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«working out of the basic theoretical problems bound to finishing of the psychosocial concept of development to polydisciplinary level»

In the third chapter the materials devoted to the decision of the basic theoretical problems, bound to finishing of the psychosocial concept of development to level of the polydisciplinary theory and its use as teoretiko-methodological base of socially-psychological researches are consistently presented.

In the first paragraph the developed substantiation of legitimacy of correlation of concrete social institutes with stages epigeneticheskogo a cycle is given.
It is shown, that in the course of historical development practically in any society eight social institutes — religions, the rights and politicians, economy, technologies, ideologies, families, formations, the cultures, being in this sense are formed by universal basic components of social system. Each of them reflects the basic contradiction of a corresponding stage of psychosocial development in society level and can institutsionalno support both positive, and negative tendencies of the permission of the given contradiction at individual level.

In the second paragraph the mechanism of interaction of a nursery and institutsionalnoj vitalnostej within the limits of uniform process of psychosocial development is in details surveyed. It is shown, that by results of this interaction are caused as the permission of crises of psychosocial development at individual level, and functionality of basic institutes of a society, and finally — and social system as a whole. The conceptual apparatus of the psychosocial concept of development is dilated and concretised. The typology of the public systems is presented based on an estimation of psychosocial balance, allowing to analyze an actual condition and to prognosticate a trajectory of development of a society.

In a literal translation on Russian English vitality has two major importances: 1) viability, the vital beginning and 2) energy, vigour. In concept "vitalnost" the dialectic unity of these value — any organism, both biological and social is underlined, can develop and in general exist, only possessing the viability shown, first of all, in external activity. Thus there is an energy balance between the subject of such activity and an environment — the subject refers outside the energy generated by own vital beginning, and, in turn, receives from the outside the additional resources supporting its viability.

From the point of view of the psychosocial concept, at the heart of a nursery vitalnosti genetically set biological determinants of development lay. It means, that initially children's vitalnost is substantially caused by congenital uniqueness of the individual. At the same time already process of social interaction which becomes more and more multiplane in quantitative and qualitative relations in process of a growing of the individual begins with the first days of a life. As a result of such interaction personal experience which or confirms primary uniqueness and self-value of the individual collects — in this case congenital individnaja uniqueness is supported with conviction in the personal uniqueness (as shown in the concept of personification of Century And. Petrovsky, concepts "individual" and "person" and kinds of a psychological reality described by them are interconnected, but not identical), — or, on the contrary, suppresses it, exhausting the individual in rigid frameworks of an imperative «to be such, as all».
It is clear, that in the first case the nursery reinforcement vitalnosti while in the second it it is obvious depriviruetsja takes place. One of the most distinct implications of a nursery vitalnosti in a socially-psychological context is the requirement for personification.

Viability of each of basic social institutes, and finally — all social structure and a society as a whole, is shown and simultaneously directly depends first of all on ability to changes, and in an ideal these changes should wear proactive, instead of reactive character concerning dynamics transformatsionnyh the processes occurring in the environment of vital activity. As a matter of fact, it is a question of a susceptibility of basic social structures to innovations. However the requirement and ability to changes inevitably enters the conflict to conservatism and a rigidity, by definition inherent in basic social institutes. To a known limit they are justified as allow to keep the values turned out in the past and the experience, keeping an urgency in the present and the future, providing with that coherence of development in time measurement. Problems begin when protective function in a combination to the noncritical relation to the past start to dominate and, especially, are absolutised.

Thus, institutsionalnaja vitalnost can be defined as result of the permission at level of basic institutes of a society of the dialectic contradiction between innovative and conservative the beginnings. It defines finally ability of this or that society to development. The society, in institutsionalnoj to which structure prevails the innovative vector (at conservation of really actual aspects of tradition), as a rule, dynamically develops. The society with a dominating conservative vector inevitably comes to a stagnation condition, and in extreme cases — and degradations.

