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1. Studying history

Studying of settlements of medieval Maris has begun in second half XIX centuries and carried more likely sobiratelsky character. For the first time interest to poselencheskim to monuments as to an object of research is shown in 1852 and connected with the Chuvash historian and ethnographer C.M.

Mihajlovym, surveying ancient monuments in Kozmodemjansky district of the Kazan province. The legends collected by it, descriptions of sites of ancient settlement repeatedly found reflexion on pages of the Kazan provincial sheets.

The author of publications results the detailed description of strengthenings Sundyr - skoj mountains (the Vazhnangersky site of ancient settlement) where to contain following data: ... Strengthening begins originally with the western edge of mountain hardly perceptible ditch levelled with zemleju which, reaching the south, becomes more considerable, and further all South side, approximately on a verst quarter, bends around a semicircle an earthen shaft, vyshinoju arshin places in two, and the ditch, glubinoju more than arshin, goes nearby behind shaft, and both of them reach to mountain North country, is perfect their cutting the abrupt rock to the Volga party; the middle of a shaft and a ditch is cut: most likely, there were here gate or any other aperture for sorties. The most dangerous point, undoubtedly from the south on which the plain turned into arable lands and from which it was convenient to Russian to attack strengthening from here is stretched; for this reason and strengthening from this party becomes defensive, and other edges of mountain, on krutosti them are unapproachable, only from time they have enough fallen off and fall off on weakness of a ground of the earth... (Mihajlov C.M. 1972. With. 34). B present time shaft do not incorporate among themselves, and strengthenings mysovoj parts of a site of ancient settlement are allocated with hardly appreciable depression in the ground.

The large sizes of a site of ancient settlement, powerful defensive system have provoked interest to interpretation of a monument and attempts to connect it with concrete historical events. B particulars, referring to Russian State History H.M. Karamzin, C.M. Mihajlov assumed, that events 1524 r., when the army of the prince Paletsky has suffered defeat from cheremis, is connected with Sundyrsky mountain. CHeremisy have blocked the river stones and trees that vessels could not pass, and from above ... Arrows were strewed on them and logs slid... (Mihajlov C.M. 1972. With. 43). Ha the basis of national legends that at mountain cheremis there was in olden time five-foreman Chalym and about burning of a city by Russian, C.M. Mihajlov comes out with the assumption that the Sundyrsky mountain could be annalistic Chalymsky small town. Other interpretation of the name of mountain gives jazykoved N.I.Zolotnitsky. Name Sundyr, in its opinion, is connected with the district, and designates "polati", "towers", that is, sentry points at settlements from which in days of the Kazan khanate signals about occurrence of enemies were transferred. Signals about danger were transferred by means of fires. The flame on gornomarijsky - "salym", from here N.I.Zolotnitsky also deduces the name Chalymsky small town, also otozhestvljaja it with Sundyrsky mountain (Shpilevsky C.M. 1887. With.

534). B a course of archeological excavations it is established, that the Vazhnangersky (Few-Sundyrsky) site of ancient settlement stops the existence in the end of XV century Things of later shape it is not revealed, accordingly to connect Sundyrsky mountain with Chalymsky small town there are no bases.

By preparation for IV Archaeological congress, monuments Kozmo - demjanskogo district have been in addition surveyed C.M. Shpilevsky, collected legends about existence in a mouth p. Sundyrki (near d. JUljaly) Torgovitsky fair. Under legends, in antiquities here there came vessels with salt, dealers with the various goods: silk, cloth, ornaments which exchanged on furs, honey, fish. A favourable geographical position (on the one hand p. Volga, with another - overland road Nizhni Novgorod -

Kazan) promoted inflow of the goods from distant places. Here there was also a mill (Shpilevsky C.M. 1877. With. 538). According to historian A.G.Ivanov, found out in 1987 B.B. Nikitin Juljalskoe selishche was Torgovitsky fair (Ivanov A.G. 1994. With. 215).

The first archaeological researches of settlements of Maris XIII - have begun XV centuries in 1951 - 1952 B a course of carrying out of prospecting works on Gornomarijsky area P.B. CHubarovoj archaeological monuments in a right bank of Volga are opened some, partial excavation has been spent on the Juljalsky site of ancient settlement. Iron subjects, ceramics on which the site of ancient settlement is dated by the II thousand middle AD (CHubarova P.B are found out. 1953. With. 186). Rekognostsirovochnye works have been spent on Vazhnangersky (A little - Sundyrsky) site of ancient settlement. The material is presented by the ceramics, dating things is not found. Ha the basis of local legends and ceramics time of existence of site of ancient settlement P.B. CHubarovoj it is defined XVI century (CHubarova P.B. 1953. With. 184).

