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1.1. The State of the art and problems of passenger motor transport in Russia

the Passenger motor transportation enterprises (further - PATP) concern sphere of an urban passenger transport of the general use characterised by mass character, availability and the social importance of carriages [47].

Within the limits of carried out dissertational research under an urban passenger transport of the general use it is offered to understand set of the transport agencies which are rendering service on conveyance of passengers under uniform conditions established by local governments of conveyances of passengers, under blanket tariffs for journey and to the confirmed routes with granting of all privileges for the journey, confirmed by the legislation when due hereunder.

social character and public significance of the state and municipal enterprises of passenger motor transport is expressed in problems of its functioning:

S fulfilment of socially significant carriages;

S evacuation of the population in case of emergency necessity;

V service nizkorentabelnyh routes.

in the Russian Federation on a motor transport share it is necessary about 50 % of passengers which takes in the lead market powers of passenger carriages by quantity of the transported passengers. On the second place on the given indicator there is the trolleybus transport transporting about 20 % of passengers (tab. 1.1).

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Table 1.1 Volume of conveyances of passengers on types of transport of the general use

million persons

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Transport - all 43884 42419 40322 37083 34649 25027 Including on kinds: Railway 1419 1306 1271 1304 1335 1320 Bus 22033 20883 19620 17898 16552 11297 Taxi 16 13 12 10 10 6 Tram 7421 7354 6982 6321 5804 4123 Trolleybus 8759 8604 8181 7291 6680 4653 The underground 4186 4205 4200 4205 4211 3574 Marine 1,0 0,7 0,6 0,6 0,6 0,8 Internal water 26 27 27 22 21 16 Air 23 26 28 31 35 37 Source: www.gks.ru - an official site of Federal service of the state statistics of the Russian Federation.

the analysis of statistical data carried out in dissertational research has shown, that within the last decade the unstable tendency on years to decrease in volumes of conveyances of passengers by all kinds of urban public transport, in particular is observed by bus transport where the highest rates of reduction of the basic indicators of transport work have been noted.

so, during 2000 - 2005 the volume of conveyances of passengers was reduced by bus transport to 48,7 %, and a passenger turnover executed by buses, - on 41,4 % at the general decrease in the given indicators in sphere of a passenger transport of the general use on 43 % and 13 % according to (tab. 1.2).

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Table 1.2 the Passenger turnover on types of transport of the general use in the Russian Federation

billion passazhiro-kilometres

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Transport - all 486,1 476,8 468,5 463,4 469,2 426,4 Including on kinds: Railway 167,1 157,9 152,9 157,6 164,3 171,6 Bus 164,4 154,9 149,9 138,5 129,4 96,3 Taxi 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,1 0,2 0,1 Tram 25,1 23,2 21,9 20,2 18,7 13,5 Trolleybus 28,1 27,8 26,6 23,8 21,4 15,0 The underground 46,9 51,3 51,3 51,3 51,4 43,4 Marine 0,04 0,04 0,04 0,04 0,03 0,04 Internal water 0,9 0,9 1,0 0,8 0,8 0,7 Air 53,4 60,6 64,7 71,1 83,0 85,8 Source: www.gks.ru - an official site of Federal service of the state statistics of the Russian Federation.

thus against general negative dynamics growth of the given indicators on air and marine types of transport is observed.

the carried out analysis of dynamics of two interconnected indicators characterising efficiency of transport work of various types of transport of the general use, - volumes of conveyances of passengers and a passenger turnover, - has allowed to assume, that the general decrease in passazhiro-kilometres is caused by decrease in quantity of the transported passengers. Thus passenger turnover decrease can be caused also reduction of a routeing network that is especially characteristic for the motor transport which is carrying out passenger carriages mainly on small distances unlike railway,

14 air types of transport and the underground which save high indicators of a passenger turnover in view of rather constant extent of served routes on a long distance.

it is possible to assume, that the negative tendency which has developed on passenger motor transport is caused by influence of many factors:

reduction of quantity of trips of preferential categories of citizens;

clarification of transport mobility of preferential categories of passengers as a result of introduction of uniform social passage tickets;

reduction of quantity of labour trips owing to absolute and relative reduction of employment of urban population;

reduction of quantity of trips of the cultural and community appointment which are carried out by the constant and time population owing to growth of number and density of territorial placing of objects of an urban trading-household infrastructure;

reduction of park of buses of big and especially big capacity of the state and municipal enterprises;

derivation of a part of volumes of passenger traffic from a public urban transport on individual motor transport [55].

it is necessary to notice, that one of defining factors of reduction of volumes of passenger carriages and decrease in quality of transport service is imperfection and insufficiency of investments and current financing PATP.

