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the BASIC MAINTENANCE of the DISSERTATION

In introduction the urgency of a theme of research, its purpose, problems reveal, the hypothesis, object and a subject, methods and empirical base of research, the teoretiko-methodological bases, scientific novelty, the theoretical and practical importance, are presented data on approbation and introduction of results of research, the positions which are taken out on protection are formulated.

The first chapter of a part of the dissertation are devoted disclosing of essence and psychological maintenance LGPD, to mechanisms of its formation, the teoretiko-methodological bases of formation LGPD of students, chapters of the second part reflect results of empirical check of the developed conceptual positions and models in ascertaining and forming experiments.

Synthesis of results of psychological, economic, sociological and historical researches of business, domestic and foreign researches of motivation of "the beginning of own business╗ and leading motives of activity of succeeding businessmen leads to a conclusion, that to intrinsic features of business, along with immanent to it market orientirovannostju, innovatsionnostju and risk, specific self-determination of its subject who is carrying out the aspiration to the self-sufficient and independent order by by a life, work and its results, circumstances of self-realisation by means of economic activity, and also the special form of responsibility as unity of responsibility of the subject of vital activity (K.A.abulhanova, L.I.Dementy, 2005) and responsibility for circumstances of vital activity of other people – responsibility sotsial concern

Ache (D.R.Vahitov, B.Karloff, etc.). Comparison of results of domestic and foreign empirical researches of personal preconditions of success of enterprise activity (I.V.Antonenko, A.N.Glushach, E.V.Djachkova, A.L.Zhuravlyov, V.G.Zazykin, A.B.Kuprejchenko, T.V.Kornilova, V.V. Marchenko, O.D.Privalova, I.V.Romazan, E.B.Filinkova, R.Hizrich, A.E.Chilikin, R.H. Brockhaus, D. C. McCleland, D. Miller, etc.), its gender (A.L.Zhuravlyov, V.P.Poznjakov, O.I.Titov, E.A.Markova, V.A.Hashchenko, G.V.Turetskaja, A.E.Chirikova, etc.), age (V.V. Meshalkin, 1996, etc.), regionalno-ethnic (A.N.Zaharova, V.P.Poznjakov, L.V.Selivanov, etc.) features, researches of psychological relations of businessmen in sphere of business activity (A.L.Zhuravlyov, V.P.Poznjakov, etc.) Moral determination of economic self-determination (A.L.Zhuravlyov, A.B.Kuprejchenko V.P.Poznjakov), leading motives of activity of succeeding businessmen (L.Babayev, L.Nelson, T.G.Bahmatova, E.V.forgetful, G.K.Bulychkina, V.V. Glazyrina, T.Zaslavskaja, A.V Meleshko, T.T.Ozernikova, V.P.Poznjakov, E.B.Filinkova, A.E.Chirikova, etc.) leads to a conclusion about determination of success of business by not so much separate features of the person or their aggregate effect, how many their interrelations in structure of the person of the businessman (that is sinergeticheskim effect).

System personal determination of enterprise activity finds the reflexion in treatment źeconomic subektnosti╗ as system quality of the person of the businessman realised in ability to self-determination in economic sphere (A.V.Bojarintseva, 1995), in the approach to business as to process and result of economic self-determination (A.L.Zhuravlyov, A.B.Kuprejchenko, V.P.Poznjakov) and a vital choice (to A.J.Chepurenko, 2007), in position about integrated characteristics of the person as sistemoobrazujushchih in a complex of personal qualities of the successful businessman (L.M.Mitin, 2002).


The analysis of researches of psychological readiness for activity as conditions of mobilisation of psychophysiological systems (A.A.Babayan,

A.A.Bobrishchev, G.S.Dunin, T.S.Kabachenko, O.V.Liventseva, V.L.Marishchuk, V.J.Rybnikov, etc.), as abilities of the person (B.G.Ananev, 1962; S.L.Rubinshtejn, 2000; L.A.Yemelyanov, 2001, etc.), as difficult integrated personal formation (J.P.povarenkov, 2002), the system-structural formation providing unity and a coordination of levels of the person and forms of subjective experience for successful performance of activity (V.K.Mihajlova, 2006), as dynamical personal neoplasm (L.I.Bershedova, 1999, A.A.Derkach, 2004, etc.), the psychological formation including situational (condition) and steady (a complex of personal qualities) components (G.S.Dunin, 2005; L.V.Lezhnina, 2010; B.D.Parygin, 1999, etc.) Finds out plurality of treatments of this phenomenon. Meanwhile, researches of psychological readiness for enterprise activity are presented extremely by a small number of works in which it is more often surveyed as the sum of the personal qualities correlating with success of business, or is reduced to the separate components (D.S.Amirjan, 2003; R.H.Tokov, 2005, etc.). Thereupon special interest enterprise researches as integrativnogo personal quality (represent L.O.Abrekova, 2006; M.E.Bazunova, 2007; V.B.Orlov, 2001; V.G.Smolkov, 1994; R.H.Tokov, etc.), determining business, but concept of enterprise of the scientific literature also is treated ambiguously, and its essence remains not opened.

