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the WORK GENERAL CHARACTERISTIC

Dissertational work is devoted studying of development of time prospect of the person in an ontogenesis from a position of the cultural-historical approach. The time prospect is understood in the given research as the form set by culture intentsionalnosti the subject in unity of its temporal and spatial characteristics.
The time prospect understood thus is reprezentatsiej the motivational sphere which each element (motive) represents indissoluble unity of the subject maintenance of the motive defined by its place in a tsennostno-semantic field of the person (the spatial characteristic), and antitsipiruemogo the period of realisation of this subject maintenance (the time characteristic). Such approach allows to investigate time prospect as specific hronotopicheskogo formations.

Urgency of dissertational research

Time and space categories always was are important for understanding of human life and the world, however from the beginning of the last century time category has got special value. That time factor began to play – objectively and subjectively - so important role in a life of people HH and beginnings ХХI century of century, usually bind to acceleration of processes of social development, with escalating rate of technological progress, with tendencies of globalisation and transition to prefigurativnomu (M.Mid) to culture type.

In psychology interest to the problems bound to time aspects of human existence, also dews throughout all XX-th century, but it is especially prompt - last decades. Various aspects of a problem «the person and time» became a subject of researches both domestic, and the foreign authors belonging to various scientific schools and directions (K.A.Abulhanova-Slavskaja, G.A.Arhangelsky, R.A.Ahmerov, T.N.Berezina, E.I.Golovaha, V.I.Kovalev, A.A.Kronik, N.F.Naumova, A.V.Petrovsky, A.Syrtsova, V.E.Chudnovsky, A.Aall, A.Adler, G.Allport, L.B.Ames, J.Arlow, Ch. B? hler, C.A.Colarusso, T.J.Cottle, P.Fraiss, L.K.Frank, P.Hartocollis, W.Lens, K.Lewin, A.Maslow, R.May, J.McGrath, J.Kelly, J.Nuttin, G.W.Allport, S.Rechtchaffen, R.Seginer, B.Zazzo, P.G.Zimbardo, etc.). One of these aspects – the relation to the future, time prospect of the future.

Already the most general representations about the nature mental in quality hardly probable not its main characteristic fix ability «to see forward» and to consider the future factor in behaviour. This ability different researchers name variously: « antitsipatsija »(V.Vundt, B.F.Lomov, E.A.Sergienko, E.N.Surkov),« advancing reflexion »(P.K.Anohin),"tselestremitelnost"(P.J.Galperin), (V.K.Viljunas's)"purposefulness",« an image potrebnogo the future », ability« to model the future »(N.A.Bernshtejn),« likelihood forecasting »(I.M.Fejgenberg) Being, etc. shown even in the elementary certificates of behaviour of the most primitive live beings possessing mentality, at level of the person antitsipatsija, target determination become the major characteristics of the person as persons, as subject of activity, as individualities. It is possible to agree with G.Olportom writing, that a question on what sort the person tries to carry out the future, is the most important question which we can set about any mortal.

The separate, a little developed direction of researches of time prospect of the future is studying of an ontogenesis of time prospect, to understand which it is possible, only surveying this process in wider context of development of the person as cultural phenomenon.

From beginning HH century is conducted intensive development of idea hronotopa - basic and indissoluble unity of time and space in (A.Ejnshtejn's) physical world, in the world human cultures (M.M.Bakhtin), in the world of the separate person, its physiology and psychology (A.A.Uhtomsky, V.P.Zinchenko, A.I.Mirakjan, F.T.Mihajlov, T.V.Snegireva, V.S.Sobkin, etc.) .
The person, developing in «childhood space-time» (D.I.Feldshtejn), becomes «the cultural person» in "space-time" of quite certain culture with inherent in it hronotopom as co-ordinate grid in which this development occurs. This co-ordinate grid is fixed in tongue, in rituals of an ordinary life, in system of religious, moral, historical, other representations of the people, in representations about age of a life, at those social institutes which these of age support, in an educational system and rising generation training, in knowledge of an extremity of an earth life and ideas of mors and possible or impossible immortality, in social expectations which it is conscious or neosoznanno, adults surrounding him and a society as a whole obviously or implicitly address to the child. Actual therefore it is represented to analyse development of time prospect of the person in a context not only formation of its person, but also individual hronotopa which formation occurs in the course of "assignment" by the child hronotopa quite certain culture.

