1.2. Foreign experience of financing of the enterprises of motor transport of the general use

At uniformity of the purposes and problems of activity of an urban passenger transport (further - GPT) in economically developed countries of the world its economic mechanism has national differences which are caused by a number of the reasons predetermined by level of privatisation and demonopolization of public transport, the accepted concept of investment and current financing GPT from means of budgets of various levels [55].

Recently in all countries reduction of grants in the real prices considering inflation is observed, and also their further reduction in the majority of the developed countries is predicted. Practically in all developed countries existing methods of financing GPT grow out of long evolution. Financing is carried out or in the form of budgetary credits from the state and local government bodies, or in a category of credit from other sources, taxes or indirect payments [55].

the Analysis of foreign experience of the organisation and financing of passenger carriages has shown, that the basic share in the given sector of transport branch belongs to motor transport (tab. 1.11)

According to universal practice of the organisation of motor transportation activity, observance of such priorities as minimisation of travelling costs of the population and a national economy as a whole, protection of interests of the population against consequences of work of motor transport (traffic safety, ecological safety, etc.), improvement of quality of represented transportation services at the expense of stimulation of enterprise activity and market demonopolization on motor transport, is reached by legislatively-legal and tarifno-tax state regulation and, first of all,


the licensing applied in many countries of Western Europe, in

the USA, Canada, Japan [145].

Table 1.11

Specific weight of separate types of transport in the general passenger turnover (without urban electric)

% Year Railway Automobile Air The Great Britain!) 2003 4,5 77,0 18,5 Germany!) 2003 7,0 82,6 10,4 Italy!) 2003 5,3 94,7 1) 2003 0,3 90,0 9,7 Russia 2004 43,5 34,3 22,0 0; 2) 2001 odes 86,6 13,3 0 2003 7,6 82,1 10,3 Japan ' 3 2002 29,3 64,7 5,9 Disregarding a marine and internal water transport. A passenger turnover in the country.

a source: " Group of eight "in figures. 2006: Stat.sb./Rosstat. - M, 2006. - With. 76.

In the international practice the problem of shortage of financial resources basically is decided at the expense of use of following tools:

allocation of additional budgetary appropriations;

introduction of additional target taxes and tax collections for users of services of a transport infrastructure;

attraction of extra means under government warranties;

attraction of off-budget investments on the basis of use of mechanisms of state-private partnership.

possibility of attraction of additional off-budget investments in most cases stipulates necessity proportionate budgetary sofinansirovanija projects which, in turn, can acquire the form direct kapitelnyh investments or be carried out by means of the mechanism of granting of the state warranties.


So, for example, the Law on a passenger transport of the Netherlands provides availability at suppliers of concession on granting of services of public transport that gives to them exclusive, but time, the work right in certain area.

in industrially developed countries system of tenders with the subsequent conclusion of maintenance contracts of regular bus routes or on fulfilment of separate kinds of transportation services (for example, carriage schoolboys) is the basic form of attraction of private carriers to rendering of transportation services.

for example, in the Netherlands the ministry of transport, public works and a water management and Treasury have based a specialist fund for municipal transport Incs for the purpose of improvement of their financial position and smoothing of problems of transition to the market. Assets of fund become then a part of the capital of any company using it. To have the right to appropriations, the companies represent the corresponding business plan.

foreign experience of reforms on passenger motor transport as a whole allows to classify them to following signs:

preservation of state regulation of tariffs with cancellation of budgetary grants and regulation of the admission of private bus carriers on routes;

cancellation of regulation of tariffs;

preservation of grants for separate non-profitable routes.

in practice various combinations of the indicated types of reforming can be applied. Thereupon it is represented expedient to consider experience of the Great Britain where all three types reforming of passenger motor transport of the general use are organically combined.

the Great Britain before other European states has started public transport privatisation.


Application chastnopredprinimatelskih approaches to financing of transport agencies has begun in 80th years of the XX-th century with sale of the airports to private operators. Special activity in this direction was observed after 1992., when the government has accepted the new doctrine of management of a state ownership under the name Initiative of private financing (Private Finance Initiative - PFI).

By this period privatisation of the enterprises of railway and bus transport for which it is characteristic difficult, institutsionalno the branched out system of privileges and allowances for numerous categories of citizens, and also grants for the private companies rendering to the population of service of public transport [105] concerns.

