches devoted to problems of difficulties in pedagogical activity, has allowed to specify and correlate concepts "difficulty", "difficulty", "error", "disturbance", "barrier", "stereotype" in the present work. Summing up the analysis of approaches to research of a problem of difficulties in pedagogical activity, it is possible to draw a conclusion that difficulties arise in the course of the contradiction permission "the person - a trade" and the teachers interfering activity of the person and leading to a stopping, to ruptures, errors in pedagogical activity act as absence or insufficiency in development of structure of professionalism.

The maintenance of difficulties in professional work of the teacher defines level of its professionalism. The maintenance of difficulties also significantly influences on such qualitative and quantity indicators of work of the teacher, as satisfaction, interest activity, working capacity, degree of intensity of mental functions and the processes providing achievement of the purposes of activity.

Difficulties have the objective and subjective parties. Objective character of difficulties is defined by processes of professional development of the person of the teacher. The subjective party of difficulties specifies in the intrapersonal reasons of occurrence of difficulties.

Research intrapersonal a determinant of occurrence of difficulties in the course of professionalism formation has allowed to allocate three groups of the reasons which lay in the basis of occurrence of difficulties.

The first group is bound to mechanisms of formation, fastening of emotional intensity and on its basis of formation of negative qualities of the person.

The second group is bound to actualisation of mechanisms of psychological protection of the person of the teacher.

The third group was made by the psychological neoplasms generated as a result of functioning of mechanisms of professional deformation of the person of the teacher.

The given reasons define a choice the teacher of strategy on overcoming of difficulties in the course of professionalism formation. From these positions it is possible to allocate destructive strategy in which basis mechanisms of professional deformation of the person of the teacher lay mainly, and protective strategy which is under construction on actualisation of mechanisms of psychological protection. At realisation of the first strategy difficulty is taken out at the expense of deformation of spheres of professionalism, at realisation of the second difficulty is not taken out or taken out only partially.

Teachers have taken part in ascertaining experiment, students and teachers of pedagogical high schools. Number of sample was proved by demands of the set accuracy and specificity of research. According to a stage of formation of professionalism teachers have been broken into three groups according to following signs. In adapting teachers are inherent incompleteness of structure of pedagogical activity; its lowered intensity and performing character; the lowered independence in pedagogical work; absence or slaborazvitye prognostic abilities; the overestimated inquiries; insufficient knowledge of professional duties. For stably functioning teachers the sense of duty and responsibility within the limits of the duties are characteristic; a self-trust at the decision of sample pedagogical problems; independence in pedagogical activity; prognoziruemost its results. Teachers-masters distinguish individuality; Responsibility for a state of affairs; independence in acceptance and decision realisation; criticality to results of the activity; purposefulness; rationalism; creative enthusiasm. According to the allocated signs the group of adapting teachers included 59 persons, into group of stably functioning teachers - 81 persons, in group of teachers-masters - 47 persons.

Results of research have allowed to allocate difficult situations in activity of the teacher at various stages of formation of professionalism. For group of adapting teachers characteristic difficult situations are: occurrence on professional medium, acceptance of norms, values, traditions of pedagogical collective, the most pedagogical activity. The given difficulties have objective character, and uncertainty of a situation is bound by that the young teacher reproduces the knowledge received during training in real activity, skills, abilities, norms and values of pedagogical activity. For stably functioning teachers difficult situations act as consequence of uncertainty putting off at realisation of the developed pedagogical stereotypes. In case of impossibility to be reconstructed there are the tendencies initiating repeated process of professional self-determination. For teachers-masters of a situation of difficulty are bound to overcoming of an innovative barrier.

The received results have formed the basis for studying of psychological mechanisms of the permission by the teacher of the given situations and allocation of some strategy in overcoming of difficulties.

For adapting teachers following strategy in overcoming of difficulties are characteristic. At the heart of constructive strategy reflective mechanisms of putting off of an internal conflictness lay.

The basis of constructive strategy with elements of protective strategy is made by group of psychological mechanisms which provide positive dynamics of professional adaptation. At the same time, difficulty is taken out at the expense of actualisation of processes of putting off of an internal conflictness and mechanisms of psychological protection. The given strategy, as a rule, is realised at the permission of difficulties social and samoop-redelencheskogo character.

