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1.2.2. The basic economic indicators of activity of a sailing charter (the Review according to Department of Service of River Fleet of Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation).

the Modern river fleet in many respects mismatches the representations which have developed about it as about a carrier transporting on interior water (river) ways. Except transportations on the rivers, water basins and lakes, courts "river-sea" regular transportations in Baltiysk, Northern, Caspian, Black Sea and Pacific pools are carried out.
Fulfilled transport work in the international and coasting messages on volume is comparable to work on interior waterways.

In the structure the interior sailing charter, except passenger and a cargo fleet, navigable ways has a developed web of ports, the ship-repair enterprises, educational institutions and connection plants.

Adaptation of the enterprises of a sailing charter in market rationes happens in complicated conditions.

As a result of transformations of the state enterprises of an interior sailing charter and their structural subdividings 138 joint-stock companies of open type, including 27 shipping companies (the navigable companies), 50 ports, 47 ship-repair factories and other 414 enterprises [77] are organised.

Thus, owing to proisshedshih transformations and consecutive liberalisation of a tariff policy, a leading position has occupied negosudarstvennyj by which it is fulfilled more than 90 % of transportations of cargoes and passengers. The share of the basic production assets deduced from a state ownership as a result of privatisation has made about 60 % [77].

Economic reform carrying out, introduction of market rationes happens in the conditions of formation of new managing subjects on a sailing charter. Form new navigable and stividorskie the companies, transport-forwarding service develops, there are firms on service of the Russian and foreign tourists. These structural modifications are reduced in tab. 1 [77].

Table 1.

Share of various patterns of ownership of managing subjects on a sailing charter.
Patterns of ownership

The managing

Subjects

Specific gravity, %
In total subjects 100
Including

Mixed (with state participation)

42,1
The private 28,2
The state 14,9
The municipal 2,9
Physical persons 8,9
The other 3,0

Transportations of cargoes on an interior sailing charter realise 505 managing subjects, transportations of passengers - 274, reloading works - 423 and transport-forwarding service - 133. Joint-stock companies fulfil the basic volumes of transportations and reloading works. The right to realisation of transportations of cargoes and passengers is submitiven about 9,5 thousand to self-propelled transport courts. The navigable companies have about 900 courts of the float mixed "river-sea". On foreign transportations it is used more than 800 courts. For last years more than 200 courts are modernised and equiped additionally for use on the international transportations in the message "river-sea" [77].

During 1991-1996 on service life has left 2,7 thousand courts (353 passenger, 1,2 thousand cargo and 246 towing). However 320 courts of different function are received for the same phase from shipbuilding only. For 01.01.1999 on the account in the temporary register was 34 thousand the courts having middle age of 23 years, thus from them more than 12 % unusable and are limited serviceable and 34 % with the served service life. Till 2000 on service life are subject to write-off more than 40 % of courts, including 220 courts of the float mixed "river-sea". Than half of bulk-oil courts and practically all dnouglubitelnaja technics are subject to write-off and replacement more.

Considering importance for Russia preservations and developments of the international transport connections, the Governmental order of the Russian Federation had been accepted the Program “Revival of a merchant marine fleet of Russia”. The program

Construction of 364 courts of the float mixed "river-sea" by load-carrying capacity of 2500-6000 tons, as for transportation of dry-cargo ships, and mineral oil, re-equipment of 152 courts of interior float for work in the message "river-sea" is provided. Program financing should be carried out at the expense of means of the Russian ship-owners, use of credits of domestic and foreign investors. At the expense of federal radiants, Fund of revival of a merchant marine fleet to the navigable companies should 20 % of cost of a vessel on a reflexive basis are selected. However in connection

With the general investment crisis in the country, the specified Program not

It is fulfilled. The enterprises of navigable business until recently

Experience difficulties in shaping of radiants of financing of renewal of fleet (both characteristic, and extra), that is caused by objective and subjective reasons. In 1999 from new shipbuilding 3 vessels of the float mixed "river-sea" (for Open Society "Волготанкер" and joint-stock company "СФАТ") will be received only.

Essential reduction of industrial outputs and building, deterioration of an economic condition of producers and production customers, a rupture of transportno-economic relations of republics, a falling of solvent demand of the population have predetermined essential reduction of transportations by an interior sailing charter. Only for 1991-1995 of there was a drop in 4 times on volume of transportations of cargoes and 2,7 times on a turnover of goods, in 3,6 times by an amount of transported passengers and in 4,4 times on a passenger turnover. The significant amount of cargo and towing fleet has appeared excessive and has been deduced on preservation or in a reserve (to 40 %). More than 500 passenger courts have appeared not demanded [77].

Sizes of the transportations fulfilled by an interior sailing charter of the general use, are characterised following given (tab. 2 [77]). Apparently from tab. 2, in 1996 there was a further reduction of volumes of transportations. In these conditions organs of federal control, administrations of shipping companies and ports took persevering measures on work stabilisation that has allowed to increase a little in 1997 volumes of transportations in comparison with 1996 (at the expense of opportune discovery of navigation in 1997, magnifications of operation time of sluices in autumn phase, raises of depths on Volga and Don, tight interaction and mutual aid of shipping companies and controls of waterways, all-the-year-round operation more than 600 courts float "river-sea"). However, the drop of volumes of a total interior yield, manufacture basically gruzoobrazujushchih branches was adequately reflected in activity of a sailing charter and since 1998 there is a further reduction of volumes of transportations. According to the prognosis of social and economic development of an interior sailing charter for 2000, the developed Ministry of Economics of Russia according to stsenarnymi conditions of functioning of economy of Russia in 2000г. And on phase to 2002г., transportations of cargoes by an interior sailing charter in 2000 are predicted 100,0 million t with growth on 1,0 % to level

1999 with 66,0 billion production tkm. The drop of transportations of the foreign trade cargoes on 0,6 million t is thus predicted.

