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2.1. Factors of influence on business

Let's consider now the factors influencing business. They can be divided on economic, technological, politiko-legal, institutsionalnye, sotsio-cultural, demographic and natural factors. Each of them influences prevalence of every possible resources and certain qualities of individuals and company as a whole which are important for realisation of enterprise activity.

Numerous business factors concern: the scale of the markets and level of their development, size and population revenue distribution, level of effective demand and intensity of a competitiveness in branches, stability of the national currency, doing possible perspective projects with the big horizons of realisation, availability of savings at the population and its readiness to put them in national economy, availability of credits to real sector of economy, a condition of a fixed capital and many other things, that influences source barriers in branch business and business risks, and in the issue on the enterprise initiative.

Speaking about the general economic results of the last years (after financial crisis of 1998) It is necessary to notice, that as a whole they are caused by the prolonged effect of devaluation of rouble and the heavy price for petroleum in the world market. For the most successful 2000 industrial output production has increased more than by 9 %, and investments into real sector have grown on 18 % – a record indicator for all years of reforms. The same year, for the first time after 1998, growth of real earnings of the population which have reached 80 % from level of incomes in 1997 has been noted and has made approximately 100 dollars a month. However already from the beginning of 2001 growth rates began to decrease, having given on the average for this year growth rate in 5 %. For 2002 economic growth is planned by the government at a rate of only 3,5 %. The real sector, especially mechanical engineering, agriculture, transport, etc., continues to sit on short rations: despite low bank rates, capital redistributions between branches does not occur – the capital or remains abroad (the conventional estimation – over 200 billion The dollars), or are directed to the same sphere where it has been earned (i.e. in extracting sector, thereby increasing structural disproportions between extracting and processing economy sectors).

The capacity of home markets, especially on the goods of a high level of processing, continues to remain insufficient because of low effective demand of the population. Crisis of 1998 has sharply reduced number of the Russian centre which was the basic consumer of a domestic production of high technologies, and layers with a high level of incomes traditionally are consumers of expensive import goods.

Foreign markets for the majority of the Russian manufacturers are still difficult for work because of the poor quality of the goods caused by obsolete technologies, still applied to their production, weakness of marketing technologies applied by them (advancements of the goods and services), resistance of the firms traditionally acting in these markets (the last example – spring of 2002 – increase of import duties on the Russian steel in the USA), etc. Is represented, that strengthening of the Russian economy should pass in both directions – both increases in capacity of home market, and vigorous penetration at a foreign market as without development of the markets no development of industrial production is impossible.

As to stability of the national currency, that, according to the report "Reforming of the Russian economy: the primary goals and problems", to the presented congress of industrialists and businessmen and employers in June, 2001, "the national economy is not protected from sharp devaluation of rouble (on the sample of 1998) and the big rates of inflation (on the sample of 1992). In case of a similar turn of events of a consequence there will be much more tragic, than inflationary losses of the population in 1992 and in 1998". In any way not making comments this report and not defining the relation to the resulted estimation (because the detailed analysis of this important macroeconomic factor lays outside of our theme), we result it as one of existing authoritative opinions, not to notice which simply it is impossible.

Fixed capital in economy is worn out to chrezvychajnosti: with allowance for only wear and tear (laying aside deterioration moral – use of out-of-date technologies) on replacement of the out-of-date active part of a fixed capital accumulated in economy is required today 300-350 bln. dollars, and actually cars and the equipment – 150-200 bln. dollars Obviously, that such requirement for investments considerably exceeds real possibilities of economy, and at a status quo of things the situation in industrial sector can become aggravated more and more. Therefore it is necessary to develop urgently a state policy of purposeful, system counteraction to these dangerous tendencies.

Technology factors include a level of development of a national science, engineering and technologies. Together with sotsio-cultural factors (an educational level in the country, a social and psychological climate of business) they define possibilities of realisation of the enterprise initiative at world level (world level of novelty and workmanship), a business exit for limits of national borders and, in the issue, transformation of national economy into the subject of world economic system equal in rights.