Between institutsionalnoj and a nursery vitalnostjami the dialectic interrelation which in the offered treatment of these concepts becomes enough transparent takes place. On the one hand, institutsionalnaja vitalnost really supports a nursery as the society with an innovative orientation gives as much as possible ample opportunities for implication of own uniqueness and self-realisation of the individual at least already because, as shown in variety of works, real innovations at any level are simply impossible without purposeful minimisation of the control and liberation of personal activity of members of community. On the other hand, the nursery vitalnost supports institutsionalnuju for that simple reason, that the individual requirement for the statement of own uniqueness and self-realisation is sublimated at social level in universal aspiration of rising generations to a society and readiness reorganisation to put the energy in this process. In the given context the primary goal of socialisation of rising generations within the limits of basic social institutes of a society is maintenance of the conditions, allowing to refer to a creative bed and simultaneously in the maximum degree to realise caused by a nursery vitalnostju potential of destruction existing and produtsirovanija new social norms, supporting thereby dynamics of social development. Thus, in the logician of the psychosocial concept of development the conflict between the individual and a society receives the positive dialectic permission at the expense of purposeful use of mechanisms of creative destruction.

In the given logic the full permission of crisis of psychosocial development of the individual takes place, when the vectorial orientation of basic social institute caused by its level institutsionalnoj vitalnosti, and polarity of the permission in the course of interaction with referential figures and groups of the conflict of a corresponding stage epigeneticheskogo a cycle, supporting or, on the contrary, suppressing a nursery vitalnost, coincide. If prevailing tendencies onto - and sotsiogeneticheskogo developments appear in this sense opposite the given crisis remains to some extent not resolved, that generates the intrapersonal conflict involving specific socially-psychological consequences, and in extreme cases — and alienations. Degree razreshennosti crisis of each stage of psychosocial development is distinctly shown in such classical socially-psychological indicator, as dynamics of occurrence of the individual in social community.

Table 1. Process of occurrence of the individual in social community in a context of psychosocial development

Vectorial orientation

Social institute

Polarity of the permission of the basic conflict

Developments at individual level



As follows from the resulted table, the social situation of development in which frameworks high level of a nursery vitalnosti is combined with high level institutsionalnoj vitalnosti is to the greatest degree adequate to achievement by the individual of a stage of integration. In this case the aspiration to active transformation of the validity in the course of occurrence in social community is supported with resources of social institute as meets objective requirements of social development. Thus favorable social conditions for the maximum self-realisation of the individual (and consequently, and satisfactions of requirement for personification) are framed, and simultaneously institutsionalnaja vitalnost receives feed at the expense of the contribution introduced by the developing person. In this case it is lawful to speak about the full positive permission of the given crisis of psychosocial development.

In turn, within the limits of a social situation of development at which to low level institutsionalnoj vitalnosti there corresponds low level of a nursery vitalnosti, process of occurrence of the individual in community is limited to an adaptation stage as necessary and sufficient as dominating requirement «to be such as all», expressed in passive and generally unconditional acceptance of an existing state of affairs, ideally answers the conservative public equipments. The full negative permission of the given crisis of psychosocial development in this case takes place.

If the vectorial orientation of social institute and polarity of the permission of the corresponding basic conflict of psychosocial development appear opposite process of occurrence of the individual in community, as a rule, becomes isolated at an individualization stage, that is caused by basic contradictions between personal values and senses and the dominating public equipments. It means nerazreshennost the given crisis of psychosocial development. nerazreshennost psychosocial crisis of development can be preserved"in the form of the specific intrapersonal conflict, also it can be compensated results of the permission of basic conflicts of other stages. However — and it is especially important in a surveyed context — it also can lead to overcoming disbalansa between a nursery and institutsionalnoj vitalnostjami not on intrapersonal, and at social level.