Dynamics of volumes of transportations and transport work has substantially defined level and dynamics of incomes and expenses of the enterprises of a sailing charter.

Table 2.

Volumes of the transportations fulfilled by an interior sailing charter.
Transportation aspect 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 an estimation 2000 the prognosis
Transportations of cargoes, billion tkm 89,6 71,1 79,6 68,7 65,3 66,0
Million t 140,1 100,2 107,8 104,0 99,0 100,0
From total amount перевозок:в the international message, million t 23,5 23,2 23,5 18,6 18,2 17,6
To regions of the Far North, million t 19,5 14,5 14,9 12,5 12,0 12,0
Transportations of passengers, billion in pass-km 1,12 0,90 0,90 0,80 0,81 0,81

Dynamics of incomes and expenses from operational activity is reduced in tab. 3 [77]. Apparently from the reduced data, profitability of operational activity increases and to the extremity of investigated phase is predicted at level of 4,4 %.

The basic growth of incomes in 1999 in comparison with 1998 (+4,0 billion rbl.) has happened at the expense of the foreign trade transportations at stabilisation of incomes of interior and passenger transportations. In 2000 growth of incomes in 1,2 times, and profits - 1,4 times is predicted.

Working costs also grow. However their growth is caused by mainly inflationary processes.

As to structure of expenditures (tab. 4 see), the greatest specific gravity is necessary on material inputs, expenditures on a payment and other. At

It the tendency of a drop of depreciation charges because of use of the courts which have served service life, and accordingly growth of expenditures on repair is observed.

Table 3.

The basic economic outcomes of operational activity of an interior sailing charter.

(Million rbl.)

Indicators 1997 1998 1999 an estimation 2000 the prognosis
Incomes - All 6771,5 6940,0 11700,0 14283,0
Including from: transportations of cargoes 4997,5 5149,0 9469,5 11763,4
Transportations of passengers 386,3 405,0 630,5 819,6
Reloading works 1287,7 1386,0 1600,0 1700,0
Expenses - All 6687,9 6730,0 11245,0 13653,0
Profit 83,6 300,0 455,0 630,0
Profitability to a gain, % 1,2 4,3 3,9 4,4
Profitability to expenses, % 1,3 4,5 4,1 4,6

Table 4.

Structure of expenditures in operational activity of an interior sailing charter.

bgcolor=white> 6,5
Indicators Specific gravity of papers, %
Papers of expenditures 1997 1998 1999 an estimation 2000 the prognosis
Expenditures - all 100 100 100 100
Including: material inputs 22,6 20,8 23,1 23,0
Expenditures on a payment 19,4 20,5 18,7 20,0
Deductions on sotssferu 6,8 7,2 7,3 7,8
Depreciation charges 12,1 11,3 7,5
Expenditures on repair 11,7 11,5 12,3 12,2
The other 27,4 28,7 31,1 30,5

Adaptation of a sailing charter to market condition of transport services is carried out in the conditions of enough essential contraction of the market in comparison with doperestroichnym phase. Besides, in connection with ageing of transport fleet its competitiveness in the international market is reduced. The drop of an overall performance of fleet zagranplavanija the Russian ship-owners happens also because of magnification of cost of the new courts arriving on import, at the expense of payment of the tax to the added cost and the customs duties (to 26 % of cost) at intersection of boundary, a sharp rise in prices for fuel, introductions of the customs duties on subjects of supply and fuel, high port gatherings from courts in the Russian ports.

Position of ship-owners is aggravated with high tax payments in the federal and local budget, reduction of loading of courts because of the guaranteed depths, a spasmodic presentation of cargoes and insolvency of cargo owners.

It is necessary to notice, that low profitable work of the operational enterprises of a sailing charter makes negative impact on such major performance of work, as solvency. Deficiency of money resources, the basic which radiant of supplement is profit, reduces a possibility not only enterprise developments, but also ability of maintenance of its current financial stability, leads to loss of trust of suppliers and exhaustion of the commercial credit, does impossible use of flexible tariffs and advantages of discounts and as the extreme case can lead to bankruptcy.

As a whole, on the first place in activity of the operational enterprises of a sailing charter along with searches of the new markets of transportations, the problem of use of possibilities of efficient control is advanced by expenditures. It will allow to ensure profitability of transportations at preservation of the market of transport services, to raise possibilities of self-financing and attraction of extra radiants for business development, to ensure a competitiveness raise on international and home markets of transport services.

It is necessary to notice, that now the economy of expenditures for the sailing charter enterprises is more effective mode of reaching of profitable work, than expansion of commodity markets.

Sensitivity of profit to a modification of expenditures and gains is shown in tab. 5. The identical modification of expenditures and a gain leads to essentially different growth of profit.

Table 5.

Sensitivity of profit to a modification of expenditures and gains.
Indicators Rate of growth of profit at base level of profitability
2 % 5 %
1. A drop of expenditures on 10 % (at an invariable gain) 5,90 2,90
2. Gain magnification on 10 %

(At invariable profitability)

1,10 1,10

Thus, high level of expenditures and low profitability of transportations lead to an inefficiency of processes of expansion of activity of the enterprises.

The told defines the high importance of problems of control of expenditures for the operational enterprises of a sailing charter.

The research urgency is caused by necessity of introduction by the enterprises of a sailing charter of new management methods finansovoyohozjajstvennoj the activity, the enterprises adequate to functioning in market economy, and first of all, expenditures in coordination with outcomes of activity.

1.1.

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A source: Zhelamsky Alla Georgievna Upravlenie. Cost management based on operational analysis methods. 2003

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