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the BASIC MAINTENANCE of the DISSERTATION

In introduction contain: an urgency, object, a subject, the purpose, problems and hypotheses of dissertational work; the characteristic of the surveyed groups is given, the teoretiko-methodological bases of dissertational research are opened, scientific novelty and the practical importance are shown, the positions which are taken out on protection are formulated.





Part 1.
«The theoretical bases of research of time prospect of the person and individual hronotopa» consists of four heads.

Chapter 1 «Ability to an apperception and tselestremitelnost as fundamental properties mental» is devoted treating of phenomena predstavlennosti the future in mental reflexion and their role in behaviour of the live organisms allocated with mentality. With a leg on opinion of such representatives of a domestic science as P.K.Anohin, N.A.Bernshtejn, V.K.Viljunas, P.J.Galperin, V.V.Davidov, A.N.Leontev, B.F.Lomov, E.A.Sergienko, and also of some foreign authors (D.Bass, V.Vundt, E.Klinger, D.Dennet, U.Makdaugoll, etc.) Universality and basic importance of ability to an advancing of events, apperceptions, tselestremitelnosti, interpolation, extrapolations, antitsipatsii, intentsionalnosti, etc. the phenomena necessary for a survival of representatives of fauna is proved. Treating of existing hypotheses about ways of evolution of this ability leads to a conclusion about presence of close interdependence between time and spatial components of the mental phenomena underlying an anticipation of the possible future. It is shown, that ability to a prediction, being intrinsic property mental, it is realised by means of various mechanisms. During evolution animals have more and more perfect ways to consider the future in the behaviour. At the person power of ability to a prediction repeatedly increases, that is bound to occurrence of consciousness, speech, a reflexion, possibility to operate both external tools, and symbols, signs.

In the second chapter «Hronotopy different cultures» it is given teoretiko - the cultural urological analysis of a problematics hronotopa cultures. Time and space, being basic parametres of an objective reality, set also the basic forms of human experience and human mentality, being, on V.P.Zinchenko's expression, even more severe determinants of human life, than society. Thus, however, as – philosophers, historians, ethnographers, culturologists, psychologists, – at the people living at various times, belonging and belonging to different cultures, subjective representations researches of many scientists testify to space and time, about the past, the present and the future, about time and space parity appear far not identical. Together with other forms of perception of the validity these representations frame that «a grid of co-ordinates» by means of which people perceive the validity and build an image of the world.

With a leg for H.Arguelsa, M.M.Bakhtin, A.J.Gurevicha, A.F.Loseva, K.Ternbula's works, J. Uitrou, etc. differences in representations about space and time in primitive cultures, in Antiquity and the Middle Ages are surveyed, interdependence of these subjective representations, on the one hand, and character of real vital activity of people, - with another is shown. Continuation of this line of the analysis on a material of New time includes a new theme – occurrence of a phenomenon of the person and the changes bound to it in character hronotopa.
Change of manufacture, public relations in origin of a bourgeois system in the West countries have affected first of all a time component hronotopa: there was absolutely new relation to time measurement; Time from the characteristic cyclic for previous historical stages is subjective becomes definitive linear, "is extended" in a straight line going from the past in the future, and the present is compressed to a point, till an instant, being represented skoroprehodjashchim, transient and imperceptible; transition from world contemplation in aspect of eternity to the active relation to it in aspect of time is gradually made; individual time becomes one of the main human values.

The analysis hronotopa the modern person includes treating of some the aspects characterising a problematics of mutual relations of the modern person in due course and space. To beginning HH century the picture of the world generated during an epoch of New time, began to vary: there was a basic change of a parity between space and time – time began to play a predominating role. On the other hand, in HH century arises idea hronotopa – thought that the space separately from time does not exist. To this conclusion such outstanding figures of different areas of a science and art as M.M.Bakhtin, A.Bergson, I.Prigozhin practically independently from each other come,

A.A.Uhtomsky, P.Florensky, S.Hokin, A.Ejnshtejn, S.M.Ejzenshtejn, etc.

Today, despite a certainty of "globalisation", unification of representations about space and time, there are more and more obvious existing cultural differences in these representations, bound to multipolarity, a multinationality, mnogokonfessionalnostju the world, with educational, property, social and so forth an inequality of people that should be considered in psychological studying of corresponding phenomena. Some researchers believe, what exactly the way of the subjective organisation of time is today that main criterion which distinguishes cultures. So, R.D.Ljuis divides modern cultures according to this criterion into three types: monoactive (under construction on idea of linear time and importance of calendar terms), polyactive (here time is subjective, it corresponds not so much with a calendar, how many with people and events) and reactive (with domination of cyclic time).