Synthesis of available data shows, that in psychological readiness to enterprise activity two components can be allocated: situational (a mobilisation condition, the active equipment on action) and the steady (personal) component, which psychological maintenance as system personal formation remains insufficiently studied.

Working out of conceptual model LGPD (a drawing 1; table 1) was based on the system approach to research of the person and its professional work (L.I.Antsyferova, 1991; B.F.Lomov, 1999; JU.P.

povarenkov, 2009; V.D.Shadrikov, 2007, etc.) in which context LGPD reveals as not reduced to the aggregate sum of elements making it (as in this case take place sinergeticheskie, productive effects) and spontaneous at the expense of internal possibilities among which first of all it is possible to name reflective metaprocesses (A.V.carp, 2004, 2006), and also on complex (B.G.Ananev, 1980), it is subject-dejatelnostnom also psychosocial approaches (A.A.Derkach, K.A.abulhanova,



Drawing 1. Blocks of conceptual model LGPD



Drawing 2. Urovnevo-typological model LGPD

M.I.Volovikova, etc.), concepts of the subject of vital activity of S.L.Rubinshtejna and professional development of person L.M.Mitinoj. On the basis of the formulated criteria four levels sformirovannosti are allocated: low (nesformirovannost all subsystems), insufficient (sformirovannost otdelnyhpodsistem), sufficient, high (sformirovannost all subsystems in a combination to social responsibility).

To different levels LGPD there correspond certain types (a drawing 2). In a typology basis data about types of businessmen with various (external/internal) determination of a choice of business (V.P.Poznjakov, E.B.Filinkova, etc.), about communication of self-realisation and achievements of the person with an activity place in hierarchy smyslozhiznennyh orientations, (V.E.Chudnovsky, 2004, 2009, etc.), about communication LGPD with readiness for material self-maintenance (to D.A.Kitova, 2003), about moral determination of economic self-determination of the person (A.A.Zhuravlyov, A.B.Kuprejchenko) have laid down. Allocation of types LGPD allows to use psihologo-pedagogical agents adequate for everyone type.

Formation LGPD of students in their training in high school assumes a leg on the theoretical model reflecting system interrelations target, substantial, kriterialno-estimated, determinatsionnoj and technological components of this process (a drawing 3).

The analysis of modern foreign and domestic enterprise formation (D.S.Amirjan, E. V.Beshkinskaja, And. V.Vdovin, B.N.Deshekov, V.V. Zhuravlyov, E.K.Klimov, A.I.paramonov, S.A.Sergeev, etc.) is found out by necessity of cardinal change of approaches and technologies of preparation of students to enterprise activity. Optimum conditions for formation LGPD of students are framed within the limits of a humanistic educational paradigm at use of is personal-developing technologies.

As necessary psihologo-pedagogical conditions of formation LGPD of students in their training act the developing educational medium of high school (I.A.winter, V.I.Panov, V.V. Rubtsov, I.S.Jakimansky, etc.) Focused on development subektnosti students; the system is personal-developing approach in which frameworks is professional-personal development is understood, first of all, as qualitative transformation by the person of the private world leading to its essentially new system and a way of vital activity (L.M.Mitin, 1999-2011); optimisation of organizational-cultural medium of high school, presence of the target program of the psychological support focused on actualisation of personal potential and replenishment of reserve possibilities of all subjects of educational space of high school in unity with activization of potential of medium (I.V.Dubrovin, J.M.Zabrodin, E.F.Zeer, S.B.small, L.M.Mitin, J.P.povarenkov, M.I.Plugina, E.A.Yablokov idr.) ; Integration in educational process of psychological technologies of formation LGPD based on described above conceptual positions and considering specificity described above conceptual positions of a "starting" condition of formed personal formation at a concrete category of students. Internal psychological conditions of formation LGPD of the student is an internal medium of its person, first of all, internal determination of its activity. Outwardly-internal conditions are presented by system inter intrapsihologicheskih the factors defined by participation of students in polysubject interaction (I.I.Vachkov, L.M.Mitin, etc.), first of all, in the polysubject "teacher-student-psychologist".