Availability estimations in the different countries proryvnyh technologies of the future have shown, that the world division of labour continues to concentrate in 5-6 countries. Experts differently define these technologies, and, by different estimations, their number makes 50-60 technologies all over the world. In Russia there are 7-8 technologies, capable to lead it to class the advanced countries in the world market. Among them working out in the field of atomic engineering, composit materials, biotechnologies and a number of others. It is natural, that these directions should get all-round support from the state. However the economic model of such support still should be developed.

Political and legal factors define stability of the relation of company and the state, mechanisms of the government and procedure of acceptance of socially significant decisions, development of relations of the property, a civic right and sense of justice level of development in the country, mechanisms of interaction of managing subjects and their arbitration, etc. All it supplies reliability of the legal environment of business on long prospect that allows to accumulate savings, to involve credits for maintenance of requirements of the enterprise project in resources, and also guarantees fair shareout against the realised project.

In general the problem of an establishment of forms and a measure of influence of the state on market processes is extremely important for creation and maintenance of the favorable environment of business. Excessive interference of the state in market processes limits business freedom, raises entry barriers in business through expenses for overcoming of resistance of officials to the business initiative, that, increasing risks of the project, reduces prospects of its successful realisation. On the other hand, the state is the important intermediary between managing subjects, supplying with it so necessary market politiko-legal environment. Removal of the state from sphere of regulation of market processes (extreme liberalism) conducts to the high social costs caused by a number of basic imperfections of the market [60]. Thus, certain forms and a measure of sharing of the state in market processes which are defined by criterion social and economic efficiency of a market mechanism in the country and, in particular, efficiency of business should be established. The impossibility of application of simple and evident approaches to an estimation of adequacy of concrete forms and measures of interference of the state in market processes, and also a significant log between the accepted both carried out certificate of regulation and its consequences under essentially non-stationary conditions of economic, does a problem of effective state regulation by extremely difficult economic-political problem. This problem even more becomes complicated availability of the big number of the extraneous signals which are revolting and blacking out the response of the market on the concrete certificate of regulation, and, at last, set of subjective approaches to an estimation of results of the regulation reflecting social and economic interests of various social groups.

For an illustration of consequences of opacity of processes of state regulation of economy we will result the following example. The company "Pricewaterhouse and Cuppers" in 2000 had been carried out research according to a transparency of economy of the different countries. Opacity was evaluated on five items: influence of corruption, economic-political opacity, opacity of book keeping and a corporate governance, opacity in economy regulation. The cumulative factor settled up on expert judgements and was transferred in a tax equivalent to the income. Russia in the given rating has received the cumulative factor 84 points with a tax equivalent in 43 %. In other words, opacity of economy of Russia is equivalent to surtax collection in 43 % on incomes of corporations [61].

Institutsionalnye factors characterise degree of development of an infrastructure of the market – a banking system, system of insurance, distributive system (stock exchange for moving of capitals and commodity exchanges, wholesale trade in production, raw materials and materials), systems of the market intermediaries supplying legal, consulting, advertising and other services, and also the uniform information field supplying duly moving of the goods, capitals and a labour. These factors reduce entry barriers in business and a business risk level.

Creation in Russia within the last decade the private insurance organisations, acceptance of special laws and the acts directed on regulation of relations in the field of insurance, growth of indicators of the tax of a cash bonus (in 2001 it has made 276,6 billion rbl.) both insurances to the population and the organisations (171, 8 billion rbl.) – all it testifies to creation and certain successes in development of the insurance market in Russia. However the share of cash bonuses of Russian gross national product did not exceed for the last few years 3 %, and the size of a cash bonus per capita – 66 US dollars. It essentially concedes to average indicators of development of the world insurance market (for example, in the countries of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY the share of cash bonuses in gross national product has made in 2001 8,3 %, and the size of a cash bonus per capita – 1341 dollars). A share of the Russian insurance market in a cumulative cash bonus of the world insurance market – 2,2 bln. US dollar (2001) Has made less than 0,5 % [62].

