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the Maintenance of a category of "ability" in psychological research

In psychology the "ability" term is surveyed from the point of view of success of the person in activity. However researches show, that the estimation of success of activity is influenced by many factors, including readiness of a society to accept and estimate these achievements.
Therefore, accepting criterion of success, it is offered to specify the maintenance of it concept and to survey "abilities" as a measure of conformity of individually-psychological features of the subject of a certain subject domain of a reality (more widely – to object of its vital activity).

Abilities of the person are given always in unity of the general and special properties. Between them there is a unity and difference (Rubinshtejn, 2002; Teplov, 1985; Krutetsky, 1998; CHuprikova, 2007). The decision of a problem of the general and special abilities, according to V.D.Shadrikov (2009), consists in that, the general abilities are properties of functional systems of the person, special abilities are the general abilities which have got lines of efficiency under the influence of demands of activity.

Abilities provide ease, durability of mastering of knowledge, skills. It is meant, that abilities is not knowledge, skills; acquisition of knowledge, skills promotes development of abilities. Thus there are questions: 1) in what parity there are abilities and knowledge; 2) whether mastering of knowledge will always promote development of abilities; 3) if abilities is not knowledge, skills, what their ontologic status? We believe, that abilities is a functional property of structures of mental experience of the subject, the abilities being the mental carrier which measure of conformity of a certain subject domain of a reality (object of vital activity) defines efficiency of the person in this kind of activity.
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A source: Volkova E.V.. Development of mental structures as bases of special abilities. 2011

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