3.2 Directions of development of anti-recessionary management in banks of commerce

the Basic directions of anti-recessionary management of banks in the conditions of banking system re-structuring are preventive, sanatsionnye and liquidating measures.

in our opinion, actions for a conclusion from crisis should begin on possible earlier stage of occurrence of problems, and work on anti-recessionary management should be divided on preparatory, preventive and work in the conditions of crisis (the last can be defined as pre-judicial and judicial measures).

Anti-recessionary management is closely connected with the analysis of activity of bank and actions for prevention of influence of separate symptoms and crisis factors in bank business.

feature of crisis in bank is its precipitancy and liquidity risk increase (the appendix 2 see). In the bank which has appeared in a difficult financial position, outflow of means begins with accounts, quality of an advances portfolio worsens, there are problems with a parity of incomes and expenses on the involved resources, there is a necessity of realisation of assets, optimisation of intrabank expenses, there are conflicts to bank customers, contradictions between shareholders, etc. problems. Far not completely listed list of necessary actions will have different efficiency, realisation term, set of variations of decisions and their consequences for the further existence of bank as business. At developed pogramme, sequences of measures AKU the probability of serious miscalculations will decrease.

the important condition of introduction of anti-recessionary measures at a preparatory stage is the demand from shareholders who should understand, that expenses for introduction AKU in bank activity repeatedly below expenses on rescue of bank in the conditions of crisis. The mechanism

anti-recessionary management is presented on fig. 3.7. Stage-by-stage carrying out preventive, sanatsionnoj or liquidating work.

a Fig. 3.7 Basic stages of anti-recessionary management in commercial


the Source: it is made by the author.

the spadework under the crisis prevention is directed on creation and development of the mechanism, allowing to reveal functioning problems, to develop methods and mechanisms of the decision problem

situations to which number traditionally carry display concrete

risks. Preventive maintenance measures are reflected on fig. 3.8.

Rice of 3.8 Actions of a preparatory stage of anti-recessionary management of a bank of commerce

the Source: [11, .729]

Precautionary actions should include drawing up and perfection of plans of anti-recessionary management; creation and debugging of mechanisms on their realisation; diagnostic measures; creation of the organizational structures adapted for crisis situations.

one of the important elements of work on preventive maintenance of occurrence of crises is working out and use in daily work of a package of documents the Policy of anti-recessionary management of a bank of commerce which is formed as the strategic program along with a credit, percentage policy, intrabank regulations of work.

the policy assumes the organisation of works to preventive maintenance of crisis situations and reflects all aspects of activity of bank in a crisis situation, a regulation of activity of divisions of bank in a part

precautionary actions.

in the Politician of anti-recessionary management should find reflexion following aspects: The purposes of anti-recessionary management; conditions of introduction of measures on anti-recessionary management and the control mechanism over occurrence
crisis symptoms; organizational structure of bank and function of divisions, a transition order to new structure in the conditions of crisis; distribution of responsibility and functional duties of a management and managers of bank; calculation of is minimum admissible requirements and sources of finance for effective functioning of bank during the crisis period; the organisation of information streams and working out of forms of the internal reporting; tools of anti-recessionary management and methodology of their application depending on symptoms of m of a stage of crisis; regulations of work of divisions of bank with creditors and investors; mechanisms of realisation of the decision of problems on property realisation, asset management, including problem groups of assets, optimisation of expenses on own activity; Approximate scenarios of anti-recessionary management depending on factors of occurrence of crises.

the preparatory stage assumes also creation of special division in organizational structure of bank, or investment with functions of anti-recessionary management of services of planning and economic analysis, management of liquidity, the internal control. Change of supervising and regulating functions of the Central Bank is widely discussed in banking circles, there is a necessity of perfection of the intrabank control and management of risks.

according to statutory acts of the Central Bank [133,134,135] in banks there is a service of the internal control which management directly submits to the chairman of board.