After A.Ejnshtejna, I.Prigozhina, N.Kozyreva's works and other scientists representation about linear character of physical time has sharply reeled and does not look today neither doubtless, nor unique, hence, and subjective representation about linearity of time also can be called into question, at least, as regards its conformity of an objective reality. Moreover, in HH century in process of acceleration of technological progress people have more and more distinctly started to realise degree of threat of the cult which has developed in the Western world of linear time for their health, mentality, full value of a life and normalnosti developments. Psychologists become more and more unanimous in a recognition of necessity of time integration - a harmonious combination of ability to see and plan the future with abilities to accept the past and is high-grade to live in the present, to "stretch" this instant between the past and future, otherwise, to learn to see in another way and time, and hronotop as a whole.

Question on that represents hronotop in Russian and. In particular, in modern Russian culture, what those time and spatial cultural representations in which frameworks, acquiring which, develops and there lives the modern Russian person, is a little investigated. Available data, first of all sociological (V.P.Gorjainov 2006; B.M.Dubin 1999; G.I.Sagaenko, 2002, etc.), show, are how much unstable and mobile these representations if to survey them even throughout rather small historical periods, considering thus scale sotsiokulturnyh changes. The fixed transformations of the Russian mentality accompanying these changes, have resulted on border of the last and come century in comprehension of methodological value both the factor of time, and its subjective reflexion for sociological, psychological, socially-psychological researches.

The third chapter «Psychological researches of personal time» represents the state-of-the-art review of teoretiko-methodological approaches to studying of personal time. In view of large number of concrete researches in this area and to presence of some the works devoted to their review or containing such review, in the dissertation three basic approaches to studying of personal time are analyzed only: typological, sobytijnyj (causally-target) and motivational. The Teoretiko-methodological basis of the typological approach presented, first of all, in a cycle of fundamental works, executed under the guidance of K.A.Abulhanovoj-Slavskoj (1991, 2001), in T.N.Berezinoj's works (2001, 2003), V.I.Kovaleva (1979, 1991, 1995), etc., are the basic positions formulated in due time S.L.Rubinshtejnom. In the empirical researches executed within the limits of the given approach, variety of parametres of psychological time of the person, their parity with features of the person and activity of people is taped, some typologies based on characteristics of psychological time are offered. From the point of view of adherents sobytijnogo the approach, psychological time reflects not simply events of last, present and future human life in their chronological sequence, but their integrated, difficult organised system of mutually caused relationships of cause and effect between these events (R.A.Ahmerov, 1993, 2002; E.I.Golovaha, 1988; E.I.Golovaha, A.A.Kronik, 1984, 2008; A.A.Kronik, 1993, 1994, etc.) . The technique developed within the limits of the given approach kauzometrii allows to analyze a course of life of the person, in a sense continuing the direction of researches based by B.G.Ananevym. Developers and typological, and sobytijnogo approaches offer variety of concepts and the representations allowing deeply, in details and, that is especially important, instrumentalno to analyze various aspects of psychological and personal time.

The motivational approach has for an object the analysis of time prospect as motivation spaces. This approach has been put in pawn in K.Levina's works and has now many followers. In the dissertation the system of concepts of the kognitivno-motivational theory of Z.Njuttena which allow to understand and empirically to study time prospect as a configuration temporalno the localised motivational objects which become the maintenance of consciousness of the subject in a certain situation is described. The developed Z.Njuttenom's principles and its colleagues of a method of the motivational induction which is the central methodical reception of some empirical researches, presented in the present dissertational work are analyzed. The preference the author of the motivational approach speaks, mainly, its relevance of that general concept of the person in which frameworks research is carried out, namely, theories of person L.I.Bozhovich in which the motivation is central theoretical konstruktom. The selected approach dictates, in turn, and preference of the basic concept – «time prospect». In publications in English and French tongues in the same value concepts “future time perspective”, “perspective d’avenir” (time prospect of the future) as the term «the time prospect» is more often used for a designation of all time continuum including both the past, and the present, and the future are usually used. However as in due time V.I.Kovalevym for a designation of this continuum has been offered the successful term «time transspektiva», and also terms «a time retrospective show» for a designation of that part of a continuum which is bound to the past, and «time prospect» - with the future we found expedient to support this terminology which is not contradicting accepted in motivational approach.

