the Conclusion

For understanding of area of a disposition of parking Big Якоря-1, as ecological niche mastered by the person, and in this connection, its possible place in a year economic cycle, it is expedient to address to it dejatelnostnoj to the specificity expressed in a steady combination of certain sets of stone and bone stock with quantity and a specific set of extracted and processed zooresources.

On the basis of available data on radio carbon chronology and cultural-typological (in a format of the morfo-typological approach) accessories of stone and bone stock from a multilayered archaeological site Big Якорь-1, it has been conditionally carried to a circle of monuments so-called djuktajskoj cultural tradition of the northeast of Northern Asia. It is more logical not to become attached to a local reality, to call it bifasialnoj tradition of Northern Asia. The chronological range of existence of the basic cultural horizons keeps within 11-13 thousand frameworks l.n., in which the tradition in manufacturing of stone stock has been developed bifasialnaja. In frameworks bifasialnoj traditions the compactness and universality concept peculiar to mobile groups of hunters-collectors of an epoch late lednikovja (Sallinz, 1999), formulated by us as a principle of adaptive variability (Ineshin, Tetenkin, 2000) was realised. Strategy of adaptation and space development by the ancient person on this chronological boundary could be under construction by a principle of the organisation of a chain of the seasonal base parking moving on a trajectory a watershed - a valley of Vitim from which then mobile groups of hunters-suppliers carried out sorties for extraction of animals (during the peak moments of inter-season period on migrating kinds), and also carried out passing preparation of stone raw materials (especially rare exotic breeds). Adaptation of the ancient population in Bajkalo-Patomskom
Uplands developed in conditions prilednikovyh landscapes which in turn, consisted of mosaic structures with domination opened lugovoyostepnyh landscapes in valleys of water currents (first of all Vitim), were the basic, both mountain-tundra and mountain sub-Alpine statsijami. These open spaces were, statsijami dwellings of the gregarious animals representing especially valuable resource for the ancient person. They made a basis of extraction of ancient hunters of the Big Anchor (a reindeer, a bison, a snow ram, a musk ox, a horse). It is curious, that fishery was an auxiliary kind of activity (proceeding from the extracted quantity and specific structure) though it has been provided by perfect tools - harpoons. Probably, that it has arisen in others prirodno - climatic niches where the fish resource could play more considerable role. At the final stages fuktsionirovaiija parking in a mouth of the Big Anchor arise taiga associations.z Occupying the limited space on valleys of streams and small rivers. Such mozaichnost promoted bolshemu to a biodiversity with crossing various etologicheskih lines of the hunting kinds allowing ancient hunters to be switched in operation from one kind on another and to carry out strategy of complex operation of all vital resources. Such environment can be considered as favorable, despite affinity of the extensive is mountain-dolinnyh glaciers which, apparently, should serve as an obstacle to territory development.

Proceeding from the factors set forth above, it is possible to make the conclusion, that throughout formation of the inundated deposits containing the cultural rests, there was a reorganisation of a landscape to replacement of lugo-steppe associations by the wood.

Cultural horizons of object on the basis of complex use of various natural-science techniques (zooarcheology, paleomagnitologija, trasologija) have been defined, how seasonal time hunting camp on a migratory way of a reindeer and zones of seasonal concentration of other kinds in which there was a primary cutting of hulks of killed animals,

Preparation for transportation of meat parts of hulks on base parking and recycling on a place of not transported parts.

In the conditions of the mountain-taiga country what for today is Privitime and uplands Bajkalo-Patomskoe, in particular, the major structural component of a landscape is the relation a watershed - a valley. Such factors as sharp high-rise raschlenennost a relief, a cold continental climate with the low sums of active temperatures, presence of a long-term frozen ground, cause presence vysotnoprojavljaemyh various landscapes. Among them such, as tundra, taiga, Alpine and steppe types of an environment (Traditional wildlife management evenkov, 1995). Specificity of a vysotno-zone variety of landscapes and resources inherent in them, fiziko - geographical, climatic conditions defined the maintenance of the closed seasonal cycle of dwelling of human collectives.