However the analysis of dynamics of the basic indicators of transport work of public transport carried out in dissertational work has shown, that, despite their general tendency to decrease, the basic carrier in the market of passenger transportation services in Russia is the automobile (bus) common carrier.

15 In sphere of automobile carriages function over 400 thousand managing subjects with park about 5 million lorries and buses [162]. Thus their activity passes in conditions enough a high intrabranch and interspecific competitiveness. At the same time given tab. 1.3 show, that in the lead position in the Russian market of passenger carriages is taken by the state and municipal motor transportation enterprises.

table 1.3 a Passenger turnover executed by bus transport in the Russian Federation

billion of passazhiro-kilometres

Buses 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

I % OF I % OF X % OF I % Z OF % In a state ownership 154,9 92 149,9 90 138,5 86 129,4 80 96,3 72 In the property

physical persons,

involved

to work on

routes

the general

uses 14,3 8 17,4 10 23,0 14 32,3 20 37,2 3 Total 169,2 100 167,3 100 161,5 100 161,7 100 133,5 100 Source: www.gks.ru - an official site of Federal service of the state statistics of the Russian Federation.

the analysis of statistical data carried out in dissertational research testifies that in 2001 - 2005 more than 80 % of passenger carriages by motor transport of the general use carried out government facilities. At the same time according to the subroutine źReforming of a passenger transport of the general use╗ of the Federal purpose-oriented programme źModernization of transport system of Russia (2002 - 2010)╗ a functioning basis

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and developments of the market of transportation services is the competitiveness of independent not state transportation organisations.

thereupon the state stage by stage reduces the sharing in quality of the subject of enterprise activity in the competitive markets of transportation transportation services to what the increase in such indicators of activity of the motor transportation enterprises as a passenger turnover and volume of the passenger carriages executed by buses testifies, being in the property of the physical persons employed on routes of the general use (tab. 1.3).

the active state policy of reforming of the passenger motor transport, directed on financial improvement of the enterprises of the given sector of economy Recently is conducted.

Thus one of decisive conditions of effective functioning of the state motor transportation enterprises irrespective of an orientation of its reforming is timeliness and sufficiency of its financing.

the analysis of results of realisation of the Federal law from 22.08.2004Ń. ╣122-ďă "About modification of acts of the Russian Federation and a recognition become invalid for some acts of the Russian Federation in connection with acceptance of Federal laws" About modification and additions in the Federal law "About the general principles of the organisation legislative (representative) and executive powers of the government of subjects of the Russian Federation" and "About the general principles of the organisation of a local government in the Russian Federation", providing transition to the address monetary grant of a preferential category of the passengers using the right of free journey, has shown, that only in 65 subjects uniform social passage tickets are entered. Their cost fluctuates from 30 to 250 roubles, thus the federal help to regions acts from account of 50 roubles on each federal exempt. As a result demand for services public

17 passenger transports decrease begins impossible to support profitability of the motor transportation enterprises at level, sufficient for updating by a modern rolling stock, strengthening of technical base and maintenance up to the mark qualities of transportation services.

according to statistical researches, for the first half of the year 2006 a share of unprofitable transport agencies (except for a railway transportation) in their general number has made 67,2 % at the sum of the loss of 4281 million rbl. Absence of the obvious tendency to decrease in size of the given indicator, according to tab. 1.4, testifies to low efficiency address monetary grants and necessities of working out of alternative forms and methods of financing of government facilities of passenger motor transport.

table 1.4 Specific weight of the unprofitable organisations of transport in the Russian Federation

in % from the general number of the organisations

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 In total in economy 39,8 37,9 43,5 43,0 38,1 33,5 Transport 44,1 40,9 45,6 49,0 46,3 38,5 Source: the Russian statistical year-book. 2005: Stat.sb./Rosstat. TH., 2005. - Đ.637.

