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the chemist as the subject of activity

Chemists name people, whose activity is immediately bound to substance and its transformations. The present chemist always «feels substance» (Eremin, 2010). Chemical abilities existed before chemistry formation as sciences and were shown in predilection to trades "person-substance", to a manipulation by substance for the sake of use of its useful properties (Korobejnikova, Lisichkin, 2004, with.
69). Feature of chemical thinking consists in figurative and modelling representations about substances and chemical reactions at microcosm level. Such thinking plus accurate, is thin feeling arms, plus special feeling of substance and chemical process – a basis of a psychological portrait of the chemist immediately working with substance (Korobejnikova, 1991).

The analysis of researches of chemists (Epstein, 1963; Golubeva, 1991; Boretska, 1993; Ochirova, 1995; Korobejnikova, 1991; Domanova, 1999; Rehtman, 2000; Volkova, 2002; Engelhart, 1927; Barke, 1993; Olsen, 1928; Clark, Riley, 2001; Bird, 2010; Harle, Towns, 2011;, etc.) shows legitimacy of the use of a word-combination «chemical abilities».

In frameworks dejatelnostnogo the approach researchers allocate different number of components of chemical abilities: three (E.A.Korobejnikova), six (M.A.Shatalov), seven (K.Boretska, E.V.Volkova, D.A.Epstein), twelve (E.E.Domanova). In most cases, the maintenance of the given components does not allow to understand, in what specificity, what essence of chemical abilities. For example, the maintenance of components «the chemical head», «feeling of substance», «chemical arms» is equally applicable and for other special abilities.

Within the limits of the functional approach to disclosing of the nature of special abilities of chemists researchers try to compare the importance of those or other mental functions in activity of the physicist, the chemist, botany, allocating for the chemist as the major mental function spatial imagination (Lisichkin, Korobejnikova, 2003).

The analysis of biographies of outstanding chemists allows to allocate such features: ability to see whole, before its parts; wide chemical erudition; good memory on the chemical information; universality of perception of substances, processes, methods (ability to see a generality of mechanisms, a structure generality, the general patterns of reception …); versatile interests and abilities; a combination of theoretical and experimental abilities; to ability diverse to unite in a single whole, and difficult to dismember on simple elementary parts; originality of thinking; purposefulness and high vigour of activity; special carefulness of carrying out of researches; ostroumnost decisions etc. the Given list of properties and qualities of the person, possibly, is inherent in many outstanding figures, except for one major feature – all these properties and qualities of memory, mind, intuition, imagination and so forth are referred on the world of chemical interactions and mediated by it.

During the different age periods of chemists involved different aspects of a chemical reality: the early childhood – interest to mineralogy, to external properties of substance; adolescence and youth – chemical process; cases of implication of interest to chemistry at mature age are known.

Chemical orientation of mind

Feature of a chemical orientation of mind is shown that the subject maintenance of chemistry affects all sensorno-perceptual organisation of the person.
The chemical orientation of mind is special «sensation of a matter»; interest to structure, properties, transformations of substances and the phenomena, accompanying these transformations; ability from outwardly observable characteristics of substance and its changes to pass to treating of its internal structure (and on the contrary), ability to notice and explain chemical processes and the phenomena in a daily life and "inclusiveness" in the chemical world (Lomonosov, 1961; Epstein, 1963; Rehtman, 2000, etc.).

If feature of hearing of the musician is high level zvukovysotnoj distinctive sensitivity, perception of the artist – feeling of the form, the mathematician – the aggravated attention to the mathematical party of the phenomena regardless to their qualitative specificity feature of the chemist is the feeling of substance and chemical process. Therefore key feature of a chemical orientation of mind is high level of sensorno-perceptual distinctive sensitivity that proves to be true results of our empirical research: in groups of examinees with different success of development of chemistry authentic differences of time of sensory and perceptual differentiations (Volkova, 2008) are taped. While on samples of examinees of physicists, mathematicians, artists, musicians, philologists, etc. statistically significant differences are taped in semantic differentiations (Ratanova, 2004). Thus, in formation of a chemical orientation of mind a key role can play diskriminativnaja ability of a brain in the field of sensory and perceptual relations. The originality of the sensorno-perceptual organisation of behaviour consists that on the basis of olfactory, visual, tactile, acoustical, gustatory stimulation the chemist reconstructs a microcosm of chemical interactions.

