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2.1. Essence and features of financing of the enterprises of motor transport of the general use

the Passenger motor transport of the general use makes direct impact on efficiency of a national economy as is the important link between production of the goods, works, services and their consumption, supplying the basic part of labour and cultural and community trips of the population.

specificity of the organisation of the finance of the enterprises of motor transport of the general use consists in branch features of its economy and the organisation of production and the management, caused by production.

the enterprises of passenger motor transport of the general use have following features:

transport concerns infrastructural branches that defines general character of production made by it. Thus, social and economic development of the enterprises of transport has broad significance as for satisfaction of requirements of the enterprises of basic branches, and for improvement of quality of a life of the population in certain region and in the country as a whole [92];

production of these enterprises are socially significant services;

production of services is carried out out of territory of the enterprise and largely defined by environment factors (consumers, competitors, prirodno-climatic

47 conditions, the state restrictions connected with road and transport conditions, ecological effect, traffic safety);

passenger transport production as service cannot be made for the future, accumulated, stored, that is production is necessary for organising in exact conformity with demand that requires formation reserve provoznyh abilities [85];

production and production consumption synchronises;

as a unit of measure of transport production use specific indicators: passazhiro-kilometres and quantity of passengers;

in a total cost of the cores and circulating assets the first have essentially bolshy specific weight, than at the industrial or building enterprises [92];

are characterised by non-uniformity of use in the course of the year means of transport. Thereupon for satisfaction of requirements of consumers capacities should be calculated for "peak" load, instead of on its average size for the certain period;

objectively caused underexploitation of capacities essentially influences result of financial and economic activity and is one of the major problems of management of the enterprises of a passenger transport [68].

as a part of production assets there are no the raw materials which cost is rather significant on industrial enterprises;

smaller in comparison with railway transportation capital investments at development of small volumes of passenger traffic on small distances and at the same time rather higher cost price of passenger carriages [85].

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in the cost price of carriages high specific weight is made wages, and also by expenses for fuel, electric energy, amortisation, repair that is caused by specificity of transport where the prevailing part of a fixed capital is in movement;

the most widespread organizational-legal form PATP - the unitary enterprise of a regional or municipal pattern of ownership;

the state actively interferes with price-fixing and requests to production of the enterprises that is expressed in formation of system of the state and municipal order for passenger carriages and the admission of carriers on the market on a competitive basis.

Authorities on tariff regulation belong to government bodies of the subject of the Russian Federation [11];

function as according to plan unprofitable. Losses are caused by that tariffs for passenger carriages (the ticket price) for the population are established below cost and are directive for PATP;

local character of production and consumption of services GPT defines expediency of a transfer of function of management of process of granting of services to local government bodies.

the principle of municipal responsibility and authorities in sphere GPT is fixed in Transport strategy of the Russian Federation for the period till 2020 and means, that the local government bears complete responsibility for the organisation of transport service, but thus is the proprietor of a corresponding infrastructure and a routeing network, and also has all necessary authorities fixed by the federal legislation.

distribution of powers in sphere of passenger motor transport of the general use according to the legislation Russian

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the Federations, regulating its functioning and financing, it is presented on fig. 2.1.

the State support of motor transport

Federal level

Regional level

Local level

MUP PATP

state

social

the order

State Unitary Enterprise PATP

PATP other organizational-legal forms

The municipal order

operates the property

carries out the state support

a Fig. 2.1. The scheme of distribution of powers in sphere GPT between budget system levels

the Analysis of a state of the art and problems of functioning PATP, conducted in chapter 1, and branch specificity of the finance of passenger motor transport of Russia allows to allocate following features of its financing. So, financing PATP:

is multilevel and multichannel (the basic source of financial resources internal funds PATP and budgets of all levels are);

at the heart of financing the average cost of one kilometre of carriages with action of correction factors depending on type of a rolling stock [55] lays;

provides compensation of expenses of the enterprises which have concluded dogovory on fulfilment of a social public contract on

1) 50 carriage separate categories of passengers with granting of privileges on payment of the journey, established by the acting federal and regional legislation. The given category of expenses arises at realisation of uniform social passage tickets (ESPB);

provides indemnification from the state (local) budget of dropping out incomes of the motor transportation organisations in connection with application of state regulation of tariffs for services of a public passenger transport. It is carried out on the basis of distribution between the passenger enterprises according to certain percent of a profitable part of the budget that does not allow PATP to cover losses and compels to raise the tariff [55];

financing PATP from the municipal budget is based on a principle of residual financing of transport. Economic-organizational features of functioning PATP

in many respects define the basic directions of their financing which can be grouped in 5 blocks on kinds of costs and financing sources (fig. 2.2):

financing of the losses caused by state regulation of tariffs for passenger carriages;

financing of the losses connected with social support of separate categories of citizens and realisation ESPB;

financing of acquisition of a rolling stock (the simple and expanded reproduction);

financing of other government capital expenditures (acquisition of the equipment for repair of means of transport, building of objects of an industrial and social infrastructure etc.) ;

financing of the costs connected with realisation of current activity PATP (costs for a payment of workers of the enterprise, acquisition expenses of materials (spare parts and PETROLEUM PRODUCTS), repair and maintenance service of means of transport,

51 functioning and service of objects of social infrastructure PATP, obligatory and property voluntary insurance etc.).

the Grouping of costs PATP under their economic contents on the flowing and capital is caused by necessity of differentiation of sources and financing forms on draught on funds designated purpose: on financing it is industrial-economic activities PATP and investment activity.

within the limits of the given classification operational expenditure PATP is meant as expenses for its realisation is industrial-economic activities. Government capital expenditures PATP are meant as the expenses having investment character.

government capital expenditures, as a rule, have single character and differ from the operational expenditure more long period between the moment of investment of capital and reception of return from it [92].