On sites of an adjunction to it of the inflows originating in internal mountain parts of uplands, it is necessary to recognise a valley of Vitim as the most productive in respect of presence of zooresources during transitive seasons - spring and autumn. As argument in favour of this conclusion the Big Anchor serves and mnogoslojnost the monument, etc. And we see, in particular, on materials 5, 6 and 7 horizons active consumption of all kinds of the animals accessible to a craft, having neprofilirovannyj or complex character which, probably, also is certain by intensity of a food diet. In favour of the last speaks consumption in food of unproductive kinds - a polar fox, lemminga, and also total food splitting of the bones containing though the smallest quantity of a bone brain, up to phalanxes. The question on an economic year cycle of wildlife management is directly co-ordinated to character of development by ancient inhabitants of internal mountain areas and water separate landscapes. In presence of trade operation of these areas specify and grafititovye the artefacts, which deposit of raw materials it is located in 60 km to the north from Big Якоря-1 in pool of river Tahtyga (Ineshin, Revenko,

Sekerin, 1998) and which were maintained in passing with hunting in autumn - the winter period. And also artefacts from gialodatsita which radical displays are fixed in 90 km to the south of parking. Deposits of the last could be maintained in passing at winter hunting, and at spring perekochyovkah to get to a valley of Vitim on the Big Anchor. It is especially possible to notice, that on especially rare breeds of stone raw materials, such as grafitit and afirovyj gialodatsit it was possible to track routes of its transportation for the extent from 60 km on the Big Anchor, to 600 km at transportation on a complex of parking in a river Karengi mouth, privogo inflow of Vitim to headwaters. It has been established analytically, by revealing of rare impurity as a part of breed. This circumstance is especially valuable, for it allows to argue on a concrete material on migrations of the ancient population and that is especially important, about real communication of parking with the most ancient ceramics Ust - the Karengsky archaeological complex with the Big Anchor. Thereupon parking of the Ust-Karengsky complex can be interpreted as long-term base camp on which vessels were used as containers for storage of stocks, and parking of the Big Anchor as already it was marked above as time seasonal parking of hunters-suppliers.

Research of dynamics of development paleogeograficheskoj conditions taken in aggregate with events tectonic, paleoklimaticheskogo, including gljatsialnogo, usages, is correlated with model mamakanskogo geoarchaeological subarea and model of dynamics of formation konechnoyomorennyh shaft in upper courses of the rivers Mamakan, Mum, Konkudera the Baikal part of uplands, and also the rivers of the Baikal drain connected by the general watershed. Similar correlation is under construction on wide use of a radio carbon method which at the account tafonomii a dating material allows to receive a consistent chronological scale of development of glacial conditions. The Paleoklimatichesky, neotectonic dynamics having as we believe, regional scale, is noted by "pulsing" character of development - otstupanija glaciers (and their markers - it is final-morennyh shaft) in

Valleys of the rivers Kichera, (Endrihinsky, Osadchy, etc., 1983; Markets, 1986; Levi, etc., 1998), Djalja, Average Mamakan, etc. (Hammers, Simeons, 1972; Simeons, 1979). The saved up database on radio carbon dating allows to synchronise development stages paleogeograficheskih conditions of various areas Bajkalo-Patomskogo of uplands and, first of all, mamakaiskogo a site of a valley of Vitim and verhovev most Mamakana. The revealed picture, let and as a first approximation, allows to say that glaciers remained still long enough - late plejstotsen - first third golotsena ia high marks of the Baikal part of uplands - and considerable impact on a water mode of Vitim and its inflows (such as Mamakan) made. Thus, friable adjournment in which the cultural rests Big Якоря-1 have been buried, were formed under the influence of thawing glaciers in top Mamakana, and these processes carried fluktuatsionnyj character. In cuts of friable adjournment of the Big Anchor and Мамакана-IV large prirodno-climatic rhythms with the period about 2000 are read.