It is necessary to add a division special-purpose designation - revealing of quality of management and controllability of bank, granting of the information on financial circumstances to proprietors of bank - still with the additional, qualitatively new purpose crisis-prevention in bank. In this connection we suggest to expand powers of service of the internal control as this division of bank most meets the requirements
of independence and independence, knowledge regarding anti-recessionary procedures. Executive powers should remain according to plan - analytical and operational divisions of bank, also it is necessary to expand whose functions.

the second variant of possible creation of division of anti-recessionary management is based on association of the most significant functions on management of liquidity and risks. Unlike analytical service the anti-recessionary division is not engaged in the daily analysis of separate operations, problems of bank and reporting drawing up. Its problems are connected with the analysis of influence of separate risks and their sets on possibility of occurrence of crisis, revealing of internal and external crisis factors, influences on liquidity of bank in the long term, working out of scenarios of development of crisis in bank.

thus, it is possible to formulate the basic functions of anti-recessionary division: the preventive; the information;

the analytical; the communication; the strategic.

we will comment on offered distribution of the most significant functions on anti-recessionary management between bank divisions in table 3.6.

Distribution of functions on anti-recessionary management in

a bank of commerce on a constant basis Table 3.6

the Code



Functions of anti-recessionary bank management Division
1.1 Development and decision-making on

to formation and realisation of strategic aspects of anti-recessionary management

Board and proprietors of bank
1.2 Working out of program AKU Division AKU,

According to plan-analytical


1.3 Realization of program AKU Operational divisions, Designated in program AKU
1.4 the Analysis and management of separate risks Operational


table 3.6 Continuation

1.5 the Analysis and management of set of risks Management internal

the control, planovoanalitichesky department,

division AKU

1.6 Management of a current liquid position organisation Management

bank activity

1.7 Maintenance of timely carrying out


Operational department
1.8 Working out of limits and techniques of carrying out of separate operations Operational divisions, Division AKU
1.9 the Control over quality of management and execution of the developed decisions Management internal

the control

1.10 Management of bank safety safety Department
1.11 Working out of internal forms of the reporting According to plan-analytical


1.12 Carrying out of active operations,

provided by plan AKU

Departments currency,

share, credit

1.13 Carrying out of passive operations,

provided by plan AKU

Departments of passive operations
1.14 Working out and carrying out marketing


marketing Management
1.15 Working out of scenarios of development of bank, the analysis and the control over performance of a strategic direction by bank Management of the internal control, division AKU

the Source: it is made by the author

Experience of distribution of functions of anti-recessionary management, the analysis and the control exists in big banks of Russia, in KB Menatep-SPb operates independent division of anti-recessionary management

At such variant application modern reinzheniringa, vzaimouvjazyvajushchego is necessary for function of divisions and sequence of administrative decisions.

Program AKU can provide and change of the general organizational structure of bank in the conditions of crisis. Such changes concerns not only traditional staff reduction for the purpose of reduction of expenses by the maintenance, but also tactics use flexible orgstruktury when separate divisions, the most important in the changed conditions, pass in direct submission to a bank management (analytical, programmno - technical services). Also matrix structures which structure on

the moment of a crisis situation includes employees of other divisions can be used and carry out a direct management of anti-recessionary procedures.

thus, change of organizational structure of bank for carrying out AKU has following directions:

service AKU formation on a constant basis (investment with functions AKU of service of the internal control and according to plan - analytical service);

creation of independent division AKU;

distribution of functions AKU between divisions according to program AKU;

change of organizational structure in a crisis situation with creation of time matrix structure;

change of organizational structure in a crisis situation with resubmission of separate structures;

reduction orgstruktur in connection with a suspension of separate operations or for the purpose of reduction of expenses.

from all listed directions, in our opinion, the most rational and effective is formation of services AKU on a constant basis on the basis of already available divisions of the control, the analysis and planning. Creation of special anti-recessionary department will lead to duplication of separate functions, infringement of information streams in bank, to increase in expenses. All other directions will be used in a situation of absence of special programs and services and will manage to proprietors of bank much more expensively.

by working out of plans AKU it is necessary to give special attention to working out of methodology of realisation of the actions put in pawn in the program. It is necessary to differentiate actions for change of structure of assets and liabilities, for maintenance of liquidity and its replenishment from in advance certain sources, to decrease obshchebankovskih and operational expenses, a measure under the operative analysis and diagnostics, perfection

information base and other preventive tools AKUKB presented on fig. 3.9.