In the present work individual hronotop it is understood as a characteristic combination for the individual of time and its spatial components intentsionalnosti. Last is interpreted as bytijnoe a condition of partiality of the relation of the person to the world.

Object of research: time prospect of the person.

Object of research: formation of time prospect of the person in a context of cultural development individual hronotopa.

Research objective - to spend theoretical and empirical studying of development of time prospect of the person from a position of cultural - historical approach.

The general hypothesis of research

Ontogenetic development of time prospect occurs according to a principle geterohronii: in an ontogenesis the periods of primary development of temporal characteristics of time prospect are replaced by the periods of primary development of its spatial characteristics. Each stage of an ontogenesis brings qualitatively original contribution to development of time prospect of the person and the greatest impact on its formation is characterised by the certain factors, making.

Private hypotheses of research

1. In an ontogenesis the periods of intensive development of the time party hronotopa (infancy, the preschool childhood, adolescence and a youth) naturally alternate with the periods of intensive development of its spatial party (the early childhood, younger school age).

2. These periods are senzitivnymi for development of the corresponding party hronotopa, and also will and randomness as different phenomenological realities of will. Stages of primary development of the time party hronotopa are favorable for will formation as free desire as «future organ», and stages of primary development of its spatial party - randomness as ability in regimen "here-and-now" to own the behaviour in a situation raznonapravlennosti motives, internal and external demands.

3. Characteristics individual hronotopa can serve as differentiating criterion at comparison of features of personal development at detsko-youthful stages of an ontogenesis. During the periods of intensive formation of the time party hronotopa its temporal characteristics, and during the periods of intensive development of the spatial party – characteristics tsennostno - the semantic maintenance are differentiating.

4. Development of time prospect and individual hronotopa in the childhood, adolescence and a youth is defined, along with the age factor, such factors, as historical time, a social situation of development, feature of training and education.

5. Characteristics of time prospect are the important indicator of psychological health of modern teenagers and young men.

6. Features of time prospect in a youth and a maturity are bound to such resultants in parametres of a course of life of the person, as level and character of formation, professional mentality, the social status which can level its age specificity.

Research problems

1. To carry out the theoretical analysis of positions of the evolutionary approach to development of the time prospect, describing filogenez mental mechanisms of an anticipation of the future.

2. To carry out the teoretiko-cultural urological analysis of a problem hronotopa cultures, its features and characteristics in different public formations at different historical stages of their development, including the modern period of the Russian society.

3. To analyse various directions of researches of psychological time and time prospect in a context of representations about development of the person and subektnosti the person.

4. To prove efficiency of the cultural-historical approach to a problem of time prospect in the course of formation of the person.

5. To spend studying of preconditions of development of time prospect of the person and mechanisms of strong-willed behaviour at early stages of an ontogenesis - in infancy, early and preschool age.

6. To study features of development of time prospect and individual hronotopa at younger school age. To survey influence on this process of the various organisation of educational activity.

7. To tap characteristics of time prospect at teenage and youthful age. To define characteristics of time prospect which can serve as indicators of psychological health of the person and some forms of its disturbance.

8. To carry out research of specificity of development of time prospect at pupils of establishments for children-orphans and children who have remained without care of parents.

9. To spend krossistoricheskoe research, having analysed features of time prospect of teenagers and young men 1980 - 2000 yh of

10. To carry out socially-psychological researches intentsionalnoj the parties of mentality of adult people for revealing of communication of its characteristics with such factors as the social status, an educational level, a financial position, a gender.

11. To develop the concept of development of the time prospect, based on the cultural-historical approach to understanding of the person.