Among directions of the target program of psychological support of formation LGPD of the student are allocated: support of formation LGPD in educational process, formation LGPD out of educational process, psychological support of student's self-management and student's business structures, optimisation of organizational-cultural medium of high school. Necessity of allocation of last of directions obosnovanna as scientific data about influence of organizational culture of high school on

Is professional-personal development of students, and results of own empirical research of representations of teachers of branch high school about personal qualities necessary for the modern expert (as element of organizational-cultural medium of high school), found out, that these representations are adverse for formation LGPD of students (sample volume – 140 teachers).

As a psihologo-pedagogical agent of formation LGPD of the student in educational process the technology which has included subsystems which interaction provides achievement of necessary results (a drawing 4) is offered. Technology working out leant on complex, system (B.G.Ananev, B.F.Lomov, V.D.Shadrikov, etc.) System is personal-developing (L.M.Mitina) approaches, positions about subject determination of vital activity and professional development (K.A.abulhanova, L.I.Antsyferova, L.M.Mitin, S.L.Rubinshtejn), a principle of development of mentality in activity (A.N.Leontev, S.L.Rubinshtejn), a principle of generation professional future (S.A.Minjurova, L.M.Mitin) as predstavlennosti in private world of the person of an orientation on future generation, an anticipation of the future and formation of an image itself kakprofessionala in the future in a social environment, a principle of "minimisation of costs of the client╗, meaning minimisation of possible "injury" of the organisation of educational process. Methodologically significant by technology working out concepts of self-knowledge and self-understanding (as V.V. Znakov, 2007, 2009, etc.), the concept of optimum meaning of the life (V.E.Chudnovsky, 2004, etc.) acted.

The technology is presented by the psychological module (psychological training + individual consultation) including five



Drawing 4. Subsystems of technology of formation PGLPD of the student

The stages which psychological maintenance is made by the processes referred on consecutive comprehension by the person of own way of vital activity and professionalizatsii as a condition of achievement of the vital purposes, new possibilities of self-realisation in enterprise activity, the possibilities and restrictions as subject of enterprise activity. Allocation of a reflexion as basic "instrument" of formation LGPD of the student is dictated by results of modern psychological researches (K.A.abulhanova, E.I.Isaev, A.V.carp, A.A.Rean, V.I.Slobodchikov, V.V. Stolin) in which it acts as the mechanism of self-knowledge, self-comprehensions, as metasystem level of mentality by means of which its self-development is carried out. The technology frames conditions for designing by the person own subektnosti and in business by actualisation of a reflective resource of the permission of intrapersonal contradictions and comprehension of necessity of transformation of private world.

Empirical acknowledgement of conceptual model and efficiency of the psychological technology developed on its basis

Formations LGPD of the student it has been received in the course of ascertaining and forming experiments.

In view of necessity of check of invariancy of developed model LGPD with reference to that sphere (to professional work, branch, economy sector) for which preparation of students is carried out, and also adaptations of the maintenance of technology to a contingent of students, for carrying out of experiments have been chosen agrarian sector of economy as vitally requiring experts with enterprise potential and agrarian high school in which preparation on a wide spectrum of various trades for this sector is conducted. Empirical check of invariancy of conceptual model on a material of agrarian businessmen has been carried out in the course of five-serial ascertaining experiment for which the methodical program which has included both known psychodiagnostic techniques and the questionnaires has been developed, and the author's questionnaire źAppeal of enterprise activity╗ (PPD). Data about efficiency of activity of agrarian businessmen have been given by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Ulyanovsk area. In total 1321 persons have taken part in five series of research (81 principal of not state agrarian economy, 90 farmers, 848 countrymen who are experts of not state agricultural productions and owners of personal part-time farms, 303 students of a final year of agrarian high school).