Unprofitableness of the passenger motor transportation enterprises serving social routes, speaks significant rupture between necessary level of expenses, a residual principle of budgetary financing and natural owing to the social importance of a transportation service restriction of growth of a travel payment.

existing practice of budgetary financing of the enterprises of passenger motor transport by a residual principle

18 provides definition of working costs proceeding from actual expenses in which structure costs for fuel at the best are indexed. Such approach leads to annual reduction of financing of passenger motor transport, and also to necessity of reduction of volume of transport work. Thus for 2007 the share of costs of the federal budget on transport has made only 3,38 % in overhead charges of the budget [161].

the Given factors make negative impact on such indicators of activity of the motor transportation enterprises, as profitability of rendered services and profitability of assets (tab. 1.5).

Table 1.5 Profitability of the sold goods, production (works, services) and assets of transportation organisations

% 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Profitability of the sold goods, production (works, services) In total in economy 18,9 14,4 10,9 10,2 13,2 14,6 Transport 17,2 13,6 8,0 9,2 8,5 13,8 Automobile-17-15-16,4-14,9 - Profitability of assets In total in economy 7,6 6,1 4,3 5,9 8,5 8,4 Transport 5,2 4,5 1,7 3,3 3,8 4,6 Automobile - 0-2-3,5-2,5 - Source: the Russian statistical year-book. 2005: Stat.sb./Rosstat. - M, 2005. - With. 641.

Low profitability of passenger motor transport is caused by growth of working costs which reduce a final finance result (net profit). It leads to that nizkorentabelnye the enterprises become unprofitable.

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carried out in a course of dissertational research the analysis of defining macroeconomic indicators - dynamics of the unprofitable organisations and dynamics of profitability - has allowed to draw a conclusion that as a whole the condition of public passenger motor transport in Russia in 2000 - was characterised 2005 by availability of system crisis.

the availability of system crisis in sphere of public passenger motor transport is confirmed as well at the analysis of accounts payable of the considered enterprises, its growth rates and parities with growth rates of a debt receivable (tab. 1.6).

Table 1.6

Excess of accounts payable over a debt receivable of transport agencies on the end of 2005

Debt receivable Accounts payable Excess

million rbl. Ô%ţ˛ debitor.zadolzh. In total 3663343 4832303 1168960 32 Transport 262372 382522 210150 46 Source: www.gks.ru - Materials of Federal service of the state statistics of the Russian Federation.

at the same time, owing to the social importance of rendered services, the enterprises of motor transport of the general use are according to plan-unprofitable. Thereupon at definition of forms and financing methods it is necessary to consider, that financing is carried out in the conditions of chronic unprofitableness and directed on financial improvement of the enterprises of the given sector of economy.

effective overcoming of crisis of the enterprises is necessary for beginning with the analysis of the reasons of its occurrence. Insolvency

1. 20 motor transportation enterprises it is in many respects caused by existence of some problems of financial, organizational and legal character which constrain effective development of the enterprises of the given sector of economy.

to problems of financial character it is possible to carry the following:

the Unsatisfactory structure of rolling stock PATP characterised by its high rates physical and an obsolescence. More than 70 % of rolling stock PATP samortizirovano also are subject to writing off. So, according to the Ministry of transport of the Russian Federation, the minimum requirement for annual updating of a bus fleet of the passenger enterprises of the general use makes 12-15 thousand unit [162].

Depreciation of a sinking fund in the conditions of a development of inflation, the inefficient amortisation policy of the state. According to the experts, one of the reasons of stable unprofitableness of transport agencies was cancellation of the governmental order of the Russian Federation źAbout an order of target use of a sinking fund╗. Now the sinking fund special-purpose character was saved as required, instead of on actual use, therefore at a difficult financial position of means of this fund are spent for a payment and other purposes.

growth of debts PATP before the budget. At what the basic share of accounts payable before the budget is made by tax payments. Taxes are the important sphere of regulation of activity of the motor transportation enterprises from the state. Meanwhile, collection of the transport tax not only has led to increase in tax load, but also contains a discrimination element in relation to motor transport, depriving the motor transportation enterprises of equal conditions for a competitiveness.

the Establishment of tariffs on public transport below the actual cost price of carriage. Major factors,

21 containing growth of tariffs to level of a recoupment of actual expenditures on carriage, are:

insufficient financing municipal PATP from the municipal budget provided that the passenger-fare level is established by regional government bodies;

low level of real earnings of the population. Excess of norms of a share of cost of transportation in the budget of an average family will lead to growth of social intensity in region.