Till now insufficiency of a supply with information of business is felt. The supply with information of business and the enterprise activity, called to raise their efficiency and efficiency, despite rather intensive development the last ten years, nevertheless does not keep up with changes in legislative and normative statements. The weak supply with information does not allow businessmen to fix and flexibly to react to market signals, it is duly to correct strategy and tactics of development of enterprise structures.

Noted above feature are inherent in process of formation of the Russian business as a whole. At the same time each kind of business has the own specificity caused by a condition and tendencies of development of concrete sphere of realisation of enterprise abilities and character of enterprise activity.

Sotsio-cultural factors include morally-ethical standard in company, level of the general and vocational training, and also vocational structure of a labour, at last, cultural traditions of company. These factors all together define the relation to business in company, business ethics of businessmen and businessmen, and in material aspect – formation of requirements of the population and methods of their satisfaction that defines, on what the enterprise initiative, and also forms of its display will be directed. It is necessary to ascertain, that the education system continues to work in the wasteful manner which has developed in the Soviet time, disregarding real market demands of work: along with trades on which graduates cannot be arranged to work on a speciality because of their certain overproduction (lawyers, economists), exist trades on which sharp deficiency is felt, for example, competent workers and engineers. The quantity of the entrants acting on economic and humanitarian specialities, by 2000 has increased in comparison with 1980 three times: from 11 % to 36 % of the general number of entrants. At the same time the share acting on technical and agricultural specialities was sharply reduced: according to 53 % to 37 % and from 12 % to 5 % [63]. Absence of the thought over policy in a sphere of education has led to that now many of perspective Russian hi-tech branches test personnel hunger because of what earlier existing hi-tech productions can be revived today only after long purposeful work on preparation for them highly-skilled personnel. Begun in 2000 in a number of industries growth has appeared is not supplied and the operating shots especially prepared by chiefs of large structures. Therefore search of approaches to balancing of labour markets and educational services should become a main objective of reform of formation. It is obvious, that bodies of the Ministry of Labour and social development, the Ministry of Education, representatives of the organisations of employers and wide sections of the public should prepare such reform in close interaction. Not casually in some developed countries (for example, England) work and formation problems are supervised by one ministry.

It is necessary to underline, however, that owing to fast change of a condition of the modern market and scientific and technical progress, on the one hand, and inertsionnosti higher education systems, with other, distinctions between professional structure of graduates of system of vocational training and structure of jobs available at the concrete moment will always exist, and even well balanced program can lower only these divergences, but not eliminate them completely. Between vocational structure of jobs and the qualified labour it is necessary to apply more flexible systems of vocational training of adults To an establishment of the best conformity. Development of modern production requires continuous growth of professional qualification of workers, their active sharing in production.

The satisfaction of inquiries of production in professional growth of workers by their inclusion in various forms intraindustrial and an additional education allows to speak about necessity of the organisation of continuous educational process which should not only adapt constantly for production and labour market requests, but also to be guided by an advancing of their current condition. Vocational training of adults and, in particular, the vacant population is considered as the major form of an active policy of the state on a labour market both in the developed countries, and in Russia [64] that requires creation in our country of flexible system of educational services.

The big problem is made also by outflow of highly-skilled personnel abroad because of what the big number of the scientific schools successfully developing fundamental and applied science, for Russia have appeared lost. Considering, that formation and development of scientific schools is rather long process, and that without them realisation of strategic plans on a conclusion of Russia in number of subjects of the world economy equal in rights, working out of methods of stimulation of development proryvnyh technologies in Russia is impossible it is necessary to begin in the near future.

Natural and demographic factors include prirodno-climatic conditions, stocks of minerals and energy carriers, the earth, water and their quality, number and polovozrastnuju population structure, levels of childbirth figures and death rate, a population state of health (quality of a genofund), its territorial distribution. The transferred factors define long tendencies in development of company and national production and, hence, business directions. Together with educational characteristics of the population they basically define branch distribution and placing of the enterprises, level of costs and possibility of a national labour, its meeting the requirements of modern business.