In research it has been established, that principals of effective and noneffective economy statistically significantly differ on the personal indicators reflected in model LGPD (table 3), they do not have cases of the ambivalent relation to enterprise activity, appeal to them immanent enterprise activity of the parties above (at r = 0,000). The factorial analysis has taped three-factorial structure of the received data with total informativnostju 66 % (a drawing 5). Allocated

Table 3 – Differences of effective and noneffective agrarian businessmen on the personal variables forming components LGPD



the "Base" factor possessing greatest informativnostju

Drawing 5. Results of the factorial analysis of the diagnostic given principals of agrarian economy

Table 4 - The comparative analysis of structure of the allocated factors in groups of principals of effective and noneffective agrarian economy



Factors sootnosimy with subsystems LGPD in conceptual model, however, in structure of the factors allocated in group of principals of effective economy, in fuller volume are presented the personal variables entering in corresponding components LGPD (table 4). Plural regressionnyj the analysis has allowed to establish, that the desire of principals of agrarian economy to be engaged in business is influenced by all allocated factors (the regress equation: 5,124 +0,653Ф1 + 1,024Ф2 + 0,235Ф3), as factors-prediktorami of their self-efficiency "base" and "self-estimated" factors (4,901 + 0,481Ф1 + 0,527Ф2) act. The received regresses explain in the first case of 74 % (R12=0,743), in the second – 42 % (R22=0,415) dispersions.

Differences in valuable orientations of effective and noneffective principals of the agrarian economy entering into structure of their individual administrative concept (are taped at r = 0,000). If in administrative concepts of principals of effective agrarian economy in larger degree valuable orientations of strategic level are presented: orientations to the macroeconomic analysis and the equipment on an innovation principals of noneffective economy in a larger measure are focused on level of agents of achievement of the purpose. Thus in structure of level of agents as there are differences (a drawing 6).

Similar differences are taped between groups of the farmers using possibilities of government programs of support of agrarian business for investment in development of own business, and the farmers avoiding participation in these programs.

The empirical data obtained on given sample have similar three-factorial structure with the high general informativnostju 69 %. The "base" factor explaining 35 % of a total dispersion of variables, included appeal of responsibility for, the business and other people (0,716), motivation of achievement (0,867), tolerance to uncertainty (0,781), internalnost (0,876), prognostic ability (0,878) and an indicator WITH into motivations affiliatsii with negative value (-0,788). "Self-estimated"



Drawing 6. Parity of valuable orientations in individual administrative concepts of principals of agrarian economy

The factor has included a self-rating of ability to enterprise activity (0,794) and conformity of activity to character of the person (0,834), an acceptability of difficult situations (0,707) and nenormirovannogo a regimen (0,703). The "Communicative" factor has included a joint venture indicator in motivations affiliatsii (0, 716). On all variables which have entered into factors, between compared groups of farmers statistically significant differences are taped. Plural regress has shown, that the desire of farmers to be engaged in business is influenced by all three allocated factors (the formula: 4,967 + 1,162Ф1+0,461Ф2+0,294Ф3 at r = 0.000 explains 74 % of a dispersion, R12=0,74) from what appeal to farmers of enterprise activity follows, that, it is determined difficult konstelljatsijami the personal features allocated in conceptual model LGPD.

Connection of appeal to landowners of enterprise activity is established with features of their economic self-determination: the explanation of oof/poverty of people any reasons, except as their individual abilities and efforts, negatively correlates with an estimation of the landowner of enterprise activity as corresponding to its character (R =-0,408; р=0,000) and with its interest to the maintenance of this activity (R =-0,217; r = 0,028). Negative correlation of appeal to the countryman of enterprise activity with an explanation of oof/poverty of people their ability to break norm of the right and morals (R =-0,217 is taped; r < 0,028).

Influence on desire of students-landowners to be engaged in business (r is established < 0,001) и самооценки способности к ней (р < 0,000) нравственной оценки денег, а также страха отвержения в мотивации аффилиации (бета = - 0, 29; р = 0,004), интернальности (бета = 0, 33 при р = 0,001 и бета = 0, 26 при р = 0,02 соответственно) и мотивации достижения (бета = 0, 42 при р = 0,000 и бета = 0, 32; р = 0,01 соответственно).