Qualitative changes of source study base are connected with creation in 1956 of Mahe, developed regular works on research of monuments of archeology though on medieval settlements of Maris, owing to various circumstances, attention addressed a little.

B 1957 by group of Mahe it is studied drevnemarijskoe selishche, located on cape of radical right coast p. Volga - III. Ha the areas - 193 sq. m. economic construction which the researcher interpreted as a barn with a cellar is studied. The material is presented by millstones, pestom, a bit, ceramics. Selishche it is dated XIII - XIV centuries (Arhipov G. A. 1982. With. 18). B 100 m from Noselsky III are revealed simultaneous to it selishche - Noselsky II, located on cape Varash ner (Hawk cape). The ceramic material selishcha is similar Noselsky III selishchu, on this basis the monument is dated XIII - XIV centuries (Arhipov Γ. Α., Halikov A.X. 1958. The report... L. 224). At check of a modern condition selishch D.J.Efremovoj is specified the area of monuments (3 333 and 819 sq. m, accordingly). At shurfovke Noselsky III selishcha are found out soshnik, a fragment of a nimbus from an iron copper, a ceramic material (Efremova D.J. 2004. The report... L. 19, 23).

B 1958 group under the guidance of T.A. Hlebnikovoj are begun, and in 1964 works on the Vazhnangersky (Few-Sundyrsky) site of ancient settlement are continued. The opened area has made 1040 sq. m. some constructions of various character among which summer dwellings are allocated, cellars, holes of economic appointment, with a considerable quantity stolbovyh holes and the fencing rests (Hlebnikova T.A Are studied. 1967. With. 155). B the same year archeological excavations had been investigated the Siuhinsky complex. Co the smithy layer connects the rich ware stock presented by iron tools of work and household things. The smithy has been preliminary dated XII - XIII centuries (Halikov A.X. 1958. The report... L. 99), later, G.A.Arhipov has defined date of its existence within XIII - XIV centuries (Arhipov G. A. 1973. With. 72).

B 1974 during prospecting works as group of Mahe under the guidance of B.B. Nikitin it is revealed medieval selishche - Shunangersky III, located on ostantse at bottom of a radical terrace of the right coast p. Volga. The hole of economic appointment is studied, the ceramics is collected. Selishche it is dated on the basis of ceramics XII - XIII centuries (Nikitin B.B. 1974. The report... L. 79-80). The analysis of a ceramic material (the circular ware is presented only) and, first of all, registration of edge of a nimbus (flow from an outer side, expressed blokovidnost), allow to carry this monument to XIII - XV centuries

B 1983 G.A.Arhipov renews researches on the Vazhnangersky (Few-Sundyrsky) site of ancient settlement. Raskopom the area 368 sq. m studies North country of a platform of a site of ancient settlement, and also of 1 m is cut by a trench in width northern end of a shaft. Ha to a platform the construction which is, under the assumption of the researcher, is studied by the sanctuary rests; economic and stolbovye holes. The ware stock is presented by ceramics, products from black and nonferrous metal. On a coin and ware stock the site of ancient settlement is dated XIV - XV centuries and defined by the researcher as one of the breeding centres of Maris (Arhipov G. A. 1983. The report... L. 3, 9).

At excavation of Udelno-Shumetsky XII settlement of an epoch of a stone the construction connected with a layer medieval selishcha has been studied. Construction is defined by the researcher as inhabited with the centre in the centre. On a ware material and ceramics Udelno-Shumetsky selishche it is dated XIII - XV centuries (Nikitin B.B. 1986. The report... L. 34-35). B 1986 during prospecting works B.B. Nikitin finds out a semidugout connected with a layer medieval selishcha. Selishche (Udelno-Shumetsky II) occupied dune edge. B an occupation layer capacity to 30 sm finds a modelled bowl with an impurity dresvy. Here in taluses fragments of modelled pots with an impurity large shamota and a shod iron nail are collected. Selishche it is dated by II thousand AD (Nikitin B.B. 1987. The report... L. 51).

B 1987 on the western end d. Mountain SHumets Jurinsky area on high cape of a radical terrace p. Volga, formed by two ravines, B.B. Nikitin the settlement dated XIII is revealed - XV centuries the Monument is certain by the researcher as a site of ancient settlement. Cape slopes are strongly broken by landslips. B taluses fragments of modelled ware with an impurity shamota and bowls are collected. The circular ware is presented by vessels with an impurity dresvy, bowls, sand, on separate fragments an ornament in the form of the direct drawn strips. Except ware, household iron subjects are found: a knife, a sickle fragment, podkovka from footwear (Nikitin B.B. 1987. The report... L. 49). At repeated survey in 2004 r., in mysovoj parts economic construction has been investigated, the additional ware stock is received. On the hinged lock with the semicircular basis and a chink for a key in the case, construction is dated by time not earlier than the end of XV century (Nikitin B.B. 2004. The report... L. 11). B 130 m to the north from the Gornoshumetsky site of ancient settlement are revealed small selishche with the ware similar found on site of ancient settlement (Nikitin B.B. 2004. The report... L. 49).