Teoretiko-methodological basis of research have made: positions of the cultural-historical theory of L.S.Vygotskogo, its representation about structure and dynamics of age, about social medium as a source of mental development of the child; the theory of the person and representation about stages of its formation in L.I.Bozhovich's ontogenesis; the theory of mental development of child A.N.Leonteva, A.V.Zaporozhtsa, D.B.Elkonina, in particular, position about specificity of mental development of the child in an ontogenesis as assignment process sotsiokulturnogo experience, the doctrine about leading activity, the concept of an age periodization of mental development of the child, representation about a social situation of development; continuation and development of this direction in V.V.Davidov, O.A.Karabanovoj, M.I.Lisinoj, L.F.Obuhovoj, K.N.Polivanovoj, V.V.Rubtsova, V.I.Slobodchikova, E.O.Smirnovoj, G.A.Tsukerman, B.D.Elkonina's works; ideas of the concrete historical approach to studying of person A.V.Tolstyh; Positions it is subject-dejatelnostnogo S.L.Rubinshtejna, A.V.Brushlinskogo's approach; principles of integrity of the person in the approach to studying of personal time K.A.Abulhanovoj-Slavskoj; ideas hronopsihologii A.V.Petrovskogo; representations about hronotope A.A.Uhtomskogo, M.M.Bakhtin, V.P.Zinchenko, V.S.Sobkina; E.Eriksona's psychosocial approach; the theory of psychological space and K.Levina's time prospect; the motivational approach to studying of time prospect of the future Z.Njuttena.

Research methods

1. The ascertaining strategy including various methods of empirical research, in which number: a method of motivational induction MMI of Z.Njuttena in our transfer and adaptation, a technique of motivational preferences, a technique «Gold age» (A.M.Prihozhan's variant), developed by us together with I.G.Dubovym a technique of socially-psychological research intentsionalnoj the mentality parties, various risunochnye methods. Various diagnostic techniques for correlation of characteristics of time prospect with personal and behavioural features were in parallel used. Ascertaining strategy with use MMI has laid down in a basis krossistoricheskogo researches of time prospect of teenagers and young men.

2. Forming strategy was used, first, within the limits of activity of the experimental platform referred on introduction, working off and monitoring of efficiency of pedagogical technology in which basis certain principles of formation of spatial and time representations are put in pawn, development hronotopa cultures; secondly, within the limits of working out and approbation of active methods in a context of scientifically-methodical maintenance of activity of psychological service of formation.

Statistical data processing was carried out by means of software package SPSS Windows 15.5 and included the analysis of reliability of differences, the discriminant analysis, factorial and cluster analyses.





The characteristic of the surveyed groups. In research have taken part more than 3000 persons of different age. The sample most part (more than 2000 people) children and teenagers, pupils of comprehensive schools of of Moscow, St.-Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Smolensk, Suzdal, Ufa have made, Orekhovo-Zuyevo; pupils of children's homes, boarding schools, children's villages of system SoS-kinderdorf. Adult sample was made by 1000 inhabitants of of Moscow at the age from 18 till 60 years.

The positions which are taken out on protection

1. The time prospect of the person represents specific hronotopicheskoe formation which, from a position of the cultural-historical approach, it is possible to survey as the higher mental function which natural basis is ability of the live organism allocated with mentality, to consider in the behaviour spatially - time characteristics of earth existence. At each new stage of evolutionary development of mentality power of this ability is enlarged, more and more perfect mechanisms of its realisation are formed. The human level of development of mentality as the main basis of such mechanism includes assignment by the individual hronotopa cultures as systems fixed in signs, tools of activity of representations about time and space, and not only physical, but also tsennostno-semantic.

2. Formation individual hronotopa as characteristic combination for the separate individual of time and its spatial components intentsionalnosti occurs in space-time of the certain culture defining specificity in representations about space and time, patterns of the relation to them at people of different cultures during various historical epoch.