The fourth chapter «Time prospect and the person» contains a substantiation of those starting positions concerning the nature of the person and its development in an ontogenesis which lay in the basis of dissertational research; the framed L.I.Bozhovich's modern vision of the concept of the person immediately following from cultural - historical theory of L.S.Vygotskogo is given; dynamics of development of system of ideas and the representations making the given concept of the person is traced, the line of development containing in it subektnosti and its specificity at different children's age is accented, and also that central role which the will category in L.I.Bozhovich's the latest works where the thought that development of the person is development of functional system has been stated began to play, in a basis which lays will formation, is more exact than a strong-willed structure of the person.

In work the expediency of allocation of two phenomenological realities of will is proved: (1) will as abilities to self-compulsion (the "Victorian" will) and (2) will as the potential closely bound to future (R.Mej), as mental «a future organ» (H.Arendt), as special projection of desire. These two realities of will are united by difficult dialectics of mutual relations which allows to survey them as in a sense operating in polarity. According to R.Meja, neither as desire, mutual relations between them it is impossible to understand the "Victorian" will, nor will, not having entered one more measurement – intentsionalnosti as bytijnogo a condition including all orientation of the person in relation to the world at present. So understood intentsionalnost includes both conscious, and unconscious, both knowledge, and strong-willed movement. Intentsionalnost it is possible to survey as defining characteristic of human freedom, along with planning, imagination, a choice of values, etc. (A.Maslou, R.Mej, G.Olport, etc.). In domestic psychology the expediency of treating of different realities of will (V.A.Ivannikov) and uses of different concepts for their designation, in particular such, as will and randomness also was proved. Similar separation was offered a number of authors (N.I.Gutkina, E.O.Smirnova, V.V.Stepanova).

In the given work as will ability fearlessly is called to want, independently to define the purpose of the life and activity, to carry out a choice of vital priorities, values. The term "randomness" designates ability of the person to carry out intention, to realise this or that purpose, a problem, that V.A.Ivannikov names «mechanisms of strong-willed regulation», R.Mej – Victorian "will power", and P.Tillih – "strength of mind". The specified delution of concepts gives the chance for a substantiation of one of hypotheses of the research, consisting in the assumption that different stages of an ontogenesis senzitivny for development that of will, to randomness which, in turn, are bound to formation of the different parties hronotopa.

On the basis of the spent theoretical analysis presented in the first part of the dissertation, the choice of object and an object of research, its hypothesis, the purpose and a problem, methodology and the general directions of empirical research is proved.

II. «Ontogenetic development of time prospect as a component individual hronotopa» consists of six heads to whom results of the spent authors of empirical researches of features of time prospect of the person at different stages of an ontogenesis are presented, age specificity of a parity of spatial and time components hronotopa.

Empirical studying of time prospect was carried out in various contexts: as one of age characteristics; as consequence

Maternal deprivatsii; as the factor of psychological health which has been allocated in research under the project «Children of Chernobyl» and in long-term, rukovodimym I.V.Dubrovinoj the project devoted to teoretiko-methodical maintenance of school psychological service; as the characteristic addiktivnogo behaviour and a target for correctional and developing work; as the phenomenon which has appeared important in the course of the organisation of work of an experimental platform «Introduction in sign forms of work with culture through the organisation of symbolical creativity of the child»; as criterion in professional selection of mothers-teachers for work in establishment for children-orphans; as the important parametre in a context of socially-psychological research of mentality of Russians. The analysis and generalisation of the materials received during long-term researches, the various scientific decision various scientific, applied and practical problems, also makes the maintenance of the second part of the dissertation.

The most part of empirical data has been received by us during the researches referred on studying of features of development of the person of pupils of school age. At the same time the logic of development taped during these researches can be extrapolated and on earlier stages of an ontogenesis, finding the acknowledgement as in the empirical researches spent by other authors, but seen by us in a foreshortening of our research, and in a number of theoretical representations concerning mental development at these age. Corresponding calculations are presented by us in three chapters 1 of the second part.