B 1987 prospecting group of Mahe under the guidance of B.B. Nikitin it has been opened and next year it is surveyed Juljalsky selishche. The monument is located in a mouth p. Sundyr, the right inflow p. Volga, occupies the right inundated coast p. Volga. For definition of a cultural accessory on selishche 4 trenches by a total area 80 sq. m. are put in pawn the rests of economic constructions Are opened. Ha the basis of ware stock selishche it is dated XIV - XV centuries (Nikitin B.B. 1987. The report... L. 60-63; Nikitin B.B. 1988. The report... L. 8-9).

B 1992 on a radical terrace of the left coast p. Sundyr near d. Saut - the cinema is revealed one more medieval selishche. B result zachistki breakage of a radical terrace (5 m at length and 0,8 - 1,5 m at width) are fixed contours of construction with podpolom. B a course of excavation the ware material including ceramics, bronze pieces of a covering, massive iron handles, the lock is received. On the lock selishche it is dated XIV - XV centuries Proceeding from the small area selishcha, B.B. Nikitin has assumed, that here took places separately standing ilem. (Nikitin B.B. 1992. The report... L. 22). B 2004 at repeated inspection of a monument of D.J.Efremovoj the area - 10 900 sq. m is specified, the additional ware stock (by Efremova D.J. 2004 is received. The report... L. 11).

B result of survey of coastal line B.B. Nikitin in 500 m to the northwest from d. SHartnejka the collection of modelled and circular ware having analogies in ware Juljalsky selishcha and the Vazhnangersky (Few-Sundyrsky) site of ancient settlement has been collected. On ceramics selishche it is dated within XIV - XV centuries (Nikitin B.B. 1992. The report... L. 24). The similar ceramics is found out on mysovidnyh platforms in 800 m from d. Vazhnanger eornoma - rijskogo area. Selishche swings open, the occupation layer is broken. Ha to a ploughed land the considerable ceramic material in a fragmentary condition is collected. By analogy to ceramics of the Vazhnangersky (Few-Sundyrsky) site of ancient settlement and Juljalsky selishcha the monument is dated XIV - XV centuries (Nikitin B.B. 1992. L. 29). At check of a modern condition of D.J.Efremovoj on distribution of finds the monument area is defined about 8300 sq. m. (EfremovaD.JU. 2004. With. 14).

B 1991 B.B. Nikitin openly medieval selishche at d. Red Selishche Gornomarijsky area (Nikitin B.B. 1992. The report... L. 32), which during four field seasons (1995 - 1998) was investigated by T.B.Nikitinoj. Selishche it is located on the first nadpojmennoj to a terrace of the right coast p. Sura, on the right coast of the anonymous stream running in p. Sura. During researches on selishche it is opened 470 sq. m. It is studied two inhabited constructions and the economic objects connected with them. Ha the basis of the found out things (keys of the Novgorod type, a pin, a part of the copper lock in the form of a unicorn) selishche it is dated XIII - XIV centuries (Nikitina T.B. 2000. With. 56). B a course of inspection of nearby territory in 1995 T.B.Nikitinoj to openly two simultaneous it selishcha (selishche Red selishche III and IV).

B 1999 B.B. Nikitin had been spent works on inspection of a coastal line of the Cheboksary water basin. B result it is revealed medieval selishche, located in 300 m to the West from d. Kljuchevo. The material selishcha is presented by 3 types of ceramics: Mari, "slavjanoidnoj" and bulgarskoj. The ceramic material is similar to ware of the Vazhnangersky (Few-Sundyrsky) site of ancient settlement on the basis of what selishche it is dated by the same period (Nikitin B.B. 1999. The report... L. 35). Simultaneous selishche it is revealed in 1000 m to the northwest from d. SHartnejka Gornomarijsky area - Shartnejsky II. Selishche it is strongly destroyed by the Cheboksary water basin. Gathering are presented by ceramics (modelled and circular), a stirrup fragment, and two uncertain iron subjects. The monument is dated by first half II thousand AD (Nikitin B.B. 1999. The report... With. 29). K to the same period concerns selishche revealed at d. JAndushevo (Nikitin B.B. 1999. With. 37). The monument occupies the high cape formed by two ravines vrezannymi in the left coast of ravine Kopan, leaving in I will understand p. B.Sundyrka at d. Vazhnanger. Length of cape of 100 m, width 15 - 18 m, height over pojmoj 23 m. East and western slope steep also are showered. The platform (20 x 15) is cut off by the small ditch cutting cape from an East side almost up to the end where narrow journey in width about 2 m. B taluses is traced the modelled ware with a bowl and sand impurity is collected. Shurfov - which presence of an occupation layer in the form of dark gummirovannoj sandy loams by capacity to 10 is established - 20 see Rekognostsirovochnye works from the floor party, behind an isthmus, have given iron things and fragments of circular ware with an impurity dresvy, allowing to carry a monument to second half II thousand AD

