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3.2.2. Influence immobilizovannyh yeast on dynamics of physical and chemical indicators kjuve

According to literary data at use immobilizovannyh yeast in effecting of sparkling wines by a bottle mean of one of problems the subsequent stability of a ready product [154, 155, 160, 161] is. Polysaccharides take part In formation of colloidal opacifications silent and sparkling wines (PS), squirrels (], phenolic materials (FV), and their complexes as separate high-molecular bonds [.

Data on influence immobilizovannyh in gel of yeast on colloidal system of the sparkling wines received at secondary fermentation in bottles, practically completely are absent.

In respect of the decision of a problem of stability of the sparkling wines received by means of this processing method, our further researches have been directed on studying of influence of yeast, immobilizovannyh in gel alginata
Calcium, on components of colloidal system vinomaterialov in the course of secondary fermentation and posletirazhnoj endurances.

Influence research immobilizovannyh yeast on dynamics fizikoyohimicheskih indicators spent on circulations with use vinomaterialov kinds Sovinon green, Rkatsiteli and a blend of factory of sparkling wines "New Light" depending on a dose alginata calcium and concentration of yeast in gel and tirazhnoj admixtures (t/s):

I - 4005 mg/dm3 alginata calcium; 400,1 million/sm3 gel; 1,00,1 million/sm3 tirazhnoj admixtures - 10 g beads;

II - 2005 mg/dm3 alginata calcium; 400,1 million/sm3 gel; 0,50,1 million/sm3 tirazhnoj admixtures - 5 g beads;

III - 2005 mg/dm3 alginata calcium; 800,1 million/sm3 gel; 1,00,1 million/sm3 tirazhnoj admixtures - 5 g beads.

As the control the variant with entering of free yeast (1,00,1 million/sm3 tirazhnoj served an admixture) and bentonite. For carrying out of secondary fermentation used the strain giving the least exit of cages from a template — Sevastopol-23. Samples were analyzed in 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months of endurance.

As a result of the spent researches it is established (tab. 3.4), that in all variants process of secondary fermentation has completely come to the end by one month of endurance. Superfluous pressure of carbonic gas in circulation on a basis vinomateriala kinds Sovinon was at level 710 kpa, in other circulations — 670-700 kpa. In the course of endurance pressure slightly decreases. The maintenance of Saccharums has averaged 0,1-0,2 g/100sm3, the alcohol volume fraction has increased on the average on 1,15 %об. Thus it has not been noted differences both between skilled variants, and in comparison with the control. Further it was not observed considerable changes of these indicators. Mass concentration of flying acids, the general and free dioksida sulfurs in the course of endurance practically did not variate, irrespective of quantity of led beads and initial concentration of yeast in tirazhnoj admixtures. Mass concentration

Titrated acids by two years of endurance has decreased on 0,4 - 0,6 g/dm3 depending on circulation.

Table 3.4

Change of physical and chemical indicators in the course of endurance (vinomaterial from kind Sovinon green)

Variants Fiziko-himichesYokie indicators Endurance time, month
0 1 3 6 9 12 18 24
4005 mg/dm3 Pressure, kpa - 710 710 710 705 700 700 700
alginata Sahara, g/100sm3 2,2 0,2 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1
Calcium Spirit, % about JU, 1 - P, 1 11,2 P, 2 AND, 1 N, 2 P, 2
400,5 million/sm3 Titr.k, g/dm3 7,3 - 6,8 6,7 6,6 6,5 6,5 6,5
Gel; Let.k, g/dm3 0,4 - 0,4 0,4 0,4 About, z 0,4 0,4
1,00,1 million/sm3 Dioksid sulfurs, 43,6 - 43,5 43,5 42,0 42,5 41,5 41,5
t/s; Mg/dm3, in tch svob. 6,4 - 6,4 6,4 5,8 5,7 5,8 5,8
2005 mg/dm3 Pressure, kpa - 710 710 705 705 700 700 700
alginata Sahara, g/100sm3 2,2 0,2 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1
Calcium Spirit, % about JU, 1 - P, 1 P, 1 P, 2 11,2 11,2 P, 2
400,5 million/sm3 Titr.k, g/dm3 7,3 - 6,9 6,8 6,8 6,7 6,7 6,7
Gel; Let.k, g/dm3 0,4 - 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4
0,50,1 million/sm3 Dioksid sulfurs, 43,6 - 43,6 42,7 42,5 42,3 42,0 42,0
t/s; Mg/dm3, in tch svob. 6,4 - 6,4 5,9 5,8 5,8 5,8 5,8
2005 mg/dm3 Pressure, kpa - 710 710 710 700 700 690 690
alginata Sahara, g/100sm3 2,2 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1
Calcium Spirit, % about JU, 1 - P, 1 N, 1 P, 2 AND, 2 P, 2 P, 2
800,5 million/sm3 Titr.k, g/dm3 7,3 - 6,8 6,8 6,8 6,7 6,7 6,6
Gel; Let.k, g/dm3 0,4 - 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4
1,0yo0,1mln/sm3 Dioksid sulfurs, 43,6 - 43,6 42,7 42,3 42,3 42,0 42,2
t/s; Mg/dm3, in tch svob. 6,4 - 6,4 5,9 5,8 5,8 5,8 5,8
Pressure, kpa - 710 710 710 700 700 700 680
Sahara, g/100sm3 2,2 0,2 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1
The control Spirit, % about 10,1 - 11,2 P, 2 N, 2 P, 2 P, 2 P, 2
1,00,1 million/sm3 Titr.k, g/dm3 7,3 - 6,8 6,8 6,8 6,7 6,7 6,7
t/s Let.k, g/dm3 0,4 - 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4
Dioksid sulfurs, 43,6 - 43,5 42,6 42,5 42,3 42,3 42,0
Mg/dm3, in tch svob. 6,4 - 6,4 5,9 5,8 5,8 5,8 5,8