5. Low efficiency of acting systems of the state Regulations and supports. So, for example, the unsatisfactory The condition of park of motor transport requires increase in volumes The state support of process of updating of a fixed capital The motor transportation enterprises in the form of payment from budget means Percent on credits of domestic banks, and also perfection Mechanisms of such support. Absence of the mechanism of compensation The leasing rate at purchase of buses.

6. The unstable financial circumstances of branch have caused Essential recession of investment activity, first of all, in a part Acquisitions of means of transport for passenger carriages (tab. 1.7).

According to the minister of transport of the Russian Federation I.Levitina [163], is minimum comprehensible level of investments into development of a transport infrastructure should make not less than 600 billion rbl. a year. In 2006 on these purposes it has been directed only 330 billion rbl., that approximately makes 2,2 % of gross national product.

at the same time, in the world the average level of costs for the given purposes makes about 4 % of gross national product, and in the countries with transitive or actively developing economy - to 10 % of gross national product [163]. Thus, the developed system of financing is the deterrent for maintenance of necessary level of investments into development of a transport infrastructure.

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Table 1.7

Structure of investments into a fixed capital on patterns of ownership

in % to a result

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Investments into a fixed capital,

all 100 100 100 100 100 100 Including on patterns of ownership of investors (customers): Russian 86,3 85,5 85,7 84,1 84,0 82,7 State 23,9 22,1 20,2 21,0 17,4 18,7 Municipal 4,5 4,9 4,7 4,3 4,3 3,6 Private 29,9 36,7 42,0 41,2 46,2 47,6 The public and religious organisations (associations) 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 Consumers' co-operative society of ODES 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 Mixed Russian 27,8 21,6 18,6 17,4 15,9 12,6 Foreign 1,5 2,3 3,6 4,1 6,1 6,5 Joint Russian and foreign 12,2 12,2 10,7 11,8 9,9 10,8 Source: www.gks.ru - Materials of Federal service

the state statistics of the Russian Federation.

dynamics of investments into a fixed capital on economy branches, including transport branch, is presented to tab. 1.8.

Since January, 1st, 2006 variety of the new measures supplying improvement of conditions for investments has taken effect. First of all, it is necessary to note VAT compensation on capital investments which is carried out not post termination object buildings in 3-4 years as it was earlier, and during work that allows the enterprises to liberate significant circulating assets.

besides, according to item 259 [5], the enterprises the additional amortisation award at a rate of 10 % from initial

is granted 23 costs of permanent assets on which with the purposes of a cost-saving the taxable profit can be reduced by investment.

table 1.8 Distribution of foreign investments on branches of economy of the Russian Federation

% The name of branch 2000 2002 2003 2004 The industry 43,1 37,1 41,5 49,8 Agriculture 0,4 0,2 0,3 0,2 Building 0,8 0,6 0,9 0,8 Transport 9,3 0,9 1,4 1,2 Trade and public catering 17,8 44,5 25,4 32,2 The general commercial activity on maintenance of functioning of the market 2,5 6,9 11,5 6,3 Finance, the credit, insurance, provision of pensions 2,5 0,7 2,2 2,5 Other branches 22,4 8,2 16,8 7,0 Source: Branch and regional problems of attraction of foreign investments into economy of Russia//Economic and the international relations. - ╣ 9. - 2005.-With. 15.

the analysis of the investment environment carried out in dissertational work in Russia has shown, that in modern conditions of managing the basic source of investment financing in a fixed capital are borrowed funds of mainly regional budgets that forms negative tendencies of development of investment activity in sphere of a public passenger transport in view of deficiency of budgets of the majority of subjects of the Russian Federation (tab. 1.9).

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Table 1.9

Structure of investments into a fixed capital on financing sources

in % to a result 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Investments into a fixed capital

all 100 100 100 100 100 100 Including on financing sources: Internal funds 47,5 49,4 45,0 45,2 45,4 47,7 From them: Profit, being at the command the organisations 23,4 24,0 19,1 17,8 19,2 22,4 Amortisation 18,1 18,5 21,9 24,2 22,8 22,1 Borrowed funds 52,5 50,6 55,0 54,8 54,6 52,3 From them budgetary funds (means of the consolidated budget) 22,0 20,4 19,9 19,6 17,9 20,1 Including: From the federal budget 6,0 5,8 6,1 6,7 5,3 6,7 From budgets of subjects of the Russian Federation 14,3 12,5 12,2 12,1 11,6 12,4 Source: www.gks.ru - Materials of Federal service of the state statistics of the Russian Federation.

the decision of financial problems of passenger public motor transport in many respects restrains availability of organizational problems of management and regulation of its development. Among problems of organizational character it is possible to allocate:

1. The Public transport is not in competence sphere The federal centre and regulating functions belong to government bodies The subject of the Russian Federation that introduction of the new block źPublic brakes Transport ╗within the limits of the federal programź Modernization of the transport Systems of Russia (2002-2010) ╗with the purposes of an establishment of uniform rules Functioning and public transport developments in regions.