Rice 3.9 Preventive actions in system AKUKB

the Source: [11, .733]

Feature of preventive work is the organisation of actions for decrease in negative influence of a crisis situation on bank finance indexations, image, trust from creditors. Working out of scenarios, models of development of crisis with accurately calculated changes in indicators of activity and a plan of measures on decrease in losses and liquidity maintenance should become the basic preventive measures. In practical realisation of preventive measures the important place is occupied with re-structuring of balance and organizational structure of bank management for the purpose of reduction obshchebankovskih expenses.

work on revealing of the problems capable negatively to affect activity of bank (insolvency, unprofitableness, bankruptcy, liquidation), includes not only monitoring of the financial markets on which works bank, but also a pilot analysis of limits of work of divisions, the risks connected with operations and client base.

the Analysis of activity of bank in the conditions of application of anti-recessionary actions should have following purposes and the problems presented in table 3.7

to the Purpose and a problem of analytical actions 3.7

of the Purpose of the analysis Analytical problems
Definition of results

of activity of bank, value of assets and risks of activity

the Complex financial analysis of bank. The analysis of foreign markets, a commercial value of assets of bank
the Forecast of influence for financial circumstances of anti-recessionary measures the Analysis of scenarios of development of separate risks of bank, the forecast of changes of financial circumstances of bank at anti-recessionary influence
Drawing up flowing and

prognoznogo balance of payments of bank and sources of a covering of deficiency of liquidity

the Operative analysis of cash flows and liquidities of bank, the forecast of changes
the profitability Analysis

operations spent by bank

Optimization of operations spent by bank.

profitability Improvement, budgeting

bank divisions

Definition of changes of financial circumstances of bank in the course of anti-recessionary procedures Opreativnyj the analysis of results of anti-recessionary procedures on spent operations and performance of specifications of the Central Bank of Russia
Definition of financial circumstances of borrowers and so forth bank debtors the Current analysis of credit status, the analysis of influence of credit risks on crisis occurrence

the Source: it is made by the author

In table 3.7 the basic directions of the analysis of activity of bank for anti-recessionary management are presented. At the analysis important timely recognition of stages of an inconsistency of bank: Stages of the latent bankruptcy shown in growth of obligations, deterioration of structure of balance, non-observance or a borderline of specifications of liquidity; stages of the financial instability connected with a mismatch of financial streams and occurrence of chronic insolvency, decrease in the size of a shareholder's interest, infringement of standard requirements of Central bank.

preventive actions are divided on sanatsionnye and reorganizatsionnye and to be spent independently, compulsorily and With attraction of the third parties. Preventive actions to be spent by bank independently under the developed plan of financial improvement [131,132,133] containing data on terms of carrying out of actions, their executors and expected economic benefit in the form of perspective

the bank balance sheet. The greatest value has a furnishing a financial assistance and carrying out rekapitalizatsii.

the System of work in the conditions of crisis, i.e. at an extreme stage of development of bank also should be in advance developed and include a complex of active measures on prevention of bankruptcy or realisation of "softer" variant of leaving from the market of bank business with the least losses for bank owners, creditors and clients. Work in crisis should differ high manoeuvrability and efficiency. At this stage work with clients on prevention of "flight of investors, to preservation of resource base, work with bank owners on carrying out possible rekapitalizatsii is spent. Crisis development of bank during this period is characterised by deterioration of a financial position of the bank leading to infringement of standard and legislative requirements and occurrence of the bases for excitation of business about bankruptcy and licence withdrawal.

the general sequence of a conclusion of the credit organisation from crisis situations consists of eight blocks (five analytical and three logic), that allows to enter the decision of a problem into a cycle and to find an optimum way out of crisis (the appendix 15 see).

the Special attention at work in the conditions of crisis is given to formation of a crisis command. Using the theory of management and experience of the crisis enterprises, it is possible to draw a conclusion on necessity of a three-level control system for crisis bank:

experience of carrying out of anti-recessionary procedures in KB "Mosbusinessbank", KB "Toribank" and five more problem banks legal company "", under the guidance of E.K.Rebguna Is interesting. The structure of management of bankruptcy procedures consists of several groups: analytical, legal, technological, accounting, administrative and the security services, presented to table 3.8.