For the last ten years as a result of reduction of birth rate and death rate growth in Russia natural decline in population (about 700 thousand persons a year) which is not covered with a positive balance of migration of the population between Russia and neighbouring countries is observed. Only partly these processes are predetermined by previous development of the country, in bolshej to a measure of the reason of depopulation are connected with aggravation of social and economic conditions for a great bulk of the population, caused by crudity of realisation of economic reforms. Birth rate level in Russia is one of most nizyokih in Europe and almost on 40 % below necessary for simple replacement pokoleyonija parents generation of children. On the contrary, growth pokayozatelja death rates javyoljaetsja in Europe also is defined by the highest high smertyonostju men, osoyobenno at able-bodied age, and extremely high in comparison with the developed countries infantile death rate. If the next 15–20 years negative tendencies in a demography are not overcome, that, by Goskomstat estimations, in 2010 the population of Russia depending on the forecast scenario will make 144 – 135 million persons, and in 30 years in RosYOsii ostayonetsja all 123 million persons. If adverse demographic tendencies not to stop after a while at the big territory it will not be simple to us to suffice the population for service of all necessary for the country and the state of processes.

Serious problems svjayozany not only with a population, but also with its quality, a condition geyonofonda as bases of development of company and the state. From 1991 for 1998 vozyorosla disease of such dangerous illnesses as tuberyokulez, a syphilis, AIDS. About 70 % of the population of Russia is in a condition zatjazhyonogo psihoemotsionalyonogo and the social stress causing growth of depression, tjazheyolyh neurosises, psiyohosomaticheskih frustration. Direct consequences of stresses is alcoholism and narcotism growth (especially among moloyodezhi), numbers samoyoubijstv on social soil.

Problems zdoyorovja all in bolshej degrees seize children and youth; proyoishodit aggravation of health of each following generation. Arises some kind of a spiral of aggravation of health of the nation, having the big inertia, therefore even in most blagoprijatyonyh conditions for restoration of potential of the nation change not one generation is required.

The company actively loses a mental potential, as a result of decrease in level of the general education, internal and external "brain drain". poyojavilsja a stable layer of children (12 %), not visiting school [65], problems with the homelessness, caused certain reaction at the state level have become aggravated.

Characterising polovozrastnuju population structure, it is necessary to notice, that already now the parity between economically active population and pensioners appears strained enough: on 10 working (payers in pension funds) 6 recipients of payments from pension funds are necessary. Tendencies here are that, that soon (roughly by 2020) this parity will be changed at 10:10, that will put additional pressure upon a social and economic condition of company. As the first means for change of adverse demographic tendencies, the thought over immigration policy is necessary to Russia.

Widespread opinion, that Russia is rich with natural resources and it is valid so. However in extraction and use of these resources become ripe vital issues. One of them is connected with reduction of the reconnoitered stocks. At any variant of economic development of Russia a mineralno-source of raw materials the next 15-20 years will be the important factor of stabilisation and economy growth. In the early nineties mineralno-raw and power resources supplied about 70 % of a gross national product. Dynamics of development and change energotehnology is caused by not so much engineering problems, how many a capital intensity energoproizvodstva and existing rates of investments. Investment problems start to threaten an extracting complex as reproduction of stocks in relation to extraction makes for petroleum less than 1/3, gas – 1/6, coal – 1/2, copper Yo - 1/10, zinc – 1/3 etc. Because of significant clarity of stocks of natural resources there is a deterioration of quality of extracted petroleum and gas, because of significant amortisation charges of a transport infrastructure [66] increase. Insufficient investments into an extracting complex, preparation of new stocks of minerals, delay in introduction of new technologies - all it can negatively be reflected in economic development of the country.

With allowance for essential problems of the Russian economy and company the major question is the choice of the most effective forms of enterprise activity. It is obvious, that the general approach should consist in that with the maximum return to use:

- Available economic and legal possibilities,

- Intellectual and labour potential of company,

- Existing material and financial resources,

- The industrial device.