3. Ontogenetic development of time prospect of the person submits to a principle geterohronii: the periods of primary development of its temporal characteristics are replaced by the periods of primary development of spatial characteristics. The principle geterohronii supplements representation about linearity in development of time prospect according to which its consecutive expansion both in temporal is fixed, and in (K.Levin's) spatial parametres.

4. Each stage of a detsko-youthful ontogenesis brings qualitatively original contribution to development of time prospect of the person and is senzitivnym for development of the different parties hronotopa.

4.1. Occurring at the earliest stages novorozhdennosti transition from a physiological rhythm of existence of an embryos in a maternal organism and an immediate prenatal generality "mother-child" to a rhythm of cultural interaction of mother and the child is the beginning of formation cultural hronotopa the child. On the first year of a life the time party individual hronotopa mainly develops, that is shown in essential augmentation of time antitsipatsii satisfactions of organic and social requirements. In the early childhood there is a primary development of the spatial party individual hronotopa: the child activly "builds in" the body physical space and in space of subjects of culture, "appropriates" these spaces, seizing accessible to it in immediate contact by subjects. The preschool childhood - the period of primary development, at qualitatively new level, the time party individual hronotopa: The time prospect of the preschool child starts to include its representations about all forthcoming life, including representations about a life extremity, about age of a life, ability to tselepolaganiju and to planning in time of the actions intensively develops.

4.2. At younger school age there is an intensive development of the spatial party individual hronotopa, and the awkward age including adolescence and an early youth at specificity of each of these periods - for development of its time party. In awkward age temporal characteristics of time prospect represent itself as differentiating criterion at comparison among themselves various groups of teenagers and young men/girls while spatial characteristics of time prospect serve in younger school age as similar differentiating criterion and individual hronotopa.

5. To stages of development of time prospect and, more widely, individual hronotopa there correspond certain stages in will and randomness development. The periods of primary development of a time component hronotopa are at the same time the periods of development of the will understood as «free will», as turned into the future desire. The periods preimushchestvennogorazvitija spatial making hronotopa are the periods of formation of randomness as abilities to possession of the behaviour in actual, "here-and-now" existing space of vital activity. At early youthful age these two realities of will are in a sense united: occurrence of the vital plan, i.e. the purposes and motives, in time far falling outside the limits an actual situation of vital activity of the subject, becomes an agent of self-control, overcoming situativnosti behaviour, formation of ability to active (instead of reactive) to behaviour. Occurrence of such way of mastering by own behaviour is also criterion of transition from teenage to early youthful age, and essential parametre of psychological health and a psychological maturity of the person at the given age stage of its development.

6. The taped patterns of formation individual hronotopa serve as acknowledgement based on dejatelnostnoj to the hypothesis concept about the age periodization offered by D.B.Elkoninym: the periods of primary development of a time component hronotopa and will as «future organ» sootnosimy with the periods of development of a motivational aspect of activity in D.B.Elkonina's periodizations, and the periods of primary development of a spatial component hronotopa and randomness - with the development periods operationally-technical aspect activity.

7. Specificity of time prospect in adolescence and a youth is substantially defined actual sotsiokulturnym by a context. This context influences also that age border which parts teenage and early youthful age, shifting this borders depending on a concrete social situation of development of the teenager.

8. Gender differences of time prospects are expressed in specificity of the maintenance, and also more difficult and inconsistent dynamics of change of time prospect at girls, in comparison with young men that is defined by gender asymmetry existing in a society.

9. At adult stages of an ontogenesis the time prospect is defined not so much age, how many by specific features of a course of life. It is shown in variability of time prospect depending on the social status, a property status, educational level and gender characteristics of the person.

8. The developed concept of development of the time prospect, based on the cultural-historical approach to understanding of the person, dilates representations about an ontogenesis of time prospect at the expense of principle introduction geterohronii developments of spatial and temporal components individual hronotopa, allows to describe a qualitative originality of stages of development of time prospect as specific hronotopicheskogo formations.

Scientific novelty. Efficiency of the approach to treating of time prospect of the person as hronotopicheskogo formations is proved.