On the basis of the allocated features of formation and Uses of financial resources of the enterprises of transport branch, and Also the conducted analysis of theoretical approaches to concept "Financing" is obviously possible to consider

financing of the enterprises of an automobile public passenger transport as process of maintenance by financial resources of industrial-economic and investment activity of the enterprises of an automobile public passenger transport for rendering of socially significant services to the population on conveyance of passengers (fig. 2.3). Thus conditions of maintenance with financial resources PATP are defined by influence of various factors.

within the limits of the given approach to concept definition financing of the enterprises of passenger motor transport it is possible to allocate and systematise following principles of financing PATP in modern conditions:

The basic directions of financing PATP

Z

X

Operational expenditure

Government capital expenditures

I

the Federal budget (FTSP and

the budgetary credit)

the Regional budget (RTSP and

the budgetary credit)

Internal funds (profit and

amortisation)

Bank credits and leasing

ev eja j About

n 3 %

S

I

SZ

09 About

2 l n

and I I

in 5S

? 3 islands

S and

ft I about

About, 2

S with? To

I n About

I (=t l 2

I

St about

X about

03 It

HE

the Estimation of risks

Working out of actions for minimisation of risks

Definition of concrete forms of financing within the limits of the chosen methods and with allowance for a risk level

the Estimation of efficiency of financing PATP in a cut of forms on kinds of generated effect

^ ) I > And L 1- 2 8 *? 2 p W 3S About YO HJ WITH AND ABOUT AND With: P About And ABOUT > n

* About (-1

2 E TO? And 5-e -

P

about ^g

n

About And Estimation of integrated effect of financing

I

Working out of actions for increase of efficiency of financing PATP

a Fig. 2.5. Stages of financing PATP

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Exarticulation of the given stages of financing is obviously important for PATP as allows to realise principles of economic validity and efficiency of expenses, that is defining criterion at state financing allocation in a kind of that the significant part of costs of majority PATP is covered now at the expense of budgetary funds. Thus, at each stage of financing realisation of principles of financing is traced.

besides, the choice of a method and sources of financing of the enterprise depends on many factors among which it is possible to allocate following [37,85]:

the organizational-legal form of the enterprise,

branch features of operational activity of the enterprise,

the size and age of the enterprise,

cost of the capital involved from various sources,

possibility of a choice of sources of financing,

market condition of capitals,

level of the taxation of profit,

cash flow size,

efficiency of return from the involved capital,

a parity own and a loan capital (level of financial independence of the enterprise),

a class of risk of various sources of financing,

economic interests of investors and creditors.

Thus, financing of current and investment activity PATP as process is subject to certain principles and laws that is expressed available subjects of financing, methods and forms of mobilisation of financial resources, the is standard-legal base regulating these relations.

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A source: MIHNEEVA Anna Leonidovna. FORMS And METHODS of FINANCING of the ENTERPRISES of PASSENGER MOTOR TRANSPORT of the GENERAL USE the Dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. St.-Petersburg 2007. 2007

More on topic 2.1. Essence and features of financing of the enterprises of motor transport of the general use:

  1. 2.2. Forms and methods of financing of the enterprises of motor transport of the general use
  2. 1.2. Foreign experience of financing of the enterprises of motor transport of the general use
  3. 2.3. Methodical bases of an estimation of efficiency of financing of the enterprises of motor transport of the general use
  4. Chapter 1. THEORETICAL BASES of FINANCING of the ENTERPRISES of PASSENGER MOTOR TRANSPORT of the GENERAL USE
  5. Chapter 2. METHODICAL BASES of FINANCING of the ENTERPRISES of PASSENGER MOTOR TRANSPORT of the GENERAL USE
  6. Chapter 3. RECOMMENDATIONS ABOUT PERFECTION of FINANCING of the ENTERPRISES of PASSENGER MOTOR TRANSPORT of the GENERAL USE
  7. MIHNEEVA Anna Leonidovna. FORMS And METHODS of FINANCING of the ENTERPRISES of PASSENGER MOTOR TRANSPORT of the GENERAL USE the Dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. St.-Petersburg 2007, 2007
  8. 3.3. The basic directions of increase of efficiency of financing of the passenger motor transportation enterprises of the general use at municipal and state levels
  9. 1.3. The analysis of theoretical and methodical approaches to the decision of problems of financing of passenger motor transport
  10. 1.1. The State of the art and problems of passenger motor transport in Russia
  11. a research plant are the motor industry enterprises …
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  13. 1.1 Performance and structure of park of cars as a condition of the maintenance of operation of the enterprises of motor industry
  14. In the second chapter the Control system of development of a complex of the enterprises of motor industry
  15. 2. Insurance of means of motor transport and a civil liability of their owners
  16. 1.3. A complex of the enterprises of motor industry as sinergeticheskaja system
  17. 1.3. The analysis of scientifically-applied workings out in the field of supply by motor transport mineral oil