In the fifth chapter «Development individual hronotopa in infancy» expresses thought that occurring at the earliest stages novorozhdennosti transition from a physiological rhythm of existence of an embryos in a maternal organism and an immediate prenatal generality "mother-child" to a rhythm of cultural interaction of mother and the child is the beginning of formation individual cultural hronotopa the child. The role of rhythms of physiological functioning (palpitation, breath) and caused by them kinesteticheskih the sensations forming a basis for differentiation of intervals and, as consequence, of occurrence of representations about time is underlined, on what some scientists-psychoanalysts (J.Arlow, 1984, in particular, pay attention; J.B.Benson, 1994; C.A.Colarusso, 1979, 1985, etc.)

Transformation initial «prototypical mechanisms» the selectivities, mechanisms underlying action antitsipatsii (E.A.Sergienko, 2006), in cultural forms of human mentality begins literally with the first reactions of the adult to implications emotionally-potrebnostnyh conditions of the newborn. Today position about character of maternal care as the key factor of development in an early ontogenesis is conclusive and, in particular, as show works of some authors (to M.A.Nemirovskaja, 2003; E.Erikson, 1996; J.Arlow, 1984; J.B.Benson, 1994; C.A.Colarusso, 1979, 1985, etc.) In development of individual time sense. In beginning with the first seconds of a life dialogue of the child with mother also there is a transformation of natural function antitsipatsii in the higher mental function. In the head arguments in favour of that the infancy period senzitiven for development of the time party hronotopa, namely abilities to antitsipatsii which power fixed by means of measurement of a possible delay of a various sort of behavioural implications, reflecting anticipation phenomena, promptly grows are resulted.

Infancy is surveyed by us and as the period, senzitivnyj for will development. Ontogeneticheski the first form of will - "gipobulicheskaja" the will (this term after E.Krechmerom used in L.S.Vygotsky and L.I.Bozhovich's same value) – is defined by us as ability to keep intentsionalnoe (potrebnostnoe) a condition and bound thereby to deduction of the desire referred on more or less the long-term future. A number of authors, mainly from among supporters of a psychoanalysis, especially underline value of a delay of satisfaction of the requirement more often bound to feeding, for ability formation to anticipate this satisfaction, for development of representations of the child about time as about prospect (F.Tajson, R.L.Tajson, 1998; C.A.Colarusso, 1979; 1985; P.Hartocollis, 1983;, etc.) . Ability to keep intentsionalnoe a condition which dilates time borders antitsipatsii, develops and in other situations of interaction of the adult with the baby, for example, in various variants of national children's games.

Neoplasm of crisis of 1st year finishing early age, on L.I.Bozhovich, motivating representation is. Comparing the first forms of an anticipation which, since fortnight age, are experimentally fixed on a material visual pertseptsii, with what become possible with the advent of motivating representations in the beginning of the second year of a life of the child, it is important to notice not only on some usages time of "delay" enlarged for this period, i.e. grandiose razdvizhenie time borders hronotopa, but also that if time measured by shares of second, seconds and even minutes, is «situation time» time measured on hours (that becomes possible with the advent of motivating representations), marks itself an exit for situation limits when behaviour start to define not so much pertseptsija, how many mental reprezentatsii, the representations fixed in this case by memory. Such exit for limits pertseptivno L.I.Bozhovich's perceived situation also considers as actual transformation of the child into the subject of the actions.

The made observations concerning intensive development on the first year of a life of time prospect as «motivation spaces» (Z.Njutten) confirm D.B.Elkonina's hypothesis according to which at this age stage there is a primary development of a motivational aspect of activity.

The sixth chapter «Development individual hronotopa in the early childhood» is devoted the analysis of development of the child on the second and third year of a life. Leading activity at this age – in detail-manipuljativnaja which is made by actions with the most different material objects which are in space accessible to the child. Manipulating with them, the child not only masters the world of subjects accessible to it, but also will transform own motility, doing it cultural opredmechennoj. In a sense it is possible to tell, that the child builds in the body space of the subject world.

Special attention with the body psychoanalysts, naming, as is known, give to mutual relations of the child this stage proctal and especially underlining spatial inconvenience of a locating of a fundament – behind, outside of visibility. The central problem of a proctal stage, according to E.Eriksona, - a will problem, more precisely, a certain stage, the form of its development. The child of early age should learn independently own variety of inconsistent tendencies, and another's desires, intentions, demands, encouragements, punishments, etc. Ability to co-ordinate inconsistent tendencies, including to subordinate the actions to another's will, represents that type of strong-willed behaviour which we named randomness. Thus, at this stage of age development randomness represents ability to management of the body and the behaviour with the account, on the one hand, logicians of associates of the child of "cultural" subjects, and, with another, - certain social norms and demands.