The greatest changes have found such chemical indicators as polysaccharides, phenolic materials, squirrels, wine acid and calcium (tab.

3.5). In drawings 3.3, 3.4, 3.5 dynamics of the maintenance of high-molecular bonds and phenolic materials depending on a dose alginata calcium and concentration of yeast on an example of circulation from vinomateriala kinds Sovinon is presented. Similar data are received and for circulations on the basis of blend ZSHV "New Light" and vinomateriale kinds Rkatsiteli.

Analysis of the received results testifies that in secondary fermentation and the first months posletirazhnoj vderzhki there is a decrease in mass concentration of polysaccharides, proteins and phenolic bonds. Dependence of decrease in these components on quantity introduced alginata calcium is thus noted and is not established influences of concentration of yeast on change of these indicators.

So, the greatest decrease in the maintenance of polysaccharides and phenolic materials is revealed in skilled variants at entering 4005 mg/dm3 (12-21 and 18-19 % accordingly), the least — in a variant with 2005 mg/sm3 alginata calcium irrespective of initial concentration of yeast (8-17 and 14-15 % accordingly), and also in check samples on liquid distributing of yeast with concentration of cages 1,00,1 million/sm3 (9-16 and 13-15 % accordingly).

As to mass concentration of proteins its greatest decrease is noted in the control variant received on free yeast with addition of bentonite (68-81 %), and in pre-production models the same tendency remains: the more beads it was introduced into circulation, the it is more decrease in proteins (35-55 %).

The basic changes in concentration of polysaccharides and proteins descend within the first 6 months whereas essential changes in the maintenance of phenolic materials proceed within a year. In a time interval from a year till two years of endurance maintenance stabilisation was observed

Table 3.5

Change of the maintenance of separate components kjuve in two years of endurance

The name

The sample

The investigated

Component,

Mg/dm3

The initial

konts-ija

()

Final konts-ija () AND (I-K), %
I AND, III IV I II, III IV
Polysaccharides 205,3 162,2 169,7 170,5 -21 - 17 -16
Phenolic v-va 171,6 140,6 16,2 145,5 - 19 - 15 - 15
Sovinon Squirrels 5,0 2,3 z, z 1,7 -54 -34 -66
The green Wine acid 3400,0 2800,0 3100,0 3100,0 -15 -9 - 9
Calcium 80,2 104,7 100,1 78,5 23 19
Polysaccharides 214,9 172,1 182,5 183,2 -20 - 15 - 15
Phenolic v-va 193,0 156,8 166,9 167,3 - 19 - 13 - 13
Rkatsiteli Squirrels 2,4 1,0 1,5 0,4 -58 -37 -81
Wine acid 4450,0 3800,0 4000,0 4100,0 - 15 - 10 - 9
Calcium 80,2 102,1 99,5 79,5 22 19
Polysaccharides 195,5 172,2 178,9 178,0 - 12 -8 - 9
Blend Phenolic v-va 246,7 203,2 211,4 210,7 -18 - 14 - 15
ZSHV “New Squirrels 2,4 1,1 1,6 0,5 -54 . -33 - 79
Light ” Wine acid 4600,0 4000,0 4100,0 4150,0 - 13 -9 - 9
Calcium 86,2 112,1

, .. 3

105,3 85,3

, 3 t

23 18

, z.......... “

400,1 million/sm3 gel; 0,50,1 million/sm3 t/s; III - 2005 mg/dm3 alginata calcium; 800,1 million/sm3 gel; 1,00,1 million/sm3 t/s; IV - the control on free cells (1,00,1 million/sm3 + bentonite);