As a result of researches of development of a relief of a valley of Vitim in pozdnechetvertichnoe time within Mamakaisky geoarchaeological subarea is allocated 5 stages. 1 stage - existence paleorusla Vitim on 50-60-метровых relative marks, presumably, kazantsevskogo time: 2 stage - erosive vrez Vitim, presumably, in muruktinskoe time and the formation subsequent to it 30-40-метровых delta Mamakana marks in kargiiskoe-rannesartaiskoe time with considerable carrying out sandy and galechno-valunnyh fractions of a friable material, a product of activity of glaciers on the average and headwaters, the maximum motion of glaciers is mountain-dolinnogo type to a valley of Vitim; 3 stage - ladder formation 18-14-метровых terraces of sites the Gingerbread and Big Якорь-1 in second half sartanskogo stadiala, against lowered vodnosti Vitim and proceeding degradation of glaciers in upper courses of lateral inflows of Vitim; 4 stage - development of lateral erosion of Vitim and series addition priruslovyh shaft and intertotal falls 11-14-метровой

Terraces in first half golotsena; 5 stage - the newest erosive vrez Vitim and accumulation 8-9-метровой high pojmy sites the Big Anchor I in the middle golotsena with a modern mode of a drain.

Since second half sartana (complexes Big Якоря-1, Avdeihi, Mamakana-P, Gingerbreads s and III), in alluvial and subaeralnyh adjournment presence of the anthropogenous factor in osadkonakopleiii - the cultural rests of ancient inhabitants of the Vitim which has left after numerous archaeological complexes is fixed. Them zaleganie it is revealed in all geomorphological bodies of a corresponding age interval. Research geoarheodogicheskih questions of formation of these complexes has made the initial reason of researches integrativnogo the character, directed on reconstruction (modelling) paleogeograficheskoj (geoecological) dynamics of development of the Mamakansky site of a valley of Vitim (Mamakansky geoarchaeological subarea) as a whole.

Presence of paleontologic materials as a part of cultural adjournment has allowed to shine variety of questions paleoekologicheskoj and paleodejatelnostnoj characteristics of parking of the Big Anchor I. The high informative potential does this monument unique and basic in archeology of pool of Vitim and all Northeast Pribaikalye as a whole.

Results of studying of the faunistic rests of the Big Anchor from positions it is system-dejatelnostiogo the approach have allowed to make a number of the conclusions having basic value for studying of the archaeological


- Definition of seasonal prevalence of dwelling of parking has paramount value for understanding of terms of course and volumes dejatelnostnoj loadings on parking, and for multilayered archaeological sites - crucial importance in understanding of causally - investigatory communications in formation of a cannon complex of each layer;

dejatelnostnaja loading is the defining factor in formation of structure and morphological shape of the stone and bone industry of parking;

Distinctions cannot serve in a nomenclature set of stone and bone artefacts as criteria of a cultural accessory of materials, and reflect seasonal and functional specificity, being, thus, adaptive signs;

Changes in structure of faunistic complexes of multilayered archaeological sites reflect seasonal specificity of the hunting activity and only in the second turn - changes in structure of a faunistic complex as a whole;

Some morfo-technological features of the stone industries have seasonally-dejatelnostnuju specificity and do not bear any special cultural loading. In particular, presence at osenne-winter cultural horizons transversalnyh cutters and fragments of technological processing of a bone depends on longer term of dwelling on parking, with storage for the future for winter of tools and preparations, great volume of processed raw materials for such technological processes;

Seasonal accessory of multilayered archaeological monuments in a valley of Vitim of a chronological range from 6000 to 13000 l.n. Can be presented, by results of studying of the Big Anchor and Invalid-sh, as a series of short-term hunting camps, intermediate parking in year system of the ancient person adapting for specific landscapes of highland; search and studying of intermediate links in year system of development by the ancient person of environment demands creation detailed (at microlevel) development models paleoklimaticheskih conditions in region and purposeful search of archaeological monuments in

Internal parts of uplands Bajkalo-Patomskogo according to a disposition seasonal kormnyh stains;

- Situation, when a great bulk of archaeological monuments

Chronological range considered by us in territory of the northeast of Siberia, it is concentrated on valleys of the basic water currents, allows us to put forward as a working hypothesis the version about an accessory of these archaeological objects to the types of parking described above seasonally-dejatelnostnym to that the morfo-typological unity of the stone industry in this territory does not contradict and marked by the majority of researchers, based on use bifasialnoj technicians and bifasialnyh forms as universal;