2. Differentiation accurately is not registered in the federal legislation Authorities on financing of costs passenger automobile

25 transports between the budget of the subject of the Russian Federation and local budgets.

3. There are no uniform approaches and principles in compensation to a passenger transport of cost of rendered services on carriage preferential categories of passengers. As the first step to the decision of this problem replacement of privileges on journey by the address grant that has allowed to receive a trustworthy information about volume and the carriage cost price on routes with a usual mode of service, and also about really possible level of incomes has served.

4. At the heart of accounts by definition of size of the compensatory Payments to the enterprises of public passenger motor transport from Public finance actual expenditures PATP connected lay not With performance FZ ╣ 122, and a budgetary limit.

5. There are no legislative restrictions of the prices on energy carriers. Dynamics of a rise in prices for fuel in Russia at 6-15 time above, than in the western The countries (tab. 1.10). A share of a fuel component in the general expenses on Production of transport production has on the average increased in 2002-2005 with 25 % to 50 % [135].

. There is no the branch tariff agreement regulating the relations between PATP and government bodies of the subject concerning indemnification of a difference between preferential and actual cost of a transportation service in full.

7. The order of collection of fines and the fine is changed.

the federal law from 04.11.2005 ╣ 137-FZ źAbout modification of some acts of the Russian Federation and a recognition become invalid for some positions of acts of the Russian Federation in connection with realisation of measures on perfection of administrative procedures of settlement of disputes╗ has made changes to two normative statements: the Tax code and the Law from 15.12.2001 ╣ 167-FZ źAbout obligatory pension insurance in the Russian Federation╗.

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Table 1.10 Price development on fuel in 2005 to level of 2002

% The country fuel Kinds

Automobile petrol └-95 Diesel fuel Austria + 0,8 + 34,9 The Great Britain + 21 + 23,3 Germany + 26 + 42,6 Russia + 186 + 235 THE USA - + 15 France + 26 + 39 Czechia-11 - Source: Samoilov I.Tromboz//Motor transport. - ╣ 3.-2006.-S.I.

Negative character of the introduced changes consists that the new order of collection of fines and the fine under taxes and insurance instalments to obligatory self-insurance stipulates growth of the indebtedness of the motor transportation enterprises before the budget and aggravates their financial circumstances.

so, before entering of respective alterations into the Tax code collection of fines could be carried out only through court. However since January, 1st, 2006 representatives of tax service have the right to collect in an indisputable order of the sum of fines and the fines which are not exceeding a limit (for the organisations - 50 thousand roubles, and for private businessmen of-5 thousand roubles) separately under each tax for one tax period or on each infringement of tax laws [134].

7. Absence of a uniform economic and technical state policy on transport. Occurrence of autocarriers of various patterns of ownership has caused necessity of state regulation of carriages, realisation of a uniform economic and technical policy. The decision of the given problem restrains absence to uniform and adequate modern conditions of is standard-legal base.

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Problems of legal character are connected, first of all, with absence of the is standard-legal base answering to modern market demands of passenger autocarriages.

it is prepared, but the administration bill of the Charter of an automobile and urban land electric passenger transport of the Russian Federation is accepted while only in the first reading, directed on expansion of possibilities of the parties (the customer and a carrier) on their regulation pravootnosheny on the basis of concluded agreements that corresponds to principles of market economy and will promote development of a competitiveness among the organisations taken in sphere of automobile carriages [135].

In IV quarter 2006 in the State Duma other administration bill - the Federal law źAbout the general principles of the organisation of transport service of the population by automobile and urban land electric transport on routes of the regular message in the Russian Federation╗ has been introduced. In many regions the acts regulating work of passenger motor transport in which the right of realisation of competitive selections of carriers is fixed are already accepted.

besides, indicated federal administration bill realises a principle ravnodostupnosti transport service and allocates local government bodies with the right of an establishment of criteria of competitive selection of carriers, proceeding from interests of the population and available resource restrictions, including throughput of objects of a transport infrastructure. At the same time the administration bill limits a set of used criteria with the purposes of nedopushchenija an administrative arbitrariness.

an administration bill main objective is formation of the legal conditions supplying access of carriers on the local markets of transportation services in any subject of the Russian Federation and municipal union [135].