For the teachers realising destructive strategy with elements of protective strategy, the overestimated level of alarm, the closeness, the overestimated self-confidence, self-value, self-attachment, low indicators on scales of an internal conflictness and self-charge are characteristic. As elements of protective strategy mechanisms of replacement which take out an internal conflictness act. Backwardness of reflective processes leads to accumulation of disturbing expectations which in turn deform professionalism structure. As the most sensitive element the semantic sphere of professionalism, self-control processes in pedagogical activity here acts. It is established, that among the given group of teachers the syndrome of "emotional combustion" is widespread enough.

Destructive strategy in activity of the adapting teacher is shown as reaction to expected or real situations which are injuring for the young teacher. Most often these situations wear samoopredelenchesky, social character. In this case it is possible to speak about interaction of the saved up professional deformations (the unstable JA-concept, an inadequate self-rating) and abnormal mechanisms of professional development of the person.

Results of research of activity of teachers on overcoming of difficulties have been correlated with level of efficiency of pedagogical activity (tab. 1).

Table 1

Dependence of a choice of strategy on overcoming of difficulties from level of efficiency of activity





In group of stably functioning teachers results of research have allowed to allocate the teachers who are guided by constructive strategy with elements of protection, for protective strategy, on destructive strategy with protection elements, destructive strategy.

At realisation of constructive strategy with elements of protective strategy the arisen difficulty originally is fixed as impossibility to realise a pedagogical stereotype, an activity gauge. It leads to actualisation of motivational and semantic spheres of professionalism. At the same time, the rigidity of the professional JA-concept of the teacher frames internal obstacles to self-change of the teacher that leads to partial correction of activity. At the expense of actualisation of protective mechanisms the most injuring part of a situation is superseded, rationalised. It is possible to assert, that the moment of self-change of the teacher is limited by psychological protection and its JA-concept.

At the heart of protective strategy mechanisms of the psychological protection which characteristic forms are lay: bracing, replacement, rationalisation. The given strategy can be surveyed as result of transformation of constructive strategy with protection elements. Result of professional development of the teacher are steady skills, receptions in overcoming of difficulties. At a stopping or low dynamics professionalizatsii the given formations turn to stereotypes, gauges. In case of occurrence of situations of the raised difficulty the basic efforts are referred on conservation of the developed stereotypy. As a rule, the situations bound to role, status positions of the teacher in pedagogical collective, with change of norms of professional work become situations of the raised difficulty. For the given strategy low indicators on a scale of an internal conflictness and self-charge are characteristic at the raised situational uneasiness and aggression.

Destructive strategy with elements of protection grows out of disharmonious professional development of the person of the teacher. Expert interrogation, the analysis of questionnaires and self-reports allow to fix the injuring situations bound to pedagogical activity and with home relations in this group. At the permission of difficult situations sharp change of an emotional background of the activity, inadequate activity (from hyperactivity before leaving from active participation in the permission of difficulties) is observed. The raised level of personal uneasiness, motivational aggression becomes perceptible at low criticality to itself, the actions, the underestimated indicators on scales of self-confidence, a self-management, rising - on a scale of an internal conflictness.

Destructive strategy acts as result of the saved up professional deformations or as acute reaction to injuring events. The analysis of results of research shows, that accumulation of deformations becomes a direct consequence of age changes, disturbances in the course of formation of structures of pedagogical professionalism, syndrome development "emotional combustion". Destructive strategy as acute reaction to injuring events is bound to insufficiency of mechanisms of self-control in pedagogical activity. Situations with high destructive potential are situations which interfere with the teacher to realise professional values, positions, motives. At the permission of difficult situations the negative emotional background, inadequate activity, a conflictness, animosities, motivational aggression, high personal uneasiness become perceptible.

Results of research of activity of stably functioning teachers on overcoming of difficulties have been correlated with level of efficiency of pedagogical activity (tab. 2).