At this approach it is necessary to consider specificity of a concrete kind of enterprise activity. All variety of enterprise activity can be classified to various signs:

– On the sizes of the enterprises (large, average, small);

– On patterns of ownership (state, co-operative, public organisations, private);

– On volumes of accepted obligations (the enterprise with limited liability, with responsibility under the concluded agreements);

– On character of mobilisation of financial assets (the enterprise of the open and closed type);

– On character of organizational forms (the collective form, in turn, subdivided into partnership and corporations, or individual);

– On methods of motivation of work (payment of hired workers on work according to work rationing on state and co-operative enterprises, payment on work with payment of dividends on individual shares in joint-stock companies, distribution of the income to consumption and accumulation to private enterprises);

– On character of primary activity of the enterprise (industrial, intermediary, marketing).

Let's consider the basic organizational forms of business.

Individual businessmen are the persons who are carrying out the enterprise initiative on the basis of a personal property belonging to them, directly operating all operations, and bearing complete property responsibility for results of the activity. In the countries with the developed market economy individual businessmen represent the greatest on number group in comparison with all other forms of the organisation of enterprise structures (over 90 %), however on scales involved in sphere of business of assets it takes modest enough place – an order of 20 %, i.e. individual businessmen make a basis of small business. In the USA more than 19 million firms concerns a category of small enterprises; in France 2,3 million firms (99,8 % of all French firms) on which 70 % of a national labour are taken concern small enterprises. In Spain of firms of 99,5 % concern the small and average enterprises making a basis of a national economy. In Germany on "mittelshtandah" (the small and average enterprises) it is taken more than 65 % of able-bodied population.

Let's analyse merits and demerits of this organizational form of business. Simplicity of formation, and also low expenses for the organisation and registration of the individual (individual) enterprise concerns number of its indisputable dignities. Further, it is necessary to recognise as positive factors the complete control of the businessman over all activity of the enterprise and strong motivation of the businessman having the individual right to all income of the activity. All it together supplies efficiency and flexibility of management with the project raising its chances of success. Here it is necessary to note low rates of the taxation (under the rate on private incomes). The Strength of small enterprises is their flexibility and ability operatively to react to inquiries of the market that raises them prisposobljaemost and survival rate in difficult conditions. Small enterprises can come out winners in competition with large firms only at orientation to competent use of scientific and technical, technological and organizational innovations. This circumstance is especially important for Russia since before us sharply there is a problem of the accelerated updating of industrial potential.

It is necessary to carry to defects of individual business: limitation of possibilities of the businessman to capital mobilisation by its own savings, limitation of administrative resources of the businessman its own intelligence and experience (that, unconditionally, raises risks of the enterprise), complete scale of responsibility (including its personal property) under all obligations. Here it is necessary to carry time limitation of the enterprise project and the enterprise realising it time of a life of the businessman, and, at last, usually low liquidity of the individual enterprise.

For the countries with the developed market economy the social importance of small business consists that they will mobilise creative and enterprise potential of the country, simultaneously accepting (and, accordingly, removing with the leading national enterprises) the raised risks connected with innovative activity. Proved form of support of small business are venture firms in which on the means transmitted on a gratuitous basis by a large firm, the businessman tries to realise the innovative project. Motivation for the large firm investing this project, is transfer to it bolshej parts of shares of venture firm (an order of 80 % of shares) that allows it to join in advancement of the workings out which have proved the efficiency by criterion the price-quality.

Small enterprises play a dual role: on the one hand, they are the powerful generator of new ideas (which the more powerfully, than more favorably environment for small business in the country). On the other hand, figuratively speaking, they represent itself as the porpoises accepting risk, connected with reception of new medical preparations: only after primary approbation on svinkah these preparations act on the further tests for monkeys and people-volunteers before they will enter into regular medical practice. Other form of small business partially allowing defects of individual business at the expense of the elementary cooperation, partnership or associations are.