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it is important at that, that the administration bill enters norm according to which fulfilment of regular carriages can be carried out only under condition of the conclusion by carriers of corresponding agreements with local government bodies for the term of not less than 5 years. It should promote increase of a transparency and responsibility of the enterprises of a passenger transport before the population. At the same time period contracts will supply to carriers necessary warranties on a recoupment of capital investments and, thereby, will promote decrease in investment risks.

besides, the insufficient attention to problems of passenger motor transport at the state level is confirmed also with absence in administrative personnel of the Ministry of transport of the Russian Federation of the separate structural unit which are responsible for state regulation of motor transport, - Federal agency of motor transport. Now management functions by the given sector of transport branch of the country are combined by Federal road agency.

thus, the analysis of a state of the art carried out in dissertational work and tendencies of development of passenger motor transport has allowed to systematise the basic problems of functioning PATP on three blocks: financial, organizational and legal.

it is necessary to notice, that complexity of the problems set forth above is aggravated not only absence of the adequate legislation, but also regular underfinancing of transport branch, including an urban passenger transport. Thereupon necessity of perfection of existing forms and methods of financing of the enterprises of transport branch is obvious.

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A source: MIHNEEVA Anna Leonidovna. FORMS And METHODS of FINANCING of the ENTERPRISES of PASSENGER MOTOR TRANSPORT of the GENERAL USE the Dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. St.-Petersburg 2007. 2007

More on topic 1.1. The State of the art and problems of passenger motor transport in Russia:

  1. 1.3. The analysis of theoretical and methodical approaches to the decision of problems of financing of passenger motor transport
  2. 1.3. Foreign experience state regulation of a passenger transport of megacities and possibility its use in Russia
  3. CHAPTER 2. The PASSENGER TRANSPORT of Russia AS OBJECT of STATE REGULATION
  4. Chapter 1. THEORETICAL BASES of FINANCING of the ENTERPRISES of PASSENGER MOTOR TRANSPORT of the GENERAL USE
  5. Chapter 2. METHODICAL BASES of FINANCING of the ENTERPRISES of PASSENGER MOTOR TRANSPORT of the GENERAL USE
  6. Chapter 3. RECOMMENDATIONS ABOUT PERFECTION of FINANCING of the ENTERPRISES of PASSENGER MOTOR TRANSPORT of the GENERAL USE
  7. 3.3. The basic directions of increase of efficiency of financing of the passenger motor transportation enterprises of the general use at municipal and state levels
  8. 2.3. System of state regulation of a passenger transport of a megacity
  9. 3.1. Conceptual bases perfection of state regulation of a passenger transport of a megacity
  10. 3.2. Strategic reference points perspective development and state regulation urban passenger megacity transport
  11. 3.4 Expected social and economic effective! And perfection of system state regulation of an urban passenger transport of a megacity and nougat its increase.
  12. MIHNEEVA Anna Leonidovna. FORMS And METHODS of FINANCING of the ENTERPRISES of PASSENGER MOTOR TRANSPORT of the GENERAL USE the Dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. St.-Petersburg 2007, 2007
  13. in chapter 1 źState-of-the-art and development of motor industry of the Russian Federation╗
  14. CHAPTER 3. WAYS of INCREASE of EFFICIENCY of STATE REGULATION of the PASSENGER TRANSPORT of the MEGACITY
  15. 1.1. State-of-the-art of motor industry in the Russian Federation
  16. 1. STATE-OF-THE-ART And DEVELOPMENT of MOTOR INDUSTRY of the RUSSIAN FEDERATION
  17. Measure Jury Magomedovich. the URBAN PASSENGER TRANSPORT In the conditions of STATE REGULATION And ACTION of MARKET MECHANISMS (on an example of the Moscow megacity), 2009
  18. the State of the art and prospects of development of not state pension funds in Russia
  19. 2.1 Estimation of a state of the art of agriculture of Russia and efficiency of measures of its state support.
  20. 2.1. Essence and features of financing of the enterprises of motor transport of the general use