the Urgency of a problem of research

One their fundamental problems standing before a domestic science in modern conditions, methodological and tool maintenance of working out and realisation of high-grade strategic programs of the social development allowing in the maximum degree to consider both actually social, and the human measurement bound to the account of personal features and interests of the concrete individual is.

In the given context the persons, capable to solve personal and socially significant problems »look quite natural serious transformatsionnye the processes occurring in the Russian psychological science last years, bound as notes A.A.Derkach, with transition« from treating of the person as some derivative of public relations to its understanding as subject. In particular, distinctly expressed tendency to integration at least two branches of psychological knowledge takes place: social psychology and development psychology in a combination to sharp growth of quantity praktikoorientirovannyh researches. And, the majority of them have polydisciplinary character. Not casually, as some Russian psychologists (N.E.Veraksa, M.J.Kondratyev, A.M consider. Parishioners, etc.), today in the agenda there is a question on formation new, integrativnoj inherently psychological discipline — social psychology of development.

It is necessary to tell, that noted tendency is caused both objective requirements of a society, and internal logic of development of scientific knowledge and consequently, has long-term, strategic character. Thereupon one of the most essential complexities which are taking place for today, the insufficient readiness of the theoretical and methodological base allowing to the full to integrate studying of the person and a society as co-operating and vzaimorazvivajushchih of subjects within the limits of the uniform polydisciplinary approach is represented. In the given relation the psychosocial approach to a development problem is represented to one of the most perspective.

The psychosocial approach assumes studying not persons "in general", and the person developing and functioning during a certain historical epoch, in absolutely concrete social context. At such approach the person of the concrete representative of this or that social, professional, age, etc. groups can be an object of research. Thus it is aimed at revealing of all socially-psychological and others really significant within the limits of interrelation «the person — society» features of the given group. Thus, as considers A.A.Derkach, «obshchemetodologichesky the principle of social determination is concretised in the is concrete-methodological psychosocial approach». In the fullest and consecutive kind the given approach has been realised for the first time in E.Ericson's devoted to a problem of identity the researches.

In practical value of the concept of E.Ericson in respect of the decision of actual problems of development of the Russian society has specified in due time A.V.Tolstoy, having noted what exactly from positions of the theory of identity is the most convenient to survey the basic problems bound to transformation of social system, crisis of values, loss sotsientalnyh reference points, etc. Similar thoughts stated N.V.Antonova and other researchers. The periodization of an ontogeny developed by E.Ericson not only is, according to a number of researchers (A.V.Tolstoy, etc.) The most integrated and psychological, but also to the full reflects idea of incorporation onto - and sotsiogeneticheskogo developments both on individual, and on group levels.
Not less important in a surveyed context, that, from the point of view of E.Ericson, «one of methodological preconditions of comprehension of identity is the psychoanalysis, refined so, that it can consider medium; other precondition is the social psychology, refined in a psychoanalysis; in interaction they, obviously, would frame a new science which should be had an own historical outlook». As a matter of fact, it is a question of social psychology of development.

However, as shows not only Russian, but also world experience, use of the psychosocial approach and actually E.Ericson's concept in praktikoorientirovannyh researches it is bound to essential difficulties.

First of all, conceptual and kategorialnyj the apparatus of the theory of identity throughout long time remained not properly executed and indistinct. It is bound first of all by that E.Ericson, opening the maintenance of key concepts of the concept including concepts "identity", the wide descriptive approach as a rule used, not giving accurate definitions. And though E.Ericson's numerous followers — J. Adams, R.Baumaster, J. A cat, C.Levin, J. Marsia, S.Marshall, D.Matteson, D.Tajs, E.Shahter, etc. — in the researches have to a certain extent met the given lack, to say that working out conceptually-kategorialnogo the apparatus of the psychosocial concept of identity is finished, for today obviously prematurely. Also basic differences in treatment of concept "identity" in frameworks biheviorizma, kognitivnoj psychology, symbolical interaktsionizma, a psychoanalysis though last years and their rapprochement was outlined remain.

On this background it is represented absolutely natural, that in variety of works of the Russian researchers becoming more and more popular in scientific use the concept "identity" is used with reference to the description of the phenomena and processes both actually psychological, and the sociological, cultural urological, philosophical plan, not having the immediate relation to the psychological reality described by E.Ericson. For such works the terminological mess bound to a parity of concepts "identity" — "identification" — their use as synonyms is rather characteristic.