5000 p

4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500

1993/94 1994/95 1995/96 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 1999/00 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04


-Payment of journey by passengers

- public transport Support


- - Indemnification of preferential journey

-* - Target support of the companies-operators

Fig. 1. The income of the enterprises of public bus transport of the Great Britain in the prices 2003/2004

All buses and country bus fleets - private. Besides, many aspects of activity of branch are not regulated at all by the state. Especially it concerns bus service outside of London - in counties, districts, cities.

as a whole in the Great Britain there are two essentially various systems of work of bus transport: the London model (acts on

33 territories of London and in its suburbs) and "easy approach" model (it is used in other territory of the Great Britain).

According to the London model the companies-operators participate in tenders for service of certain routes. Winners conclude with corresponding transport bodies dogovory in which all conditions of service of passengers are fixed: routes, the time-table, the prices of journey, a category of means of transport and other.

contracts consist on a competitive basis with one operator on each route. The one who offers the contract with a floor price wins. According to position about such type of contractual relations, the operator collects a passenger-fare, transmits its companies Buses of London (London Buses) which is structural division of management Transport for London at the government of the Greater London, and receives contractually compensation for service rendering. Cash receipt at purchase by passengers of tickets is fixed by electronic cards of automatic machines on sale of tickets. Thus the company Buses of London reserves control function [105].

As a result of active reforming of a passenger transport and change of structure of the property on bus fleets in the market of bus carriages London it was established oligopolija, presented by the several large national and transnational companies. Only few least profitable routes are served by small independent operators.

the "easy approach" model is under construction on more liberal approaches: to freedom of an establishment operators of a fare, independence of a choice them of routes and intervals of movement, notifying registration of routes. As a result on the same route some operators that is not present in London model [55] can compete among themselves.


All bus companies working out of London, - private. They perform works on commercial and social routes. Thus on service of socially significant routes the tender with granting of grants from the budget appears.

the commercial message is not subsidised with the state even in case of occurrence of deficiency of financing activities of the operator. However both on subsidised, and on commercial routes operators receive indemnification for service of preferential categories of passengers which is granted by the state for the reimbursement on carriage aged citizens, schoolboys etc.

Besides, the state on all routes compensates to holders of buses a significant part of the tax to fuel. The amount of compensation averages 80 % of a retail price of diesel fuel [105].

As a result of liberalisation of public transport tickets for buses out of London for the last 10 years have risen in price for 21 % in real terms whereas in London the fare practically was not changed and remained at level of the beginning of 90th years. It is connected first of all by that the London model assumes rigid regulation and excludes a competitiveness on routes [105].

Thus, the state and local government bodies of the Great Britain render a grant-in-aid to operators of public bus transport in three basic forms: compensation of preferential journey of certain categories of passengers, subsidising of preferential routes and compensation of a part of the tax to fuel. In aggregate they cover approximately 40 % of the general production costs of the bus companies.

the Analysis of experience of the Great Britain testifies that the main problem of privatisation of public transport consists in potentially possible loss of effect sistemnosti which is inherent in public transport functioning as the uniform integrated complex.

35 Examples of preservation of a state ownership on the enterprises of public transport and prevalence of public sector in comparison with private operators are the USA, Hungary and the Chinese National Republic.

practically unique source of financing of the federal transport program of the United States of America - the tax to fuel. At the same time the tendency of reduction of federal financing of public transport is observed. Now in the USA new infrastructural projects are financed for 80 percent from the federal budget and on 20 - from the budget of states.

in large cities of the USA and Europe the basic transport Incs have passed in a state ownership still in the late sixties, and the share of grants makes now in the USA of 60 %, and in many European countries - more than 50 % of total costs of transport Incs.

Table 1.14 Dynamics of volumes of public subsidies to transport agencies of the USA

in the prices of 2000, mln. dollars of the USA

1990 1991 1994 1995 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Transport, all 5 465 2 682 1773 558-3 849-5 657-3 392 5 108 8 195 The school bus 81 79 92 89 87 96 109 116 125 Transit bus carriages 55 54 62 60 59 65 74 78 84 The urban bus/-4-6-10-16-12-7 2 5 Air freight 3 462 2 860 4 143 3 893 1 120-1083-446 2 898 4 026 Railway 774 906 858 1049 2 160 1434 629 591 1093 Source: www.bts.gov - the Official site of Office of statistics of transport of the USA.

in Hungary bus carriages under the status and a pattern of ownership are municipal. The private sector attends only to taxi carriages [135].