Chemical tongue

In science development, the the chemical reality in consciousness of scientists was more precisely reflected, the chemistry tongue became more exact: from an alchemy figurative language to more systematised forms of trivial names of chemical substances. For today chemists have, well developed, clear to a wide range of experts tongue. In system of language names of substances, their properties or processes mentality of community of the chemists, a specific "chemical" partition of a reality is reflected. The name of substance in the formed chemist instantly cause visual association – the structural formula. The formula of a structure of substance opens the internal nature of a matter of which the given substance (Vant-Goff, 2008) is constructed.

Comparison of the basic speech functions and their maintenance in «chemical tongue» shows, that function an explication of "chemical tongue» is referred on exarticulation of specifically subject information, allowing to understand essence of a chemical reality; appeal function «chemical tongue» reflects specificity of thinking of the chemist, ways of experimental and communicative activity; "expression" function is brightly shown only at very capable chemists and consists in the special aesthetic relation to the validity, ability to feel beauty of substances, chemical processes and to reflect it in speech ("rigid" / "soft" conditions, «a graceful method», «leaving group» etc.).

There are differences in coding: in tongue the letter (or the complex of letters) is a sound symbol, and in chemistry – a symbol of certain quality (Fe – iron) or features of process (+? N – thermonegative process), i.e. the chemical sign "is substantiated". Sign records of formulas of bonds differ situativnostju (for the decision of one purposes the structural formula, for others – ionic and electron is expedient, for the third – molecular, etc.) and flexibility (the element rate of oxidation can vary depending on a role and a position of the given element in the general hierarchy of elements). Structure «chemistry tongue» by means of a root, prefixes, suffixes and lokantov carries out not only grammatical veneering of speech, but also coding of qualitative and quantitative structure, a structure of substance, an accessory to a certain class, and, hence, and forecasting of possible physical and chemical properties.

Chemical thinking

Specificity of thinking of the chemist is defined by prevalence of the integrated approach to substance knowledge; convertibility of operations of transition from macrolevel of observations to description microlevel; the logic of the chemist reflects logic of transformation of substances; differs evristichnostju, flexibility of concepts of chemistry; a combination of abstract and evident representations.

The logiko-psychological analysis of features of the thought processes involved at the decision of chemical problems has shown, that ideational operations (the analysis, synthesis, comparison, classification, identity-difference establishments, revealing of relationships of cause and effect, likelihood estimation) are mediated by is qualitative-quantitative relations of chemical interaction (Volkova, 2008). The the chemical reality is more precisely reflected, the the thinking of the chemist is more productive.

The conceptual structures fixing model of interaction of the individual with a chemical reality, have a difficult hierarchical structure. For example, the hierarchical system kontsepta "substance" can be presented following levels:

Global level of hierarchy (simple differentiation) – initial konstrukt «pure substance» is differentiated on konstrukty «simple bond» and «difficult bond»: if in the bond formula one sign on a chemical element – that given substance concerns to "simple", if two and more – to "difficult".

Base level of hierarchy (difficult differentiation) – differentiation konstrukta «difficult substance» on konstrukty classes of bonds at which distinction besides categories of signs of signs and signs of identity of signs for each class categories of signs are added: quantities; structure; positions or sequences of elements and groups; conditions. As a whole, for four classes of bonds the quantity of such categories increases a minimum in 4 times (especially on a category of signs "structure" – 117 chemical elements and set of their combinations forming different functional groups) are known.

The detailed level (the most complicated differentiation) – assumes more thin distinction of stimulus. Classification accessory signs are entered. For example, for acidic salt in the formula there is an atom of hydrogen: Меm (НpK) n-p; in the basic salt – gidroksogruppa: Mem-p (OH) pKn; for double – two and more cations (thus can be cations of the same metal, but with different charges) MmM*pKn+р; in the admixed salt – two and more rests of different acids МmKpK*n-p.

The analysis of indicators of a maturity kontsepta, relevant to concept "substance", shows, that in all groups of examinees time of the most complicated differentiations more than time difficult and simple (a form rule) (tab. 1). In process of age development and development of chemistry time of differentiations decreases (a rule of growth of formed structure). Formation of structures is carried out from global to base, and then – to the detailed level. The structure kontsepta "substance" in groups of examinees with different success in chemistry differs under the form of orderliness of conceptual structures (different quantity of levels obobshchennosti).