Theoretically also it is empirically proved, that development of time prospect in the childhood, adolescence and a youth submits to a principle geterohronii: the periods of primary development of a time component hronotopa alternate with the periods of primary development of its spatial party. Time or spatial components serve in the logician of such periodization as differentiating criteria of personal development of different categories of children hronotopa accordingly.

For the first time it is spent krossistoricheskoe research of features of formation of time prospect at teenagers and the senior pupils which time of a growing was necessary for the various periods of a life of our society: the "stagnation" period (the extremity 70-has begun 80th of HH century), years of reorganisation (the middle and the extremity of 80th of), a Post-Soviet stage of development (90th of) and the beginning of XXI century It is shown appreciable,

As a matter of fact direct, influence sotsiokulturnogo a context on character of time prospects of rising generation.

Influence of a way of the organisation of educational activity in an elementary school on development individual hronotopa, mainly to its spatial component is proved.

Features of time prospect of pupils of establishments for children-orphans and children who have remained without care of parents are taped, which specificity at all stages of the school childhood consists in characterising motivational sphere of such children of rigid attachment (substantial and temporal) their motives to an actual situation of vital activity, in sokrashchennosti their time prospect.

Use of the motivational approach, including specially developed toolkit, for socially-psychological research intentsionalnoj the parties of mentality big on number of group of adult population (18 - 60 years) has taped dependence intentsionalnosti from a sex, age, educational and social level of respondents.

The theoretical importance. The theoretical and empirical substantiation of the new scientific approach to studying of an ontogenesis of time prospect of the person in a context of development individual hronotopa is presented. The developed concept of development of the time prospect, based on the cultural-historical approach to understanding of the person, dilates representations about an ontogenesis of time prospect at the expense of principle introduction geterohronii developments of spatial and temporal components individual hronotopa, allows to describe a qualitative originality of stages of development of time prospect as specific hronotopicheskogo formations. The given approach develops tradition of cultural-historical psychology, surveying individual hronotop as having a natural basis in the form of intrinsic ability of the live beings allocated with mentality, to antitsipatsii, but receiving actually human definiteness in the course of development (assignment) by the individual hronotopa this or that culture.

The declared approach realised in theoretical and empirical research, dilates representations about ontogenetic development of the person, individuality and subektnosti the person, allows to put forward a hypothesis about process of formation of strong-willed structure of the person.

Taped geterohronnost developments individual hronotopa dilates demonstrative base of representations of D.B.Elkonina about a periodization of mental development. The periods of development of a motivational aspect of activity described in it are also the periods, senzitivnymi for development of a time component hronotopa and will, and the periods of primary development operationally-technical aspect - a spatial component and randomness.

Use of the motivational approach including specially developed toolkit of empirical research, for studying intentsionalnoj the mentality parties dilates possibilities of socially - psychological research intentsionalnosti big on number of groups of adult population that gives basic possibility of carrying out monitoringovyh mentality researches as sotsiokulturnogo a phenomenon.

Methodological and methodical approaches to studying of the time prospect, realised in research, can form the basis for working out of problems of new interdisciplinary area of research - social psychology of development.

The practical importance of research. The patterns taped in research and the facts can be used in practical psychology of formation as in diagnostic, developing, consulting work of the practical psychologist with children, parents, teachers and tutors, and in creation of technologies of training and education of children of different age, examinations of educational programs and technologies.

Research materials can be to be used in work with special contingents of children and adults - children-orphans, teenagers with addiktivnym and delinkventnym behaviour, the people who are in a condition of posttraumatic stress, etc. in a context of maintenance of their mental health and constructive personal development.

Data and research conclusions can form a basis for

Carrying out of concrete psychological and socially-psychological researches in the field of social psychology of development.

The received results are used in the course of vocational training and improvement of professional skill of psychologists, social teachers, tutors and teachers within the limits of courses «Psychology of the person», «Psychology of development and age psychology», «History and theories of social psychology of development», «Psychology of the teenager»,

«Emotionally-personal disturbances at various stages of an ontogenesis», «the Child without a family», etc.