C 1999 for 2005 joint expedition MarNIIJALI (head T.B.Nikitin) and RGUK FACE DOWNWARDS on protection of monuments (head A.I.Mikheyev) carried out archaeological researches of the Vazhnangersky (Few-Sundyrsky) site of ancient settlement.

B 1999 - 2000 are connected raskopy previous years that has allowed to present more full planigraficheskuju a situation on a monument. Iloshchad raskopa has made 292 sq.m.

B 2000 on a monument the passport has been made. B communications by that the village Small Sundyr has stopped the existence, the name to a site of ancient settlement has been given on existing village Vazhnanger, accordingly the monument has received the double name - the Vazhnangersky (Few-Sundyrsky) site of ancient settlement.

B it has been put in pawn two raskopa by a total area 496 sq. m 2002: raskop 1 closely adjoined to raskopu 2000 and was its actual continuation; raskop 2 adjoined to raskopu 1983 and represented a trench cutting a shaft and a ditch, and also leaving on a floor part of a site of ancient settlement.

B research of defensive works by two raskopami by a total area of 170 sq.m. Raskop 1 area 106 sq. m 2003 is continued cut a shaft and a ditch of a site of ancient settlement from the floor party, raskop 64 sq. m has been put in pawn by 2 area in mysovoj parts of a site of ancient settlement where the rests of one more shaft and a ditch are found out.

B previous year researches 2004 are continued. Raskop 1 2004 the area 158 sq. m closely adjoined to raskopu 2003 r., raskop 2 area 60 sq. m about a shaft from the floor party continued raskop 1958 B result of the spent researches on raskope 1 inhabited construction and 3 holes of economic appointment is revealed, raskop 2 is presented by two holes of economic appointment.

B researches on mysovoj parts of a site of ancient settlement 2005 are continued. Raskop 1 area 60 sq. m continued raskop 2004 r., here 2 holes of economic appointment and stolbovye poles from a fencing are revealed; raskop by 2 area 132 sq. m it is put in pawn on mysovoj to a platform behind a ditch. B a course of researches the sanctuary with enough difficult structure is revealed. Capacity of a sacrificial layer has made 25 - 30 see

B 2001 A.I.Miheevoj is opened a bush of monuments at d. Bottom Shela - bolki the Gornomarijsky area, consisting from 3 selishch. The economic hole, the centre rests is studied. Selishcha are simultaneous. Ha to a basis of a ceramic material, a manual millstone, a knife selishche it is dated XIII - XV centuries (Miheeva A.I. 2002. The report... With. 6-9).

B the same year prospecting works B.B. Nikitin on the brink of a high sandy dune of southeast coast staritsy the right coast p. Vetlugi, it is revealed medieval Sutyrsky V selishche. The ceramics is presented by the rests of modelled and circular ware. Modelled ware of grey colour with a plentiful impurity large shamota with a hilly surface; the circular is presented by fragments with an impurity dresvy and sand in forming weight. Raskopom (40 sq.) the construction of type of a cellar is investigated. On ceramics selishche it is dated by first half II thousand AD (Nikitin B.B. 2001. With. 18).

B archaeological researches on Juljal - skom selishche which was strongly washed away as a result of influence of the Cheboksary water basin 2002 have been carried out. Raskopom the area 82 sq. m opens the rests of inhabited construction podkvadratnyh outlines, some economic holes (by Miheeva A.I. 2003. The report...).

Thus, thanks to the works spent by Mahe, RGUK NPTS on protection of monuments, in a scientific turn are entered 25 new monuments dated within the end XIII - XV centuries, among them 2 sites of ancient settlement, 2 industrial objects, 21 selishche. Monuments are concentrated along the left and right coast of Volga. B difference from excavation of the last decades medieval settlements of Maris were studied by the big areas. Along with sites of ancient settlement, not strengthened settlements - selishcha were studied. The important result became as well revealing during excavation of character of strengthenings of sites of ancient settlement, the rests of inhabited and economic constructions.

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A source: MIKHEEVA AURIKA IVANOVNA. Settlements of the Mari Volga region in the Middle Ages epoch (KhPI-X & # 1140; centuries). Thesis for the degree of candidate of historical sciences. Izhevsk-2006. 2006

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