Table 1

Indicators of a maturity of conceptual structures in different groups of examinees

(Time and accuracy of differentiations)




Chemical memory

Ability to remember the chemical information characterises «chemical memory». The method of the mathematical analysis for steam rooms vyborok has allowed to tap authentic differences between self-ratings of memory and «chemical memory» (t=2,287 *). Better students making progress in chemistry estimate the memory on the chemical information above, and is worse in time – more low in relation to ability to remember "in general". Differences in value judgment proves to be true data of the objective analysis: significant differences between ability to remember a word of Russian and the name of signs on chemical elements (р=0,000) are taped.

Data of the correlation and variance analysis, and also results of forming experiment show, that the above kognitivnaja differentsirovannost conceptual structures of chemistry, the above efficiency of memory on the chemical information, above high-speed indicators of its coding. Organisation «chemical memory» in groups of examinees with different level of success has the features. In samples of more capable chemists the factorial analysis has allowed to allocate three factors, describing 74,5 % of the general dispersion: 1) long-term chemical memory; 2) the general mnemicheskie the abilities which are responsible for conservation and reproduction of the inconsistent information in different formats – words, digits, signs on chemical elements; 3) memory on chemical patterns. In groups less capable the factor «memory on chemical patterns» was not allocated, as ability to remember chemical patterns at these examinees, apparently, in larger degree is defined by the general mnemicheskoj ability.

The is qualitative-substantial analysis of performance of test Ravena

In groups of students with different level of success in chemistry

In the given paragraph the is qualitative-substantial analysis of performance SPM Ravena in groups of examinees with different level of success in chemistry allowing is presented to fix implication of structures of is qualitative-quantitative relations of chemistry at performance of different series of the given intellectual test.

The is qualitative-substantial analysis of performance of a technique of Torrens

In groups of examinees with different level of success in chemistry

Significant differences of indicators kreativnosti in groups of examinees with different level of success in chemistry are absent (374 students-chemists, 19 years). At the same time number of "chemical images» (test tubes, flasks, funnels, measured cylinders, dehumidifiers, chemical formulas and signs, schedules of chemical processes, galvanic cells, an electrolysis etc.) at performance of the nonverbal battery of Torrens at more successful chemists significantly above, than at less successful (Т=3,253 **).

The comparative analysis of indicators of the general and special abilities in groups of the examinees who displayed and have not displayed chemical images in the nonverbal battery of Torrens, has taped larger number of authentic differences on indicators of special chemical abilities, thus differences on intelligence indicators (TIPS, SPM Ravena, Vexler's test) and kreativnosti (the test of Torrens) were absent. Significant communications between number of chemical images and time of chemical differentiations (ANOVA) are taped. Hence, occurrence in the nonverbal battery of Torrens can serve of "chemical images» as reliable criterion for revealing of potentially capable chemists. Accordingly the nonverbal battery of the test of Torrens can be used as a projective technique.

Individually-psychological features of chemists

The chemistry nature as object of activity, makes certain demands to individuality of the subject (Clark, Riley, 2001). The empirical data obtained by us show, that such is formal-dynamic features, as high activity of nervous system and a low emotionality (sangvinistichesky and the admixed highly active differential type of temperament (OFDSI V.M.Rusalova)), domination of the second alarm system (B.R.Kadyrov's test) are optimum internal conditions of formation of special chemical abilities. However, the above success indicators in chemistry, the number of communications between indicators of special chemical abilities and indicators of tests OFDSI of V.M.Rusalova, J.Streljau, B.R.Kadyrov (in group of students perfectly making progress in chemistry – 14, in group is worse in time – 97 correlation communications) there is less. Hence, is formal-dynamic features of individuality only provide more favorable conditions for formation of special abilities, but do not define their level.

The analysis of the equations regressionnyh dependences shows, that the gradation of chemists on success of training and level of special abilities is bound to such lines of the person (16 PF Kettella), as responsibility and conscientiousness (G), interest to theoretical questions, high creative activity (self-sufficiency, independence, independence, initiative (Q2), softness, refinement, figurativeness of perception of the world (I). These data will be compounded with researches Clark, Riley (2001). At the same time, it is necessary to notice, that progress on chemical disciplines () and level of special abilities of chemists () is determined by different lines of the person: for group of students well making progress in chemical disciplines, the equations of dependence look like y=4,598+0,038N, x=23,713+3,307F+3,475G. That is the estimation is bound to ability to adapt (N), and level of chemical abilities – with optimism, small sensitivity to intimidations (F), conscientiousness and internal decency (G).
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A source: Volkova E.V.. Development of mental structures as bases of special abilities. 2011

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