- Concentration decrease;

Rice 3.3. Dynamics of polysaccharides in process posletirazhnoj endurances (v/m kinds Sovinon green)

— •------4005 mg/dm3 alginata calcium; 1,00,1 million/sm3 t/s;

40+0,5 million/sm3 gel;

Rice 3.4. Dynamics of proteins in process posletirazhnoj endurances (v/m kinds Sovinon green)

---- •-------4005 mg/dm3 alginata calcium; 1,00,1 million/sm3 t/s;

400,5 million/sm3 gel;

Rice 3.5. Dynamics of phenolic materials in process posletirazhnoj endurances (v/m kinds Sovinon green)

— • — 4005 mg/dm3 alginata calcium; 1,00,1 million/sm3 t/s;

40г:0,5 million/sm3 gel;

High-molecular bonds and phenolic materials. The difference in urovene decrease in polysaccharides between varietal vinomaterialami and kulazhem ZSHV “New Light” is noted. An essential difference in decrease in the maintenance of proteins and phenolic materials between kulazhem and varietal vinomaterialami it is not revealed, despite their unequal initial maintenance.

Literary data [3, 36, 50, 98, 127] testify, that in the course of fermentation there is an awake influence of yeast on components of colloidal system of a mash. Similar processes descend and at secondary fermentation tirazhnoj admixtures in bottles [156, 158, 211].

In change of mass concentration of wine acid dependence on a dose introduced alginata calcium also is traced. In drawing 3.6 dynamics of decrease in mass concentration of wine acid depending on concentration alginata calcium and yeast on an example of circulation from vinomateriala kinds Sovinon is presented. Similar data are received for circulations on a basis vinomateriala kinds Rkatsiteli and a blend.

By two years of endurance (tab. 3.5) in the samples received with use 400yo5mg/dm3 alginata of calcium the maintenance of wine acid has decreased on the average on 15 %, and in a variant with 2005 mg/dm3 — on 9 % and was at level of the check samples received with use of free yeast.

In formation of crystal opacifications the considerable role is played by calcium. By one and a half years of endurance in kjuve pre-production models concentration of ions of calcium has averaged 112,2 mg/dm3 — 103,6 mg/dm3 depending on concentration alginata the calcium set in circulation whereas this indicator was in the control at level of 80,0 mg/dm3 and differed from initial (табл3.5) a little. Such augmentation Са2 + in kjuve, received on immobilizovannyh yeast is bound to particulate destruction Sa-alginatnyh of beads in acid medium and demands the account by working out of the conforming technologies. These data will quite be co-ordinated with literary data on this question [161, 217].

Wine acid, g/dm

Rice 3.6. Dynamics of wine acid in process posletirazhnoj endurances (v/m kinds Sovinon green)

------ •-------4005 mg/dm3 alginata calcium; 1,00,1 million/sm3 t/s;

400,5 million/sm3 gel;

In dynamics of the maintenance of wine acid and calcium ions (fig. 3.7) also it is noticed, that the most appreciable change of values of these indicators descends in the first half a year, and then they are gradually stabilised. However in the season with ones and a half till two years of endurance the tendency to insignificant decrease in concentration of calcium in kjuve, at the expense of process of particulate adsorption of ions Са2 + on beads is observed. Thus, direct dependence between decrease in the maintenance of high-molecular bonds (polysaccharides, squirrels), phenolic materials, wine acid and increase of calcium and quantity introduced alginata calcium is revealed: the it is more introduced into circulation Sa-alginatnyh of beads, the change of these components is more essential.

Proceeding from the received data, the optimum variant close on analytical indicators to a check sample on liquid distributing of yeast with concentration of cages 1,00,1 million/sm3, it is necessary to consider addition in tirazhnuju a bottle 2005 mg/dm3 alginata calcium at concentration of yeast 0,50,1 — 1,00,1 million/sm3 tirazhnoj admixtures that corresponds 5 g beads immobilizovannyh yeast.

For reception of sparkling wines, stable to physical and chemical and colloidal opacifications, it is recommended to use kupazhnye vinomaterialy with the following maintenance of biopolmers: polysaccharides - not above 400 mg/dm3, phenolic materials - not above 200 mg/dm3; proteins - not above 8 mg/dm3 [19].

All vinomaterialy, used by us in work, correspond to the above-stated requirements, except for blend ZSHV "New Light" in which the maintenance of phenolic materials slightly exceeds demanded concentration. However the researches spent at this factory IviV "Магарач" in 1988-1991гг, testify, that the maintenance of phenolic materials in ready kjuve varies from 200 to 260 mg/dm3 [104].