- Absence in the kitchen rests of parking of the person in 11000 - 13000 l.n. The bone rests of mammoths does not allow to consider this fact as the certificate of reduction of their area of dwelling, and can be explained, how the certificate of occurrence of specialisation in hunting of the ancient person as on a monument in cultural horizons in the faunistic rests all is presented mamontovyj a complex. There are bases to assume (first of all, being based on data of the radio carbon analysis of the paleontologic sites deployed in internal parts of uplands Bajkalo-Patomskogo), that in internal areas of uplands (an upper course of inflows of Vitim) mammoths during the considered period lived.

One more important aspect of activity of ancient hunters - of collectors is opened by some features of the faunistic rests: ways of cutting of hulks of the killed animals, volumes prepared for the future and porteblyonnoj it is direct on biomass parking, that, in turn, can be used for creation of models of economic activities and calculations of is minimum possible number of inhabitants of parking,

The activity which is carried out on parking so also cannon equipment, had a strongly pronounced seasonal nature on which additional influence by duration of time of dwelling of the person on the investigated base was imposed. Thus, the basic modes of activity on a monument are shown by us to the following: - a mode of expectation of the approach of the basic migrating groups of animals with passing hunting for small and average animals living in a valley of Vitim, - and a mode connected with hunting for in large quantities migrating animals with preparation of meat and podelochnogo of raw materials (a stone and a bone).

Analyzing a vector of moving of stone raw materials (grafitit and cinnabar) ia tens kilometres from the radical sources on archaeological sites the Big Anchor, the Gingerbread, Invalid, is marked coincidence of trajectories of transportation to modern routes of migration of a reindeer. It is represented, that the given circumstance is the certificate of stability of routes of migration of a reindeer for last 13 000 years. Thus, and movement of the person on the given trajectories with passing gathering ’ and transportation of exotic breeds of stone raw materials was carried out during time perekochyovok behind a migrating food resource. In this case migrations of the ancient population were carried out on considerable distances on two trajectories from the north on the south and from the south ia the north. From here follows, that this phenomenon had a seasonal nature, and this circumstance detection in various cultural horizons (we will remind once again, seasonal time hunting camps), dated to pozdneosennemu or to the spring periods, the painting substance which radical exits are dated for the opposite ends of a seasonal migration of a reindeer - the basic food resource speaks.

The further interpretation planigrafii cultural horizons has been developed by us in interpretation dejatelnostnyh situations, their duration and volume for what attraction of all sum is necessary

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Data, not only planigraficheskih. Epistemologichesky (logikoyometodologicheskie) we described conditions of such work separately (Tetenkin, Ineshin, 2003; Ineshin, etc., 2004). The comparative analysis planigraficheskih the structures appropriated by it of functional values (in particular, reasonings on them as about short-term hunting camp) as we believe, will be more correct after the decision of this problem.

Carrying out planigraficheskogo the analysis of archaeological complexes of the Stone Age (a paleolith, mesolit, a neolith), in the Eastern Siberia, in particular, is complicated by a weak readiness and, from here, actual absence in research practice of the conventional scientific conventions, allowing to build corresponding judgements and doing such scientific knowledge the legitimate. In the same number there are still the extremely rare experiences of application ethnoarchaeological and proksemicheskih knowledge in planigraficheskoj interpretations (Vasilev, 1991; Holjushkin, 1992).

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A source: INESHIN EVGENIE MATVEEVICH. HUMAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AT THE BORDER OF THE PLAYOTSENA AND NOLOCHEEN ON THE BAIKAL-PATOMO HIGHLANDS (based on the materials of the multi-layered archaeological object Big Anchor -1). Thesis for the degree of candidate of historical sciences. Vladivostok - 2006. 2006

More on topic the Conclusion:

  1. the Conclusion
  4. the Conclusion
  5. the Conclusion
  7. the Pathomorphologic conclusion
  13. the Conclusion