The behavioural implications caused opposite, concerning the dominating vector of this or that social institute, results of the permission of the basic conflict of a corresponding stage of psychosocial development at individual level and consequently, not entered in the accepted frameworks, are levelled by means of existing social norms. Thus as the basic mechanism of such levelling in the conditions of high institutsionalnoj vitalnosti nonviolent assimilation, while in case of low institutsionalnoj vitalnosti — suppression is. However potential as it is innovative, and conservatively focused social institutes is not in this sense unlimited (it is not necessary to forget also, that in basic institute of a society always remains, to some extent, the tendency opposite to the dominating.) It means, that in certain conditions oppositional in relation to an actual condition of social institute of the given society the tendency of individual psychosocial development can reach critical level at which assimilation or suppression possibilities appear settled. In this case the corresponding psychosocial conflict is shown at society level. Till the certain moment the given conflict, as a rule, has the latent character. In process of intensifying of the oppositional tendency it starts to be shown in open forms and receives the definitive permission in the form of obvious — «de jure» revision of norms and the reorganisation of official structures reflecting radical rising or, on the contrary, depression of level institutsionalnoj vitalnosti.

For an estimation of development of system «the person — the society» as a whole within the limits of uniform psychosocial process by the most representative is a parity of dominating principles of maintenance of integrity of social structure and the person. Depending on a parity of dominating principles of maintenance of integrity of social structure and personal structurization it is possible to allocate four types of public systems, as shown in table 2.

Table 2. Psychosocial typology of public systems

Dominating principle

Integrity maintenance

Social system

the Dominating principle of the personal

Structurizations

In a case when the balance of these indicators is supported at level «integrity — integrity», the vital society in which frameworks as a result of interaction of a nursery and institutsionalnoj vitalnostej high level there is a positive resonant effect, in the maximum degree satisfying requirements of the person and society takes place.

Direct opposite to the given type of public system is the society based on balance «totality — totality». Such society can be characterised as shizogennoe. In the conditions of such society possibilities both individual are not simply essentially limited, and social development, but there is the negative resonant effect generating including absolutely concrete pathological processes at individual and social levels.

If the destructive potential of negative development at individual level surpasses possibilities of its assimilation and indemnification, in a society organised by a principle of integrity, intensifying of totalitarian tendencies takes place. Such society can be characterised as degrading as decreases institutsionalnaja vitalnost fundamental components of public tradition, and eventually on change to an integrity principle the principle of totality finding the definitive expression in totalitarian ideology comes. Thereby the new psychosocial balance is established at level «totality — totality», and arises shizogennoe a society.

In turn, if in a society organised by a principle of totality the positive tendency of an ontogeny starts to dominate, institutsionalnaja vitalnost traditions raises. It is shown, in particular, in democratisation of social institutes, their larger openness and finding of ability by them to perception and assimilation of innovative ideas. Such society can be characterised as developing. If the given process at all possible fluctuations receives logic end, as a dominating principle of the organisation of a society on totality change the integrity expressed in an ideological substantiation of a primacy of the rights of the person, tolerance to heterodoxy, social partnership comes. The new psychosocial balance established thus — «integrity — integrity» means transition to a vital society.

The given scheme allows to define substantially concepts of identity and crisis of identity of a society. In the offered logic identity of a society is defined by an actual condition of psychosocial balance — at coincidence of dominating principles of maintenance of integrity of social system and the person positive identity (a vital society) or negative identity (shizogennoe a society) takes place. Crisis of identity of a society takes place in a case when quantity of individuals, whose individual psychosocial development is objectively oppositional in relation to a dominating principle of maintenance of integrity of social system, exceeds during any moment critical mass for the given population (degrading and developing societies). As the social system, as well as any system, aspires to a rest condition, the society with the reached identity (both positive, and negative) is rather steady and stable until remains the established psychosocial balance. At the same time the society with identity crisis (a society of transitive type) inevitably comes to one of two possible steady conditions. From this point of view two of resulted in the table of type of social systems (a vital society and shizogennoe a society) are lawful for designating as the basic, and others two (a developing society and a degrading society) — as intermediate.

In the third paragraph formation process at each stage epigeneticheskogo a cycle specific intrapsihicheskih mechanisms reinforcements (ego-force) or suppression (ego-alienation) of a nursery vitalnosti is in details surveyed. The most significant are taped, from the point of view of the resolution of conflict of each stage, feature of a social situation of development. Substantial characteristics of potential egos-forces and egos-alienations are given and their typical implications on intra - and interpsihicheskom levels are described.