At early age mother spends with the child any more so a lot of time, as at a previous stage development. Its disappearances and occurrence, according to some authors, also form that it is possible to name already time transspektivoj: presence of mother represents the present, mental reprezentatsija mothers when it is not present - the past, and homing expectation to it - the future. In development of understanding of time on kognitivnom level the paramount place at early age belongs to speech (L.B.Ames, 1946).

The neoplasm arising to the extremity of the early childhood, brightly shown in crisis of 3th years, - «system I», demonstrated among other transition of the child to a pronoun "I", that also it is possible to survey as allocation by the child of «in space», unit of from other objects.

The seventh chapter «Development individual hronotopa at preschool age» is devoted the hypothesis proof about primary development at this stage of a time component hronotopa and, first of all, future anticipations. It is thus obvious, that the previous stage also brings the contribution to development of the time party hronotopa. Note, in particular, that control over time which happens is by all means included by adults in struggle for schooling of the child to a toilet and other regime moments (C.A.Colarusso, 1979; 1985). However speech in these cases goes about rather short time intervals while in the preschool childhood to the child starts to open far, up to mors, time prospect of all his life, let while vague, unrealistic and in many respects torn off from an actual life (P.Hartocollis, 1983). It is a lot of attention to the given question representatives of a psychoanalysis give. Even genitalnost by which they so are anxious in connection with this is fallicheskoj – a stage, expectation something », i.e. in the light of the future is treated as«. The effective factor admits not only «Maternal time» (as at previous stages of development), but also «Fatherly time»: the father, and mother make appreciable impact on the relation to time during the Oedipus period, in particular, whether they are perceived by the child as loving or menacing (C.A.Colarusso, 1979; 1985).

Nevertheless the majority of psychologists, recognising key in development of the child-preschool child a role of a family with that system of mutual relations which develop between its members and which the child has possibility to observe, are not inclined to reduce it only to edipovoj to a problematics. So, the fact of huge importance for development of identity of E.Erikson names that parents own example, stories about a life transfer to children of this age passionately charged etos actions in the form of ideal types of people or the technician. In «etose actions» about which speaks E.Erikson, it is in a sense reflected and hronotop that culture which the child joins.

Some authors believe, that originally modern children of the western civilisation acquire representations about time as about time cyclic and only pass to representation about linear time (S.Entoni, 2009) later. Kognitivnoe development, speech perfection, expansion the consciousnesses multiplied on «unlimited inquisitiveness», lead to that the child-preschool child very many learns about time. Psychological time distinctly enough starts to share it on the past, the present and the future.

Other prominent aspect of formation of time prospect in the preschool childhood – development of "a scale of age», creation of representations about characteristics of people of different age. Usually it occurs in dialogue of the child with uneven-age relatives that characterises a life of the child in a normal family where there are parents, primogenitors, more senior and more younger brothers and sisters etc. In absence such «uneven-age group» the scale of age in the preschool childhood is not acquired, that, for example, happens with children-orphans who are brought up in establishment (T.V.Ermolova, I.S.Komogortseva, 1995).

The preschool childhood is an age, senzitivnyj for development of will, free will. Representation about game as the leader during this period of a life of activity precisely reflects importance of this accent – on will freedom. For this reason, first of all, tsenna creative role game to which such great value gave L.S.Vygotsky, D.B.Elkonin and other psychologists, surveying it as the leader at this age. In the head the problematics bound to a modern condition of game of the preschool child is surveyed, and author's preferences in treatment of the optimum approach to the organisation of game activity at different stages of the preschool childhood express. In a context of our research it is necessary to underline, first, independence, spontaneity of a game plan, and, secondly, a game role in long enough deduction of the emotional experience referred on certain adult activity with which the child gets acquainted, i.e. As a matter of fact, in deduction intentsionalnosti. Thirdly, from game that is born role eksperimentirovanie which feeds imagination of the child in the preschool childhood, turning it in far, adult, future.

Occurrence at the child-preschool child conscious reprezentatsii the future at this age admits practically all researchers irrespective of their teoretiko-methodological preferences which only define accents, a choice as priority those or other explanatory mechanisms of occurrence and development of this phenomenon. Distinctness of existence of the last proves to be true presence of the empirical researches immediately time prospect of the future of children-preschool children appears which object. The given object in detail acts that as ability to future planning, as aspect I - concepts, as representations about the future.