For the purpose of definition of influence of a dose alginata calcium on stability of sparkling wines in the course of endurance kjuve it was tested for propensity to

Sa, mg/dm

0 3 6

9 12

18 24

X, month

Rice 3.7. Dynamics of calcium in process posletirazhnoj endurances (v/m kinds Sovinon green)

— •---------4005 mg/dm3 alginata calcium; 1,00,1 million/sm3 t/s;

400,5 million/sm3 gel;

To reversible both irreciprocal colloidal and crystal opacifications (tab. 3.6).

Table 3.6

Influence alginata calcium on propensity kjuve to colloidal and crystal opacifications

“-Was stable to opacifications.

It is shown, that, since 9 months of endurance kjuve, received with use as immobilizovannyh, and free yeast, did not show propensity to the investigated kinds of opacifications. However, it is necessary to notice, that samples sparkling, received at addition 4005 mg/dm3 alginata calcium after one year of endurance have appeared are inclined to crystal opacifications.

It can be explained more substantial increase of the maintenance of calcium in the course of endurance kjuve on Sa-alginatnyh beads at the expense of their particulate destruction in acid medium.

Thus, as a result of researches it is established, that change of components (polysaccharides, squirrels, phenolic materials, wine acid, calcium), responsible for propensity to colloidal and crystal opacifications, depends on a dose led alginata calcium. The sparkling wines received at entering 2005 mg/dm3 alginata of calcium (5 g beads immobilizovannyh yeast) with concentration of cages of yeast in tirazhnoj admixtures 0,50,1 and 1,00,1 million/sm3 are stable to these kinds of opacifications and correspond to the requirements defining stability of a ready product.

Received ekperimentalnye data have been treated with application of methods of mathematical statistics. Dependence of change of concentration of separate components kjuve from endurance time in various variants of experience was studied. Mathematical processing was spent for the purpose of reception of the equations most adequately describing process. Residual variances for various phylums of dependences were compared: linear, sedate and polynominal. Relative analysis raschitannyh determination quotients (R2) has allowed to choose polynominal dependences, as most precisely describing process. Results of calculations for circulation from kind Sovinon are resulted in table 3.7. Similar results are received and for other circulations. High values of quotients of determination allow to judge reliability received ekperimentalnyh data

Results of researches have allowed to make changes to the technological instruction on effecting of sparkling wines by a bottle mean with use immobilizovannyh yeast and to lower a dose alginata calcium with 4005 mg/dm3 to 2005 mg/dm3. Are developed and confirmed TI and THAT on an experimental batch of a white sparkling wine.

Change of some indicators kjuve in the course of endurance

Variants Polysaccharides Squirrels Fnolnye materials Wine кислота* Calcium
I u=0,18h2-5,8h+201,3 u=0,01h2-0, Зх+4,7 u=0,09h2-3,4h+170,7 u=0,002h2-0,06h+3,4 At =-0,1 2х2+3, 7х+85,8
R2=0,93 R2=0,94 R2=0,99 R2=0,96 R2=0,84
II u=0,14h2-4,5h+201,3 u=0,01h2-0,2h+4,6 u=0,07h2-2,8h+172 u=0,001h2-0,05h+3,4 At =-0,09h2+2,8h+85
R2=0,90 R2=0,84 R2=0,99 R2=0,96 R2=82
III u=0,15h2-4,8h+201,7 u=0,01h2-0,2h+4,6 u=0,06h2-2,7h+172,3 u=0,001h2-0,05h+3,4 At =-0,09h2+2,7h+85,11
R2=0,92 R2=0,81 R2=0,99 R2=0,95 R2=0,80
IV u=0,13h2-4,2h+201,3 u=0,01h2-0,4h+4,4 u=0,07h2-2,7h+171,7 u=0,001h2-0,04h+3,4 u=0,003h2-0,14h+80,4
R2=0,89 R2=0,88 R2=0,99 R2=0,96 R2=0,91

Notes: I - 4005 mg/dm3 alginata calcium; 400,1 million/sm3 gel; 1,00,1 million/sm3 t/s; II - 2005 mg/dm3 alginata calcium; 400,1 million/sm3 gel; 0,50,1 million/sm3 t/s; III - 2005 mg/dm3 alginata calcium; 800,1 million/sm3 gel; 1,00,1 million/sm3 t/s; IV - the control on free cells (1,00,1 million/sm3 + bentonite);

At — mass concentration of material, mg/dm3, * - g/dm3; h — endurance time, month

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A source: SOGOJAN KARINE RUDOLFOVNA. BIOCHEMICAL FEATURES of USE IMMOBILIZOVANNYH of YEAST In EFFECTING of SPARKLING WINES by the BOTTLE MEAN. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Tech.Sci. Yalta, 1998. 1998

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