Potential ego-force of the first stage of psychosocial development is the hope. The individual possessing an ego-force of hope, is capable to open partner interaction with associates. Essentially important, with reference to modern Russian conditions, that both in mature, and at children's age such people are a little subject to a xenophobia and influence of the destructive stereotypes bound to national and social relations. As a rule, to them are inherent the dominating equipment on achievement and high frustratsionnaja tolerance. It is not less important, that the basic trust extends not only on a society, but also on subjective perception of time. It allows to live in a regimen «here and now», concentrating on the decision of actual problems adequate agents, that at all does not exclude ability to formation of vision of vital prospects, but at the same time already at early enough age does not allow to the individual to "be dissolved" in infantile imaginations or a virtual reality, for example — «with a head» to leave in computer games.

The permission of the first basic conflict in favour of mistrust involves an ego-alienation in the form of time confusion or loss of time prospect at mature age. It leads to that in subjective perception of the individual «each delay becomes a deceit, each expectation — the powerlessness experience, each hope — the danger, each plan — the accident, each possible assistant — the potential traitor» (E.Ericson). From here — psychological "tsepljanie" for the past, attempts to live it again and again, thereby as though turning time back, in a combination to aspiration to "preserve" the present to avoid incalculable and inevitable dangers and the troubles which have hidden in the future. Other implication of loss of time prospect is pathological bracing on the future. Pathological in the sense that the future acts not as natural continuation of the present moment within the limits of uniform life cycle, but as the remote abstract possibility which has been torn off from a current reality. Such it is possible to carry literally-dogmatic perception of religious doctrines, social and personal Utopias to classical examples, etc. In all implications time confusion involves flight from a reality. As bracing on the past in a combination to aspiration to "freeze" the present, and bracing on the future are referred, finally, on creation of the parallel worlds in which the individual searches for refuges from dangers and discomfort of not reliable real world. Not casually at such individuals already in the childhood the expressed predisposition to paranoid and addiktivnomu to behaviour, and in extreme cases — to hallucinative disorders is often observed.

The ego-force, bound to the positive permission of the second basic crisis of psychosocial development, is will. It gives the chance to the individual to find without self-esteem loss an optimum combination between personal requirements and the inevitable restrictions imposed by a society. At microsocial level will presence as the ego-force is shown in distinctly expressed ability of the individual to high-grade integration in contact community. The internal locus of the control, the developed feeling of responsibility, a high self-rating are inherent to such people.

Typical alienation, characteristic for the second stage of psychosocial development, is painful samoosoznovanie as an antithesis to a free will and a self-trust. It leads to the underestimated self-rating which is combined by paradoxical image with categorical and aggressive otverzheniem not only critical, but also in general any opinion on own person from a social environment. Typical implication pathological samoosoznovanija the individual in a social life is disability to establish high-grade partner relations, privnesenie in any question of the is personal-affective maintenance. As the compensatory mechanism of a behavioural pathology such the hypertrophied bent for of identification with group often acts, «by means of which the insufficient self-trust can mask for a while« group "confidence" (E.Ericson). Thus, as such individual appears is incapable to find a little comprehensible balance between a self-rating and perception of other members of group, all, as a rule, is limited to acceptance of external group attributes by it in a combination to formal group norms. That is residing even the first stage of occurrence of the person in group — adaptation stages — occurs only partially. As a result comes fast and, that the mutual disappointment and otverzhenie is essentially important, and the individual turns to «the eternal wanderer», infinitely searching a comprehensible social niche and not able it to find.

Potential ego-force of the third stage of psychosocial development is the feeling of the purpose. The developed feeling of the purpose causes ability of the individual to put arrogant enough and at the same time realistic personal problems and to make purposeful efforts their achievement. Such people, as a rule, are ready to go on defensible risk, "not giving in" before possible intermediate failures on a way to the planned purpose. They also are opened for new experience and role eksperimentirovanija. Along with hope the developed feeling of the purpose is the major condition of formation of motivation of achievement and the equipment on cooperation with associates.