Structure of the divisions which are engaged in procedures of bankruptcy

of a bank of commerce Table 3.8







Tehnologicheska I group Administra







the Analysis Consideration Inventarizatsi Algorithm and Personnel the House-keeper
financial of requirements I of property and the plan work, icheskaja
conditions, creditors, financial competitive materials and
credit correspondence and obligations, manufactures, but - fiziche
a portfolio, consultations podtver - a technique tehniches - skaja
an estimation creditors, zhdenie carrying out which protection,
a portfolio participation in trebova-ny procedures, supply, an inform
securities, the analysis creditors, training obespeche - atsion
an estimation nedejstvitel conducting the personnel, nie estimations noe
financial nyh transactions, flowing the organisation and obespe



the file for

pretenzionnoj works

the control for




the managing director

business management in









the organisation




drawing up

is intermediate

go and

likvidatsionn ogo balance,

drawing up


the reporting

creditors' meetings and sessions








the Source: [162, .26]

the division of problems AKU Presented in table 3.6 allows to reduce considerably terms of competitive manufacture and more effectively to carry out expenses for procedures of liquidation of bank.

in the conditions of crisis of change in organizational management will differ a socially-psychological orientation, dynamism, application revolutionary and painful for the personnel and clients of transformations. It is connected by that in normal conditions slow evolutionary transformations are possible. In crisis reforming (change of organizational structure, technological bases, personnel

structure) occurs promptly and becomes complicated absence of financial, time resources, and is frequent also interest from owners and a bank management.

in the conditions of crisis (before licence withdrawal) it is possible to present All changes in activity of a bank of commerce in the form of four directions:

change of scale of operative activity;

structural changes of directions of activity;

change of organizational structure or the status;

global changes (business sale, liquidation, change of structure of shareholders, bankruptcy).

For definition of the future strategy of activity of bank it is necessary to carry out the structural-morphological analysis which general sequence is resulted in the appendix 16

Offers of the author on perfection of mechanisms

anti-recessionary management are reduced to following positions:

1) In crisis and economy depressions to bank business liquidation of unprofitable divisions, and also business sale is recommended to be guided by reduction strategy as which tools of realisation liquidation and leaving from certain spheres of bank business act. Thus liquidation by bankruptcy and a self-liquidating, as extreme measures of anti-recessionary management appears the most expensive. The most suitable become re-structuring of banks by transformation to branches, joinings and merges. Reduction of divisions, cutting off of inefficient spheres of business approaches as tools AKU at early stages of crisis and is applied within the limits of sanitation. Such strategy is predetermined by features of development of bank sector in Russia.

2) the technique of sale of bank as business is insufficiently developed. The reasons is absence of methodology of an estimation of a bank of commerce in the Russian conditions, absence of legal base of preservation property
a complex of bank, bank preservation as business. The most comprehensible is sanitation of bank by sale of a part of the actions, the offered A.L.Tarasevichem [178].

3) In the course of re-structuring of the credit organisations of one of key problems is the valuation of assets, got at problem banks. Working out of mechanisms of joint re-structuring of the enterprises - clients and banks is necessary. Lacks of operating system of protection of the property rights allow to deduce assets from the enterprises - bankrupts, to use possibilities of deliberate bankruptcy of bank customers. Increase of efficiency of interaction of banks and industrial sector by maintenance of execution of obligations of both parties, decrease in legal risks is necessary.