Let's notice, that distinct progress recently was outlined in the given relation. In works of domestic researchers, in particular K.A.abulhanovoj, A.V.Antonovoj, E.P.Belinsky, V.N.Pavlenko, T.G.Stefanenko, A.V.Tolstoy, N.N.Tolstoy, L.B.Schneider, etc., the identity problematics has received versatile illumination and creative development, taking into account the Russian specificity, both in general-theoretical, and in applied aspects. However the problem bound to working out on the basis of the psychosocial approach of the high-grade polydisciplinary theory and its verification in praktikoorientirovannyh researches, remains, by and large, unresolved. By the basic problem moments bound to its decision, it is necessary to carry questions on a parity of personal and social aspects of identity, on communication of a phenomenon of identity with features of national mentality, sotsiokulturnoj medium, specificity of historical development of the Russian society, continuity of generations (received last years a wide circulation terms «identity of a society», «crisis of identity of a society» remain, as a matter of fact, rather indistinct oxymorons which maintenance is any way treated by each author in dependence not only on its initial theoretical equipments, but also political, stylistic, etc. preferences) and a number of others. There is no for today and definitive «an arrangement on terms» — i.e. conceptual uncertainty remains.

Other not less serious problem is deficiency of the relevant standardised methods of empirical research of individual psychosocial development and qualitative features of personal identity. The researchers, trying to develop methodical maintenance of empirical studying of psychosocial development, inevitably appeared between Stsilloj widths and metaphoricalnesses of the definitions offered by E.Ericson, not allowing to allocate key, measured points — variable researches, and Haribdoj the excessive reduction giving such possibility, but the psychological reality leading frequently to essential distortions described by E.Ericson. Nevertheless, in 70 — 80th HH century have been abroad framed variety of the such techniques which have not received, however, for a variety of causes some wide circulation in the Russian research practice.

Thus, the urgency of a problematics of research is caused, first, by objective requirement in the light of the decision of a wide range of the applied problems standing before the Russian society, and also objective tendencies of development of a psychological science, in working out of the polydisciplinary theories, allowing to survey the individual and a society as subjects co-operating within the limits of uniform system. And, secondly, perspectivity in the given relation of the psychosocial concept of development of E.Ericson, under condition of the decision of some theoretical problems and creation of adequate methodical toolkit.

Research objective: completion of the psychosocial concept of development to level of the polydisciplinary theory and its empirical verification in the basic applied areas of social psychology.

Object of research: working out of polydisciplinary theoretical concepts and their application in a socially-psychological context.

Object of research: Teoretiko-methodological maintenance of studying of the psychosocial nature transformatsionnyh processes in a modern society.

The basic hypothesis of research:

High-grade realisation of the polydisciplinary approach to studying transformatsionnyh processes in a modern society is possible on the basis of E.Ericson's psychosocial concept under condition of the decision of some theoretical problems and creation of adequate methodical toolkit. Use of the polydisciplinary theory of the psychosocial concept of development finished to level as teoretiko-methodological base, first of all praktikoorientirovannyh researches in the basic subject domains of social psychology, allows to tap the deep nature of the studied phenomena and processes, to dilate interpretatsionnoe the maintenance and to raise prognostic reliability of conclusions.

Private hypotheses of research:

1. In the field of social age psychology use of the polydisciplinary psychosocial theory allows to analyse, taking into account a wide social context, the tendency of ontogenetic development in a modern Russian society, to tap the most significant problem moments and their reasons.

2. In the field of ethnopsychology use of the polydisciplinary psychosocial theory allows to tap patterns of ontogenetic development and personal factors, really significant in a context of interethnic relations, to raise efficiency of the programs referred on preventive maintenance of a xenophobia and international conflicts in a modern society.

3. In researches of small groups use of the polydisciplinary psychosocial theory allows to consider to the full personal features of members of community at the analysis informal intragruppovoj structures, an estimation of level of socially-psychological development of group, working out and realisation of programs of practical work of the social psychologist with supervised community.

4. In the field of organizational psychology use of the polydisciplinary psychosocial theory allows to tap the deep nature of the organizational processes immediately bound to the human factor, it is essential to raise efficiency, simultaneously having lowered resursozatratnost the actions referred on the decision of variety of problems, bound to organizational development, personnel selection optimisation, motivation of the personnel, intracorporate training, kouchingom, etc.
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A source: Ilyin V. A.. The psychosocial theory as the polydisciplinary approach to the analysis of social processes in a modern society. 2009

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