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the urgency of a theme of research

In a context of radical social changes which have occurred in the Russian society for last two decades, and simultaneously with understanding of importance MPO in civilisation development, was staticized necessity of revealing of real psychological characteristic MPO for modern Russia, factors of their harmonisation, search of the uniting beginning in these relations, ways of rapprochement, development on this basis of mutual understanding and tolerance between representatives of different generations. Thereupon the urgency of a theme of research is caused by requirement of a psychological science for working out of integrated concept MPO which opens features of the maintenance, structures, factors of harmonisation of these relations, their function in a modern society, importance MPO at different stages of an ontogenesis and can define new directions in psychology of development, age and pedagogical psychology. Despite the general understanding of necessity of an establishment of constructive relations between subjects MPO, data of psychological, sociological and demographic researches, the analysis of a problematics of references in psychological services and the centres testify that real relations between generations in the Russian society are still very far from the ideal. Therefore the work urgency is defined also by the practical problems bound to the organisation of process of psychological support of subjects mezhpokolennogo of interaction, construction of obrazovatelno-educational process in different types of educational institutions, rising of level of professional and psychological preparation of experts of educational and social spheres, working out of educational, educational programs for representatives of different generations, people of different age, for the purpose of rising of their psychological literacy, harmonisation of relations between them.

At definition of factors of harmonisation MPO we start with following position: the analysis of a modern scientific picture of the world allows to ascertain turn to a new, third stage tsivilizatsionnogo society developments. Researchers of public processes notice, that the modern developed countries have entered an epoch of a postindustrial or information society, a society based on knowledge. Thereupon, there is clear a splash in scientific researches as Russian (E.F.Aron, O.B.Baksansky, V.P.Zinchenko, S.V.Crimean, N.F.Ovchinnikov, M.A.Petrov, E.A.Siljanov, E.F.Shimorina, etc.), and foreign (L.Vitgenstein, Z.F.Liotar, Z.Mariten, U.Najser, K.Popper, M.Fuko, N.Homsky, etc.) Devoted to a knowledge problem in which the knowledge role as the fundamental basis is underlined, the guarantor and stimulus of cultural development (E.F.Shimorina). According to one of leading researchers HH of century of N.Homskogo, the knowledge becomes the central object of research. In an information society of knowledge and the information promote self-realisation of the person, successful development of public structures and relations. Knowledge if cannot destroy completely conceivable, existing and potential harm should aspire in the maximum degree to its minimisation (A.I.Rakitov).

Among various kinds of knowledge, to mastering which the mankind aspires, the special place occupies psychological knowledge which promotes fuller understanding the person itself, to comprehension of in this world. And through understanding and comprehension of, rising of the psychological culture the person comes nearer to understanding of other person, its private world and construction on this basis of the constructive, harmonious relations based on tolerance with other people.
Researchers notice, that in a society stable interest of all age groups of the population to psychology as to a science and to psychological knowledge, in particular (V.I.Ginetsinsky, V.V. Davidov, V.P.Zinchenko, E.V.Levchenko, D.A.Medvedev, V.N.Panferov, M.I.Postnikova, L.A.Regush, V.V. Semikin, A.V.Jurevich, M.G.Yaroshevsky, etc.) is observed.

Considering value of knowledge in a modern society and having studied specificity of psychological knowledge, it is possible to come out with the assumption, that it can become a binding element in MPO, promoting their harmonisation. In structure of relations one of the major components is kognitivnyj, i.e. character of relations is defined by certain level of knowledge of the person. We survey MPO as the main characteristic of age, historically changeable phenomenon which is defined by influence of public norms and values. Uniqueness of psychological knowledge consists, in particular, that it can these norms and values not only to study and describe, but also with its help they can be formed and developed, raising psychological culture of the person. Thereupon the special urgency is got by a problem of a scientific substantiation of educational, educational, developing and correctional programs which will help the modern person to cope with problems arising in his life, to improve mutual relations with close people, to deduce them on qualitatively new level characterised by acceptance and tolerance under the relation to each other. The knowledge and understanding of features of age development at different stages of an ontogenesis, will promote, in our opinion, to development of new models of interaction between generations.

It is possible to ascertain, that contradictions now have become aggravated:

• between the theoretical and practical importance of problem MPO in a society and in scientific knowledge and simultaneously insufficient level of its readiness in psychology;

• between objective necessity and understanding of the importance of conservation of communication between generations (as a condition of a transfer of experience, conservation of genetic memory etc.) and absence of the complex psychological characteristic of these relations in modern scientific knowledge, insufficiency of scientific data about factors of harmonisation MPO;

• between declared at level of the international and state documents understanding of necessity of an establishment of constructive relations between representatives of different generations for conservation of stability of a society and real relations between generations in a family and a society, far from perfect and harmonies;

• between presence in modern age psychology of the numerous empirical researches referred on the decision of applied problems of interaction of children and parents, between representatives of different generations and insufficient predstavlennostju in the given problem field of the complex and system researches, allowing to systematise and generalise studying of age features of people of advanced age, separate aspects of mutual relations empirical data in the integrated concept of relations between generations in a context of age psychology and development psychology;

• between comprehension by Russians of the importance of the psychological knowledge, an increasing demand of this knowledge and an insufficient readiness of educational, educational, developing and correctional programs on harmonisation of relations between generations.