The partnership represents association of businessmen of the closed type with the limited number of participants which together carry out enterprise activity on the basis of the share property and direct personal sharing in operation of business and bear complete personal property responsibility for results of activity of the enterprise. The basic positive difference of partnership from individual business consists in expansion of possibilities for attracting capital by association of personal savings of participants, and also increase in administrative resources of the enterprise at the expense of abilities and experience of all its participants. Besides, subsidiarnaja the responsibility provided for this organizational form though and extending on all personal property of participants, reduces individual risks of businessmen. Partnership basis is the agreement entered into by participants which establishes an activity direction, duration of action of the agreement on partnership, division of responsibilities, responsibility, rates of commission at achievement of results of the project, an order of transfer of shares to the third parties that stabilises this enterprise, not limiting its action by time of a life of concrete participants. It is necessary to carry to dignities of partnership and low rates of the taxation (under the rate on private incomes).

It is necessary to recognise as defects of this organizational form of business division of the control over enterprise activity between all participants, that often is a source of disagreements and conflicts between them. subsidiarnaja the complete personal responsibility of participants which are rather heavy form of responsibility, strengthens arising conflicts necessity to bear responsibility and for another's errors. Decrease in motivation of separate businessmen as their income rights from enterprise activity are limited to the rights of other participants besides, is available. All it has caused the least prevalence of this form of business.

Common fault of small enterprises is that within the limits of this organizational form it is difficult to decide scale and capital-intensive projects. These enterprises are less stable, than large, and require various preferential forms of crediting. The large part of small enterprises is broken in the first year (to 90 %), but among remained happen extremely successful. One of the brightest modern examples of break of small business in a big business, – the break which has changed the modern world, is the history of production of personal computers [67].

As push to development of engineering of personal COMPUTERS microprocessor creation has served. In 1971 Intel Corporation has developed the monocrystal integrated scheme with a complete set of elements of the central processor, though also very modest: the size of its word made only four bits. However in a year Intel manufactures the eight-digit processor, and in 1974 – its improved variant Intel 8080. The small companies have soon equipped this microprocessor with integrated schemes of memory and other components. There was a first programmed microcomputer for management of productions and other appendices. In 1975 small firm MITS, Inc. Has developed the system as which it was possible to consider as the first serial personal computer (Altair 8800). Its basic complete set was sold as a set of details to fans of engineering and cost 395 dollars, and in the collected kind the microcomputer cost 621 dollars Thus that its nearest competitor a minicomputer (though and a little surpassing it on functionality) cost 6 thousand dollars Production of personal computers fast grew – for 6 years issue of personal computers has increased in 100 times.

In 1975 the market of personal computers has received an additional impulse. Small firm Apple Computer Inc. Has aimed to increase a sales volume of personal computers, having introduced them in household practice and a family life. For this purpose it has adjusted issue of systems of the blochno-modular design, differing simplicity of operation and calculated for the consumers, not having any preparation in the field of computer facilities. By 1980 the total amount of sales of personal computers has exceeded 1 bln. dollars that has responded appreciable reduction of incomes of the recognised leader of manufacturers of the big COMPUTERS Yo - firms IBM Corporation, and also leading manufacturers of minicomputers – firms Digital Equipment Corporation and Hewlett-Packard Company. In 1985 the volume of the world market of personal computers already made 7 bln. dollars, and in 2000 – exceeded 1,5 bln. dollars

The important role in development of small business in Russia is played by the Federal law "About the state support of small business in the Russian Federation". According to this law, the enterprises of any organizational-legal form which are both legal, and physical persons can be subjects of small business. The law defines a limiting volume of employment on small enterprises depending on their branch accessory: in the industry, building and on transport in 100 people, in agriculture and scientific service – 60 people, in retail trade – 30 people, in other spheres – 50 people the Quantitative approach to definition "malosti" the enterprises, limiting number working at the enterprise, is applied and in other countries, though threshold significances to small enterprises everywhere the different: in the USA is 500 people, in Japan - 300 people, in the countries of the European Union - 200 people

It is necessary to recognise, however, that number of workers cannot characterise enterprise structure to the full. Therefore it is represented to us, that in classification of the enterprises it is necessary to consider their some economic indicators also. For example, for the enterprises of industrial sphere it there could be market scales on which the given enterprise works, size of its annual turnover, etc. criteria. In more details about the contribution of small business to the Russian economy it will be told in the subsequent heads.