Thus, from the received results follows, that:

• the desire of the businessman-landowner to be engaged in business and on its self-efficiency in this activity is influenced not by separate personal qualities, and obrazuemye them konstelljatsii;

• there is a communication of efficiency of economic activities of the businessman-landowner with the personal structures allocated in conceptual model LGPD;

• communications of its personal features specific to the landowner with appeal to it of business and self-ratings of ability to it which receive an explanation at the analysis of historical and cultural, socially-psychological contexts of formation and realisation of personal potential of the businessman in domestic agrarian sector (M.P.Guryanov, L.V.Danilov and V.A.Danilov, M.I.Melnikova, E.L.Pinteleeva, A.A.Mosin, V.P.Poznjakov, O.P.Fadeeva, L.G.Hajbullaeva, E.V.Shorohova, etc.) take place. This analysis testifies to adversity of specified "contexts" for formation LGPD of the landowner, first of all its base subsystem. At the same time, proves to be true, that as the psychological basis of the decision of the landowner to be engaged in business the multidimensional choice which mainly is not reflexed acts but in which basis the accepted lay



Drawing 7. Alternatives of a choice of the landowner at decision-making to be engaged in enterprise activity

The person a way of vital activity and professionalizatsii (a drawing 7).

The generalised results of five series of ascertaining experiment serve as empirical acknowledgement of invariancy of developed conceptual model LGPD for agrarian business, reflecting, at the same time, its specificity which has been considered at adaptation of the developed technology of formation LGPD for students of agrarian high schools who in the majority are natives of village.

Efficiency of technology was checked in the course of five years' forming experiment in which examinees were students of third years. Volume of sample of 188 students. As experimental criteria of efficiency of technology acted: positive dynamics kognitivnyh, motivational and behavioural features of students of experimental groups (in the absence of that in control groups), its pattern (that is repeatability in groups of students different

"Generations") and fastness of changes of personal features in time. Therefore the experimental research plan included two stages, on first of which dynamics of personal features of students of experimental both control groups and its pattern (realisation of technology within three years on three generations of students), and on the second – fastness of positive changes in time (diagnostics and the comparative analysis of studied personal features of students of experimental and control groups in year and two years at a stage was studied

Table 5 – Personal features of students of experimental and control groups in two years after technology application



Release). At the first stage in experimental groups of all three series it has been taped (at r < 0,000) положительная динамика в самооценке студента в способности к предпринимательству и в показателях интереса к содержанию деятельности, в показателях привлекательности имманентных предпринимательской деятельности сторон, в показателях жизненной перспективы. Мониторинг динамики измеряемых показателей (повторная диагностика через два года) показал, что выпускники, входившие в экспериментальные группы, обладают более высокими показателями личностных переменных, являющихся предпосылками успешности в предпринимательстве (таблица 5).



Drawing 7. Dynamics of indicators of appeal of enterprise activity for students of experimental and control groups within two years (1 – desire to be engaged in business; 2 self-rating of ability to business; 13 – an activity estimation as corresponding to own character, 14 – interest to the activity maintenance; 3-12 – indicators of appeal immanent enterprise activity of the parties: 3 images of the businessman, 4 intensive dialogues with different partners, 5 responsibility for, others and the business, 6-strained nenormirovannogo a regimen, 7 necessities of the resolution of conflicts, acceptances of joint decisions in the conditions of contradictions, 8 independences, independence, 9 – risk, 10 necessities of overcoming of difficult situations; 11 implications kreativnosti, the creative approach, 12 – profits).



Differences in an estimation of vital prospect which is estimated by students of experimental groups as more controlled (Z=4,345 are established, at

p = 0,000) and sproetsirovannaja for the larger period (Z=5,975, at p = 0,000) in the future. The factors (table 6) allocated in experimental groups, unlike the factors allocated in control groups, on the structure sootnosimy with subsystems LGPD, and also with the factors allocated in group of effective agrarian businessmen. Dynamics of levels LGPD of students of experimental groups was more expressed, than in control (drawings 8-9).

Results of an experimental research confirm efficiency of the developed technology of formation LGPD. The developed technology can be introduced in educational activity of services of information-advisory support of agrarian and industrial complex (IKS). So, after realisation of short-term psychological modules within the limits of improvement of professional skill of principals of agrarian and industrial complex of the Ulyanovsk area in 2006 all participants (800 respondents) have informed



Drawing 9. Dynamics of level LGPD of students in monitoring

Table 6 – Conformity of the factors allocated to experimental groups, to components LGPD in conceptual model



Have informed on the requirement which have arisen at them for self-knowledge and psychological support of their activity. Now within the limits of regional IKS psychological support of government programs of support of small business on village is carried out, and the author of the dissertation is included in structure of Agroindustrial Chamber.

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A source: Hashchenko T.G.. Personal readiness of students For enterprise activity: the Psychological maintenance and conditions of formation. 2011

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