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the Conceptual scheme of methodology of system reconstruction of structures of mental experience of the subject

the Methodology of the system research presented in the given chapter, has grown out of theoretical generalisation of long-term empirical researches (the logic of expansion of empirical research is presented in chapters 3, 4, 5, 6) special abilities of chemists and can be used for research of the nature of other special abilities.
Necessity of application of the system approach for studying of the mental phenomena is proved in B.F.Lomova's works (1984, 1996), V.A.Barabanshchikova (2007, etc.) . According to positions of the system approach the analysis of the nature of special abilities with necessity demands an exit for limits of actually special abilities and is realised by us at levels kulturogeneza, subektogeneza and a microgenesis of special abilities. The factor of interface of different levels of research are structures of mental experience of the subject.

Let's survey the conceptual scheme of methodology of system reconstruction of structures of mental experience of the subject (on an example of special abilities of chemists):

I. Macrolevel – kulturogenez special abilities.

Problems:

• Studying of formation of special abilities and the mental structures laying in their basis, in process cultural-historical development.

• Revealing of specific integrated properties of object of knowledge as integrated system; working out of model of conceptual system of chemistry on the basis of the essential properties of object reflected in concepts; revealing of stages of development of a subject domain "chemistry" as object of activity.

Methods:

• Reconstruction of initial roots of genesis of special chemical abilities on the basis of the analysis of instruments of production and technologies of their manufacturing in which abilities and knowledge of the person who has made these tools, finds the material embodiment.

• the Logiko-psychological analysis of historical and cultural development of the chemistry, allowing to reproduce fixed and opredmechennye in culture of the scheme of vision of the world, transformation of the world and interaction with it, characteristic for activity of the chemist.

• Modelling of system of conceptual relations of chemistry.

II. Mesolevel – subektogenez special abilities.

Problems:

• Studying of dynamics of formation of special abilities in the course of training; parities of the general and special abilities; the comparative analysis of indicators of the general and special abilities; studying of features of formation of special (chemical) abilities on a material of biographies of the well-known chemists.

Methods: the biographic; ascertaining and forming experiment.

III. Microlevel – a microgenesis of characteristics of special abilities.

Problem: the comparative analysis of features of informative processes and individually-psychological features of the person in groups of examinees with different level of special abilities.

Methods: ascertaining and forming experiment, observation, the logiko-psychological analysis of features of the thought processes involved at the decision of chemical problems.

Special abilities – the integrated integrated mental formation mediated external (cultural-historical conditions of vital activity of the subject) and internal (mental and physiological) conditions.
An indicator binding together mental properties (the general and special abilities), physiological (diskriminativnuju ability of a brain) and psychological conditions (structure of mental experience of the subject) is time of reaction of a difficult choice.

Communication between indicators of tests of intelligence and time of reaction of a difficult choice is taped in researches of domestic and foreign psychologists (Jensen, Whang, 1993; Jensen, 1998; Geary, 1997; Deary, 2000; G.J.Ajzenk, 1995; CHuprikova, 1995; Ratanova, 2004; Lynn, 2010, etc.): the above intelligence indicators, the are fast carried out many reactions of a difficult choice demanding distinction, identification, a finding of properties and differences of a different sort of the stimulus-objects, closely bound events.

The major physiological condition – diskriminativnaja ability of a brain to concentration and differentiation of the centres and streams of nervous exaltations in corresponding nervous structures: the ensembles of nervous exaltations are more concentrated, independent and differentiated, the time differentsirovochnyh is shorter than reactions and above accuracy of the answer (Smartly, 2002; CHuprikova, 2004).

The major psychological condition of mental development are structures of mental experience in quality of the mental carrier of the general and special abilities (Vekker, 1976; CHuprikova, 1995, 2007; Cold, 1997/2002): the above a measure of conformity of the given structures to object, the more productively activity of the subject.

Base indicators of mental structures as mental carriers of special abilities are:

1. Adequacy (a conformity measure) mental structures of area of the validity (an error, accuracy). Conformity is a threshold of recognition of stimulus-objects with certain degree of accuracy. From the given positions of ability it is possible to define as an efficiency measure from what the system distinguishes a certain range of entering signals. The above the measure of conformity of mental structures to object, the is less than errors in behaviour and activity.

2. A maturity of mental structures – degree differentsirovannosti-integrirovannosti invariant signs of object (in particular, a constant of an operative differential threshold).

In our opinion, the maturity of mental structures can be defined on time indicators differentsirovochnyh reactions. At performance differentsirovochnyh reactions the organism spends internal energy which goes on work fulfilment. The most accessible indicator of the general size of work is time of distinction of stimulus-objects (Vekker, 1974). More capable examinees perform work easily, with a smaller metabolic cost, hence, time of distinction of stimulus-objects in groups of more capable examinees will be significant less, than in group less capable. On our data, at high degree of a maturity of structures of certain level of generalisation (global, base, detailed), rate (time tсрв) exercises differentsirovochnyh reactions is constant size (tсрв = const).

Existence of the constant sizes characterising a certain level of development, proves to be true numerous researches (SHmalgauzen, 1984; Sonkin, 2009; CHuprikova, 1971; SHpachenko, 1974, etc.). The facts specify in existence of steady pattern of formation of the mental structures, named us a rule konstantnosti mature structure: at high degree of a maturity of mental structures time of reaction of a difficult choice becomes constant size.

3. The form of orderliness of structures (quantity of levels obobshchennosti, features of their integration). Mental structures have a difficult hierarchical structure, consist of different levels and subtotals. Each of levels obobshchennosti is characterised by certain number of allocated and coded signs of object, and, hence, and the frequency characteristics (Landa, 1966; Vekker, 1976). The above generalisation level, the above degree of ordering of the system, which measure is change of entropy of system (? S=k •? w). For counteraction to probability alignment, putting off of differences between generalisation levels, the certain metabolic cost which quantitative characteristic is work (A ~ t) are necessary for entropy laws, leaders. In the conditions of the majority of psychological researches (T, R, V = const) change of internal energy of system (? U) at work performance on distinction of stimulus-objects of different levels obobshchennosti it is proportional to time differentsirovochnyh reactions? U ~? S ~ t. Thus, time of difficult reaction of a choice is a likelihood indicator of a measure of the organisation (accuracy of the answer) and organisation forms (quantity of levels obobshchennosti) structures of mental experience: the above level of generalisation of mental experience of the subject, the is more time of a difficult choice.

The differentiation is shown in delution of levels obobshchennosti signs of object and invariancy maintenance between them. A consequence urovnevoj differentiations of mental structures are intellectual thresholds, sensitivity rising to specific properties of object. According to a principle of double integration, integration "from below" (from sensory to conceptual structures) is carried out at the expense of processes of maturing in the course of the biological and socially determined development; integration "from above" conducts to formation of abilities and is determined by penetration of the form of the organisation of the higher conceptual layer into all underlaying mental structures and their through reorganisation just like conceptual system (Vekker, 1976). Hence, the key factor defining a level of development of special (chemical) abilities, the measure of conformity of conceptual structures as highest level of mental structures, system of the cores, konstituirujushchih to the logician of the object of concepts of chemistry is.

4. Rate and ease of formation of the mental structures reflecting certain area of the validity, their fastness and efficiency of actualisation.
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A source: Volkova E.V.. Development of mental structures as bases of special abilities. 2011

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