With introduction of market relations in socialist practice of the Chinese National Republic urban bus carriages are carried out both the state and-or municipal passenger enterprises, and the private companies which service prices fixed, and activity is exposed to the complete control from replying public services regarding the assertion of routes, licensings of carriages, realisation of the financial control, safety of traffic. Rather low prices for the services of conveyance of passengers rendered by the state motor transportation enterprises, are caused by grants from a public finance [136].

the Foreign companies can organise in a segment of passenger motor transport joint ventures with the Chinese firms provided that at least one investor has a five years' operational experience in the field of passenger autocarriages to the Chinese National Republic. Thus the share of foreign investments should not exceed 49 %. Besides, half of foreign investments should be put in building of a transport infrastructure. Term of work of joint venture in the field of passenger carriages is limited to 12 years, however if more than 50 % of investments have been used for infrastructure creation the given indicator increases till 20 years.

the problem of an optimum parity between state and a private sector, state regulation and market mechanisms on a passenger transport yet has not found in the world of the universal satisfactory decision. In the different countries to the decision of this problem approach differently.

Experience of the countries of Western Europe which are carrying out socially focused reforming of economic mechanism GPT, directed on growth of volumes of its services at active state and local regulation, is represented to the most interesting for

37 uses in the Russian Federation at reorganisation of a transport policy.

the analysis carried out in dissertational research financial and Organizational aspects of functioning public

a passenger transport has abroad allowed to reveal following tendencies of universal practice of financing GPT in the majority of the developed countries:

reduction of grants in the real prices considering inflation;

existing methods of financing GPT grow out of long evolution;

as the basic forms of financing the state and-or municipal budgetary credits or credits from other sources, taxes or indirect payments act;

distribution of shares of working costs GPT on sources of their cover is defined by two major factors: Degree social orientirovannosti national economy (the Netherlands, Italy - more than 60 % of working costs are financed at the expense of the state budget, Sweden - at the expense of local budgets) and centralisation of the state nalogovo-budgetary policy (Germany, Switzerland, England - from 60 % to 70 % of costs are financed at the expense of payment of journey by the population);

decrease in taxes from enterprises GPT owing to the public importance of rendered services [55].

Evaluating as a whole world experience of use of market mechanisms on passenger motor transport, it is possible to allocate following basic moments:

First, benefits from reforms and regulation cancellation much more increase in those cases if it is possible to create and support a keen competition. Only in the presence of a competitiveness privatisation can really reduce expenses and raise quality of service. Without a competitiveness such reforms can not give desirable effect, to worsen

38 service and also to cause unforeseen growth of a fare and to lead to redundancy of a bus fleet.

Secondly, the conclusion of contracts on transport service on a competitive basis in foreign countries is enough effective remedy of creation of a competitiveness.

Thirdly though cancellation of regulation of tariffs is interfaced at risk sharp rise in price of a passenger-fare, regulation preservation can reduce efficiency of reforms [101].

Thus, a question on possibility and necessity of use of foreign experience of lawful states, undoubtedly, it is necessary to decide positively. However concrete application of the considered approaches to financing of the enterprises of urban passenger motor transport probably only under condition of the active account and use of domestic experience.


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A source: MIHNEEVA Anna Leonidovna. FORMS And METHODS of FINANCING of the ENTERPRISES of PASSENGER MOTOR TRANSPORT of the GENERAL USE the Dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. St.-Petersburg 2007. 2007

More on topic 1.2. Foreign experience of financing of the enterprises of motor transport of the general use:

  1. 2.1. Essence and features of financing of the enterprises of motor transport of the general use
  2. 2.2. Forms and methods of financing of the enterprises of motor transport of the general use
  3. 2.3. Methodical bases of an estimation of efficiency of financing of the enterprises of motor transport of the general use
  7. MIHNEEVA Anna Leonidovna. FORMS And METHODS of FINANCING of the ENTERPRISES of PASSENGER MOTOR TRANSPORT of the GENERAL USE the Dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. St.-Petersburg 2007, 2007
  8. 3.3. The basic directions of increase of efficiency of financing of the passenger motor transportation enterprises of the general use at municipal and state levels
  9. 1.3. The analysis of theoretical and methodical approaches to the decision of problems of financing of passenger motor transport
  10. 1.3. Foreign experience state regulation of a passenger transport of megacities and possibility its use in Russia
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  13. 1.1. The State of the art and problems of passenger motor transport in Russia
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  15. 3.2. Optimisation of a configuration of a network of gasoline stations on logistical range of distribution of mineral oil for motor transport
  16. 1.1 Performance and structure of park of cars as a condition of the maintenance of operation of the enterprises of motor industry
  17. In the second chapter the Control system of development of a complex of the enterprises of motor industry
  18. 2. Insurance of means of motor transport and a civil liability of their owners
  19. 1.3. A complex of the enterprises of motor industry as sinergeticheskaja system