Introduction of results of research. Results of research were included as a component into working out of scientifically-methodical bases of children's practical psychology and psychological service of formation which were conducted at Psychological institute of the Russian Open Society; are introduced in practice of work of psychological service of formation of Russia.

The workings out received in dissertational research were included into a complex of diagnostic and rehabilitational methods of work with the persons, gone through traumatic stress.

Research materials were used in practice of activity of international organisation SOS – Children's villages, in particular, at selection of candidates on a post of mothers-teachers, in the program of their preparation for work with children-orphans in children's villages (in frameworks of "school of mothers»), is immediate in work with tutors and pupils of children's village-SoS-Tomilino; have formed a basis for creation of some the methodical references addressed to workers of establishments for children-orphans and children, the parents who have remained without care, and also the Russian Federation framed by request of the Ministry of Education and Science (2008) the program of selection of candidates for replacing families and work with them.

Research materials were used by working out of a series of rehabilitational programs for work from a different sort by difficult families in the conditions of a hospital of the Moscow service of the psychological help to the population.

These materials also have been used in working out and realisation of activity of an experimental platform «Introduction in sign forms of work with culture through the organisation of symbolical creativity of the child» (GOU SOSH № 1096 of Moscow), and also GOU SOSH № 19 of Novosibirsk and №№ 6, 36, 39 of Smolensk where teaching on technology "Rostock" was conducted and conducted.

Results of research are used in educational process for training of post-graduate students and students of the Moscow city psihologo-pedagogical university, faculty of psychology GAUGNa, faculty of psychology URAO, Institute of psychology of L.S.Vygotskogo RGGU, Psychological institute of the Russian Open Society, and also for improvement of professional skill of teachers and psychologists within the limits of faculty of improvement of professional skill MGPPU.



Reliability and validity of results of research is provided by consecutive realisation of methodological positions, theoretical and methodical prorabotannostju problems; use of complementary methods of research; the substantial comparative analysis of phenomenology of the phenomenon and the communications taped on extensive representative sample (n=3000 in empirical research).

Validity of data is caused by adequacy of measurements, careful statistical processing of a material; recheck of separate results raising the doubts; correlation of quantitative and qualitative data.



Research approbation. Substantive provisions and results of work were repeatedly represented at scientific sessions of Psychological institute of the Russian Open Society; were reported by the author on a workshop «Psychological service at school» (Tallinn, 1983), All-Union conference «Scientifically-practical problems of school psychological service» (Moscow, 1987), VII congress of the Society of psychologists of the USSR (Moscow, 1989), I congress of practical psychologists of formation of Russia (Moscow, 1994), II congress of practical psychologists of formation of Russia (Perm, 1996), the All-Russia scientifically-practical conference «the Child in a modern society» (Moscow, 2007), the International scientifically-practical conference «Psychological problems of a family and the person in a megacity» (Moscow, 2007), the International scientifically-practical conference «Modern problems of psychology of the person: The theory and practice »(Moscow, 2008), the international workshops« Psychological problems of meaning of the life and akme »(Moscow, 2008, 2009), the International conference« Dialogue and development at children's age »(Moscow, 2009), International scientifically - practical conference« Psychological innovations in economy and financial business »(Moscow, 2009), I All-Russia scientifically-practical conference« Social psychology of small groups »(Moscow, 2009), II All-Union scientifically-practical conference on development psychology« Other childhood »(Moscow, 2009).

The dissertation is discussed at expanded session of laboratory of scientific bases of children's practical psychology of Psychological institute of the Russian Open Society (2009) and on expanded faculty meeting of age psychology of the Moscow city psihologo-pedagogical university (2010).

Dissertation materials are reflected in 68 publications on a theme of research in total amount 84,5 items of l.
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A source: Tolstyih N. N.. The development of the time perspective of the individual: cultural and historical approach. 2010

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