Typical alienation of the third stage of psychosocial development is the total role bracing representing alternative to healthy feeling of the purpose and free role eksperimentirovaniju. At level of social functioning of the person it usually finds expression in the equipment on an avoidance of failures as leading motive of activity, adherence of a position «the small person» on whom «a little that depends». Such people are inclined to the demonstrative, often affective behaviour usually referred on obygryvanie of a theme of "unhappy destiny», deficiency of attention to them from associates in a combination with pathetic motives «fidelity to a debt», «adherences to the business», etc. One more classical implication of total role bracing is the extreme intellectual and behavioural rigidity, dogmatic, reaching degree of fanatical blinding adherence to any idea, the doctrine, the leader, etc.

The ego-force, formed as a result of the positive permission of basic crisis «competence against feeling of inferiority», is confidence or feeling of creation. Such confidence is not limited to sphere of production of goods, it extends on intellectual, social, etc. activity products. As a matter of fact it is a question of deep subjective conviction of the individual that it "is really good" basically, in general. Presence given causes an ego-force not only high motivation of achievement, ability of the individual to career and professional growth at mature age, but also defines the positive equipment of the schoolboy to the further training. It is essentially important, that the feeling of creation is a basis not only technical competence, but also ability to cooperation with others in the course of overall aim achievement.

The typical alienation bound to the permission of the fourth crisis of psychosocial development in favour of steady feeling of inferiority, is expressed in disability of the individual to work, or action stagnation. In social aspect it results not only in obvious restriction of potential of the individual in sense of prospects of career growth, self-realisation in professional work, etc., but frequently completely will paralyze any creative activity of the person. Compensatory reaction in such cases is quite often shown in the form of aggressive and sotsiopaticheskih actions. That fact is indicative in this respect, that the most odious from the point of view of implications sotsiopatii, destructive aggression and violence of a figure in mankind history appeared, as follows from their biographies, typical losers in respect of self-realisation in initially chosen spheres of professional work.

The ego-force, a fifth stage of psychosocial development formed as a result of the positive resolution of conflict, is integrity. For the individuals possessing given ego-force, the openness to new ideas and experience is characteristic at conservation of distinctly expressed personal position and system of values. High tolerance, readiness for responsibility acceptance are inherent in them ability to an establishment of originally partner relations with other people in the course of social interaction, polenezevisimost. In the socially-psychological plan it is necessary to notice especially, that integrity presence is not simply useful, but absolutely necessary property of the person for high-grade integration of the individual into membership groups.

Typical alienation of the given stage of psychosocial development is totality. Totality causes high level of the personal closeness, distinctly expressed predisposition to ksenfobii, fanatical adherence to those or other leaders and the ideological doctrines, deformed atributsija responsibility, predilection to following to stereotypes, weak ability to a reflexion, etc. It is the deep reason of such personal quality as the authoritativeness, characterised steady requirement of the individual adjoining on a pathology rigidly to suppress and, moreover, to humiliate and slight the members of social community standing more low of it in the status relation, at simultaneous unconditional readiness for blind, unconditional submission, is faster even to obedience, higher.

The ego-force, formed as a result of the positive resolution of conflict «intimacy against isolation», is love. The love as an ego-force allows the individual to establish the adequate close relations based on ability to perceive the world in whole and the potential partners in particular not in the logician of "black-and-white" vision, and in all completeness and the variety inherent in real people and a real life. Thereupon it is important to understand, that ability of the individual to an establishment of high-grade close relations at all does not mean formation at it the fixed positive equipment concerning a social environment. It, more likely, ability to wide variability in a continuum «acceptance — otverzhenie» at conservation of integrity of the person. As a matter of fact, it is a question of the mechanism providing interaction of partners in the logician the subject-subject of relations. Similar sort interaction allows to establish «identity of two identichnostej» without their mutual absorption carrying threat of personal integrity of partners.