So, it has been shown, that throughout preschool age ability to forecasting, planning (J.A.Hudson, L.R.Shapiro, B.B.Sosa, 1995) promptly grows. Such aspects of psychological time and time prospect of preschool children as features of comprehension of in time (I.E.Valitova, 1990) were investigated. Psychological time as an element of structure of consciousness (E.P.Timoshenko, 1989), as the JA-concept party (I.S.Komogortseva, 1993). The list of similar researches can be continued. And all of them confirm not only actual predstavlennost time trensspektivy and, first of all, time prospect of the future child in consciousness, but also importance of this circumstance for development of its person and behaviour.

The eighth chapter «Development individual hronotopa at younger school age». Younger school age - the period when, according to our hypothesis, the spatial party hronotopa mainly develops, on the one hand, and randomness, - with another. The key factor of mental and personal development at this age is the maintenance, the form of the organisation and course of the leader at this age of educational activity, or, more widely, school training with what representatives of different psychological schools and directions agree. Revealing of influence of educational technology on development hronotopa also was one of directions of the researches spent on a material of this age.

With 1998 on 2003 under our management on the basis of GOU SOSH № 1096 of Moscow carried out activity of a city experimental platform «Introduction in sign forms of work with culture through the organisation of symbolical creativity of the child» where, since the first class, V.V.Stepanovoj's author's educational technology «School of development of individuality» ("Rostock") took root. One of the purposes of an experimental platform consisted in realisation of psychological monitoring of those processes which characterise development of the person, individualities and subektnosti children trained on given technology.

Results are presented to dissertations of some techniques, the methodical assays visually showing brighter, exact and detailed, in comparison with pupils of control classes, perception of space children trained on technology "Rostock", their ability to see space in three-dimensional measurement, to see it from different positions It, in particular, is shown in various risunochnyh assays. Ability in perception and the space image to rise on different positions, to see space mnogomerno, to be "polenezavisimym" is shown not only in drawings, but also at work with space of the literary text, during the analysis of conditions of mathematical problems etc.

That the technology "Rostock" leads already in an elementary school to formation at children of such image of the world which includes considerably more a wide range of objects, the phenomena, the processes is essentially important also, which children are able not only to see, but also to include in a circle of the interests. Speaking A.N.Leonteva's to words, communications of these children with the world more richly, and, speaking G.Olporta's to words, they have more «wide borders I». Both that, and another, however, as well as many other things psychologists, consider it as the major indicator of psychological health, a maturity of the person.

According to the position presented to dissertations, such "geographical" width of a circle of interests, a circle of the motivational objects making the maintenance of informative and motivational sphere, is reflexion of the spatial party individual hronotopa the person. As data of the monitoring spent within the limits of activity of an experimental platform, and also the similar comparative researches executed at other schools, the described features of the spatial party hronotopa show it is necessary to consider as essential differentiating criterion by treating of variants of development of the person at younger school age.

The given thesis proves to be true and in other researches spent by us. In one of them, executed together with A.M.Prihozhan, in particular, it has been shown, that children of younger school age who are brought up in a family and out of a family, anyhow differing practically on all parametres of intellectual and personal development, cardinally differ and under the maintenance of the motivational objects making their motivational sphere: it is characterised by limiting narrowness, coherence of motives only with an actual situation of vital activity at children-orphans, and is appreciable in larger width at children who are brought up in a family for whom interest is represented by such motivational objects which, apparently, do not concern at all their life. Something similar us was revealed and in the very first (1984) research of time prospect, where during experimental conversation the most "good" children (inquisitive, with high progress) showed the advantage in width of the maintenance of motivation. At the same time at comparison and children-orphans with children who are brought up in a family, and "strong" pupils with "weak" at usual school it appears, that on time otnesennosti motives these groups of children do not differ.

Results of one of our researches where parallels (1 - 4 classes) the pupils trained on technology "Rostock" (experimental classes - EK were compared are presented to tab. № 1), and the pupils trained under the traditional program (control classes – KK).

On a sheet of paper parted on 4 parts, it was offered to children to draw four drawings on a theme «My life». In the instruction in the general view it was said, that it is possible to draw everything about the life.

The table № 1. The maintenance of drawings on a theme «My life»



The note. Significant by t-criterion Stjudenta of difference (r
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A source: Tolstyih N. N.. The development of the time perspective of the individual: cultural and historical approach. 2010

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