4) loss Is underestimated at bank crises of information bases, experience of management by banking technologies in separate big banks. Files of the information on clients these banks, their credit folders leave also. The information transparency, creation of credit bureaus, access to 6 categories of the information of banks is necessary: about financial circumstances, about the size of a shareholder's interest, solvency and liquidity, the description of strategy of management of risks, data on credit, operational, etc. to risks, the information on an accounting policy, the information on management and corporate governance system.

5) the differentiated approach to the norms regulating development of banks depending on the size, specialisation, territorial coverage, a financial circumstances and investment appeal, risk in region, formation of bases of a market discipline in the bank business, the least risky stimulation least risky and most effective policy Is necessary.

6) full realisation of strategy of restoration of bank sector and introduction of activity of the Russian banks in a channel of redistributive process as their patrimonial function is necessary.

7) There is not finished a formation of institute of guarantees of contributions and protection of banks against the state monopoly in the monetary and credit markets, institute of responsibility and obligations of banks and Bank of Russia before creditors. Prevails psevdolibiralnyj the approach in frameworks of a policy of re-structuring and deducing by "bankruptcy" bolshej parts of bank assets from sphere of a bank turn, sharp fall of liquidity.

8) it is necessary to define strategy of development of the Russian banks. High degree of uncertainty in the banking sphere, connected with instability and absence target (vosproizvodstvennoj) orientations of its regulation, has generated a syndrome of adaptation of the credit organisations to variability of situations and shift to development of informal relations on all circle of questions and among all participants of sphere of banking services. Adaptation of credit establishments to sharply varying conditions has predetermined increase of intersystem contradictions and decrease in the patrimonial functions.

the Operational experience in situations of crisis at the Russian banks more than is sufficient, but it is poorly generalised and has no in details developed regulations of actions, as a bright example of that spontaneous activity of banks in crisis of 1998 serves. In our opinion, the problematics of development of a banking system and its second level - banks of commerce is connected with absence at bankers of understanding of necessity of introduction in work of bank of anti-recessionary programs and models on a constant basis, and also absence of the accurate program of anti-recessionary regulation at the first level of a banking system.

successful realisation of process of anti-recessionary management depends on a number of the conditions which realisation will allow to use effectively all potential of bank and anti-recessionary management, will accelerate modernisation of bank branch in Russia:

initiation of processes of introduction of anti-recessionary management in bank from proprietors and regulating bodies, participation of the state in complex re-structuring of banks and their clients;

corporate culture, quality of management in bank;

an improved control system of bank, flexibility and adaptability of process of anti-recessionary bank management;

special attention to strategic planning of activity of bank, budgeting and use reizheniringa managerial processes;

mobilisation of internal potential of bank as business, realisation of marketing strategy, optimisation of processes rekapitalizatsii and reorganisation of banks;

scientifically - methodical maintenance of procedures of anti-recessionary management with banks.

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More on topic 3.2 Directions of development of anti-recessionary management in banks of commerce:

  1. the Maintenance of system of anti-recessionary management of banks of commerce and its development at the present stage
  2. Chapter 3. Development and perfection of the mechanism of anti-recessionary management by banks of commerce
  3. Essence, necessity and functions of anti-recessionary management by banks of commerce
  4. Chapter 1 Theoretical bases of anti-recessionary management of banks of commerce
  5. Chapter 2 the Role of anti-recessionary management of banks of commerce in the conditions of re-structuring of the Russian banking system
  6. the Organization of anti-recessionary management of banks in the conditions of re-structuring of a banking system of the Russian Federation
  7. DZJUBAN SVETLANA VIKTOROVNA. ANTI-RECESSIONARY MANAGEMENT of BANKS OF COMMERCE In the conditions of BANKING SYSTEM RE-STRUCTURING. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Orenburg - 2003, 2003
  8. the Analysis of practice of anti-recessionary management of regional banks of the Orenburg area
  9. 3.1 Methodical approach to strategic management of the noncommercial organisation with use of tools of preventive anti-recessionary management
  10. Frameworks of interaction of anti-recessionary management and banking system re-structuring
  11. 1.3. Necessity and features of anti-recessionary management of stability of the enterprise in market