Typical ego-alienation of the given stage it is possible to designate as nartsissicheskoe reflexion. The given alienation in many aspects is as a matter of fact «the new edition» alienations of the second stage of psychosocial development — pathological samoosoznovanija. The basic difference between pathological samoosoznovaniem and nartsissicheskim reflexion consists that the first is most distinctly shown at interaction level «the individual — group» memberships while the second — in interpersonal relations diadnogo type. The individual with steady nartsissicheskim reflexion at interaction with other people, as a rule, appears incapable is realistic to estimate the partner and is guided by the stereotypes which are rigidly keeping within the scheme of "black-and-white" perception of the validity. In these conditions all attempts to establish the affinity relation inevitably get character of total idealisation or, on the contrary, object depreciation on which they are referred. In case of success of similar attempts they would not accept the arising relations, what external forms (sex relations, business interaction, friendship etc.), in the psychological short are, as a rule, symbiotic dependence. Abundantly clear, that such people appear not only incapable of adequate satisfaction of requirement for personification in a context of interpersonal relations, but also make distinctly expressed group of risk from the point of view of dominance submissiveness of destructive leaders, authoritative and totalitarian ideologies.

Potential ego-force of the seventh stage of psychosocial development is the care. The individual possessing this an ego-force, appears capable to be rather good parent in a broad sense this word — that is under the relation not only to own children, but also to other people, groups, the organisations, activity and, that is important, to itself. Such people are capable to become rather democratic leaders possessing real «the authority power», effectively to plan and realise professional and other activity, to the full to receive satisfaction from work, possess high frustratsionnoj tolerance and the developed ability to self-control. And nevertheless the most important quality of carriers surveyed the ego-force is their ability to provide optimum conditions of psychosocial development of own children at early, key stages epigeneticheskogo a cycle.

Potential ego-alienation of the given stage of psychosocial development is authoritativeness. Authoritativeness in the logician of the psychosocial approach represents direct destructive alternative to care. Authoritativeness is, as a matter of fact, the form sadomazohistskoj dependences and a direct consequence of disability of the individual, owing to deficiency generativnosti, to establish and maintain adequate interpersonal relations in the scheme «the senior — younger», «the leader — conducted». Socially-psychological implications of authoritativeness are repeatedly described in variety of works.

The potential ego-force formed as a result of the positive resolution of conflict «integrativnost against despair», is wisdom. Presence of this an ego-force does the individual capable in practice to change that it is possible to change, accept as there is that it is impossible to change, and, the most important thing, — to distinguish one from another. One of very indicative and, perhaps, the main implications of wisdom in a social life is ability of the individual possessing the high social status, imperious powers, etc., absolutely meaningly and voluntary to refuse them if he feels, that is not so capable to carry out the functions at former level. Thus, having finished professional career, the individual, as a rule, it is not simple «leaves on rest», but finds alternative ways of self-realisation: a writing of memoirs, consultation of young experts, care of grandsons, participation in improving, social programs, etc.

To the potential egos-alienations inherent in the finishing stage epigeneticheskogo of a cycle, the hopelessness which short consists in categorical aversion of caducity of earth existence acts. Typical implication of a hopelessness at social level is «senile grumbling» — infinite discontent with all and everything, especially youth. In the extreme implications, according to E.Ericson, the hopelessness underlies a senile aphrenia, depression, paranojjalnosti.

In the fourth paragraph the basic results of theoretical research are generalised in the form of the developed scheme of psychosocial development presented in table 3.

On the basis of the data resulted in the table the basic are taped obshchemetodologicheskie characteristics of the modifed psychosocial concept of development. It is shown, that she allows to realise to the full obshchemetodologicheskie principles and approaches in praktikoorientirovannyh psychological researches of a wide spectrum, is applicable in interfacing areas of humanitarian knowledge and corresponds the allocated A.A.Derkachem to signs scientific kulturadigmy. The carried out theoretical research has allowed to promote essentially on a way of the decision of the two-uniform problem of working out of the new science integrating a psychoanalysis formulated by E.Ericson, refined so, that it can consider medium and social psychology, refined in a psychoanalysis, — i.e. to solve the basic theoretical problems bound to completion of the psychosocial concept of development to polydisciplinary level.



Table 3. The developed scheme of psychosocial development

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A source: Ilyin V. A.. The psychosocial theory as the polydisciplinary approach to the analysis of social processes in a modern society. 2009

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