The designated contradictions define an urgency of a theme of research – Psychology of relations between generations in modern Russia, and search of ways of their permission defines a scientific problem, structure and logic of work, allows to concretise the purpose and research problems.

The analysis sotsiokulturnogo a context and the scientific literature, the contradictions designated on this basis have laid down in a basis of the formulation of a problem of research which consists in definition of the complex socially-psychological characteristic of relations between representatives of different generations, people of different age, in structure MPO definition, search of ways and factors of harmonisation of these relations in the modern quickly varying world and working out of the scientific bases of rising of their efficiency. The decision of the given problem is bound to working out of theoretical positions of conceptual model MPO. The central methodological position of the given concept is the approach substantiation to MPO as one of the major characteristics of the age, defining development of the person at different stages of an ontogenesis. We define the given position in frameworks of a cultural-historical paradigm of h.p. Vygotsky according to which the basic condition of development of consciousness of the person is dialogue. Thereupon h.p. The Vygotsky has entered concept of a social situation of development as original system of relations of the person and social medium. The characteristic of these relations is central in age structure. Change of this system of relations defines the organic law of dynamics of age. Therefore after h.p. Vygotsky we can assume, that relations between representatives of different generations, people of different age, and their change define character and dynamics of age development of the person at different stages of an ontogenesis. In this context we survey relations between generations as one of the main characteristics of age, in turn, the age in our work is the centre of the generation characteristic.

On the basis of psychological knowledge of the maintenance, structure and dynamics MPO at different stages of a course of life, in different conditions of socialisation it is possible to define the factors promoting achievement by the person akme and its adaptedness to promptly varying conditions of a life in the modern world. It will allow to solve a large scientific problem in the field of psychology of development and the practical psychology, bound to harmonisation of relations between representatives of different generations and to add the characteristic of age in a context of a social situation of development.

Research objective: Working out of the teoretiko-methodological bases and empirical check of the concept mezhpokolennyh relations.

Object of research: relations between representatives of different generations, people of different age.

Object of research: structure mezhpokolennyh relations, function which they carry out in a modern society, factors of harmonisation of these relations and the factors defining their originality.

Research hypotheses: 1. We assume, that studying MPO is possible on the basis of working out of conceptual model which can be constructed in a context of two aspects – social and psychological. The social aspect of model can be presented the characteristic of the factors defining originality MPO: microsociety (family) and macrosociety (conditions and a residing place, ethnocultural features) and factors of harmonisation MPO [the State policy, formation (psychological knowledge), mass-media, sots. Advertising]. The psychological aspect of model MPO can be presented as the structure including kognitivnyj, emotional, aksiologichesky, behavioural components. Everyone from which at representatives of different generations has the features, in a complex making the characteristic of subjects of generations (knowledge, representation, feeling, the experiences bound to dialogue, values etc.) . The psychological aspect is presented also by the characteristic of functions which they carry out in a modern society.

2. On the basis of conceptual model MPO, definition of basic concepts of "generation" and mezhpokolennye relations, can be taped empirical reviewers for construction of complex diagnostics of relations between representatives of different generations.

3. Structure MPO can be opened through kognitivnyj, emotional, aksiologichesky, the behavioural components, everyone from which at representatives of different generations has qualitative differences.

4. MPO carry out certain functions in a society: communicative, developing, educational, educational, adaptive. Adaptive function is presented by the characteristic zhiznestojkosti as to ability and readiness of the person activly and flexibly to operate in promptly varying reality of the Russian society, a situation of stress and difficulties. Each generation has the leading function defined by a social role of subjects MPO in a family and a society.

5. Originality MPO is defined by factors: microsociety and macrosociety [a family / a society, conditions and a residing place (village / a city), ethnocultural features].

6. The psychological knowledge can become the factor of harmonisation of relations between representatives of different generations, people of different age in the modern information society based on knowledge. The logic of research of a role of psychological knowledge in system MPO assumes an establishment of dependence of character of these relations, first, from the maintenance and specificity of this knowledge, secondly, from the tsennostno-semantic relation of people of different age to this knowledge.
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A source: Postnikova M. I.. Psychology of relations between generations in modern Russia. 2011

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