Table 2

Dependence of a choice of strategy on overcoming of difficulties from level of efficiency of activity





Generalisation of results of research has allowed to allocate groups of the teachers-masters who are guided by constructive strategy, constructive strategy with elements of protection and for destructive strategy with protection elements.

At the heart of constructive strategy activity of the teacher on overcoming of antiinnovative barriers lays. New technologies of the prevention and the permission of difficult situations, and also forecasting of their development become result. Distinctive line of constructive strategy is its flexibility which allows to consider the developed norms of pedagogical activity, values and traditions of pedagogical collective at innovative designing and introduction of new technologies. For the given group of teachers are characteristic: the raised level of the motivational aggression, the underestimated uneasiness, an openness, self-confidence, a high self-management and the reflected self-relation, a low internal conflictness and self-charge.

Constructive strategy with protection elements becomes result of a fragmentariness in overcoming of antiinnovative barriers. As fragmentariness examples it is possible to result: introduction of innovations in quality of "eternal experiment", introduction of innovations "kusochnym in the way", "parallel introduction". In this case strategy is realised in two stages. On the first there is a partial introduction, on the second the fragmentariness is overcome. The given strategy is provided, as a rule, with such mechanisms of psychological protection, as rationalisation or bracing. It helps the teacher to structure a situation, prostroit rational schemes on its overcoming. The uneasiness, the raised indicators on scales of self-confidence, a self-management, self-value, an internal conflictness are characteristic.

Destructive strategy with protection elements can be surveyed as reaction of the teacher to impossibility of overcoming of an antiinnovative barrier. At the expense of external blocking of motivational and semantic sphere of professionalism develops frustratsionnoe a strain which can outgrow in the intrapersonal conflict to actualisation of mechanisms of psychological protection or through deformation of a complex of requirements, lead to refusal of innovative activity. As show results of the research, the given strategy leads to rising of personal uneasiness, uncertainty in, the negative self-perception, the underestimated self-rating. For the given group of teachers the syndrome of "emotional perception", with a strongly pronounced complex of an uncooperative altitude to a trade is characteristic: an uncooperative altitude to pupils and to work, depression of professional activity, irritability, intensity, uneasiness, anxiety, depression.

Results of research of activity of teachers on overcoming of difficulties have been correlated with level of efficiency of pedagogical activity (tab. 3).

Table 3

Dependence of a choice of strategy on overcoming of difficulties from level of efficiency of activity





Research of process of formation of professionalism of the teacher, revealing of psychological conditions of overcoming of difficulties in pedagogical activity has allowed to design and realise a number of psihologo-pedagogical technologies of optimisation of process of overcoming of difficulties in pedagogical activity. The given technological decisions are realised in the form of an is professional-reflective practical work (PRP).

At construction of the concept and scenario PRP we leant against L.A.Petrovsky, JU.M.Zhukov, P.V.Rastjannikova's works., V.A.Slastenina, h.p. podymovoj devoted to theoretical and practical approaches to research of bases of socially-psychological training; B.Z.Vulfova, I.S.Ladenko, M.I.Naidyonov, I.N.Semenova, S.J.Stepanova's opening technology of management by a professional reflexion the works; A.S.Gusevoj's opening specificity and structure of humanitarian technologies the works; N.B.Kovalevoj, G.F.Pohmelkinoj, M.N.Popova, G.K.Selevko's works describing protsedurno-technological aspects of carrying out of employment by methods of active training.

The is professional-reflective practical work was spent in three experimental groups. Two groups have been generated from the young teachers who are at different stages of adaptation to professional work. The third group included trainees, students of pedagogical high schools.

Changes of qualitative characteristics of the professional consciousness which have arisen under the influence of PRP, were measured by means of techniques "Self-report", "self-relation Research", profound interview concerning difficulties in professional work of the teacher

Self-reports represented the developed answers to a question "That I was given by employment of an is professional-reflective practical work?", allowed to fix, as examinees estimate changes which have occurred to them under the influence of agents PRP, and to estimate efficiency of the spent work, achievement of separate participants. The substantial analysis of self-reports of participants of an is professional-reflective practical work is resulted in tab. 4.
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A source: Vargamjan M.V.. Psychological conditions for the teacher to overcome difficulties in the development of professionalism. 2000

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