In modern market economy the key role is played by corporations. At the general share of their number in 20-25 % from all organizational forms of corporation give 80-90 % of economic circulation. In what the reason of such contribution of corporations in economy in spite of the fact that the large part of corporations has rather modest sizes?

The corporation represents the association based on individual share and the capital, the legal rights and which obligations are isolated from the rights and obligations of its participants. Isolation of property responsibility allows to involve in investment various strata of society, supplying significant concentration of the capital in rather limited terms through primary stock promotion. Besides, in corporation it is possible to carry out redistribution of the capital in the enterprise, flexibly reacting on the changes of the environment which has again opened circumstances at realisation of the project. The decrease in risk connected by these by isolation, stimulates innovative function of business.

The branch of administrative functions from the property rights stipulates high stability of corporations as forms of economic formation which exists irrespective of its founders and participants beyond all bounds long (the unique mechanism of the termination of activity of corporation bankruptcy) is. Together with ability of corporation to accumulation of the big capitals by issue of securities it conditions for statement of the scale purposes with the big horizons of their achievement and for attraction to realisation of the project of more professional performing and administrative staff. It is natural, that all it raises chances of the innovative project of success.

At last, the corporate form allows to carry out fast moving of individual share from one participants to other participants and the third parties through purchase and sale of shares at stock exchange. Thus, defect of small organizational forms of business – low liquidity of a share of a concern in the business – appears quite overcome. The basic dignities of corporations as separate organizational form of business are that.

It is necessary to carry to number of its defects, first, organizational difficulties at registration and an incorporation. Secondly, the raised taxes: at first the corporation pays the profit tax, and then – the tax from dividends paid to shareholders. But the main problem for corporate business is made by harmonisation of relations between proprietors of corporation – shareholders and the maximum management of corporation. Though all legal rights in corporation belong to shareholders, these rights appear sprayed between the big number of shareholders, furthermore on the whole not having necessary qualification for management and not having the information necessary for it.

As a rule, all administrative effect of shareholders is reduced to sharing in more or less regular meetings devoted to elections of directing bodies of corporation and development of strategy of its economic activities. Therefore the real power in corporation appears in management hands, especially the maximum. Weakness of the control of their activity provokes managers of corporation to management substitution in interests of its holders-shareholders on management in own interests that reduces social and economic efficiency of corporation. In the countries with the developed market economy this problem is decided by means of external examination of quality of the management, custom-made shareholder meetings, and also the various methods of material stimulation which are pulling together interests of management and shareholders.

The transferred features of corporate business lead to that corporations more slowly, than small enterprises, introduce achievements of scientific and technical progress, and the big scales of production and more developed economic ties strengthen inertia in the reorganisation of production initiated by changes in an environment (a consumer demand, the technological changes, the competitive environment). Comparison of merits and demerits of both organizational forms of business Yo - small and corporate – show, that these forms are not competitive, but supplementing one another as defects of one are compensated by dignities other. Here it is necessary to repeat once again the thought stated concerning social and economic significance of small enterprises: In innovative activity they execute the avant-guard role which problem is investigation of the innovative project (its basic realizability, a realisation costs estimate, an estimation of demand and its prospects on growth rates of the market – the example about development of the market of personal computers) see. After the project has proved the solvency, business is entered by main forces on behalf of corporations which develop its success.

Despite set of dignities of corporate business, in Russia development of this form has faced a number of difficulties. First of all, destruction of uniform economic space of the former Soviet Union, and also rupture industrial and economic ties between branches and the separate enterprises has negatively affected. The problem was aggravated with technical backwardness of many leading enterprises, significant wear and tear of a fixed capital, unavailability of administrative shots ("red directors") to conduct productive and economic activity of the enterprises in the conditions of the market. At macroeconomic level it is necessary to note misses in tax policy realisation, imperfection of financially-credit system, blanks in the sections of civil procedure law regulating business and business.

As the basic theme of the given work is business research in sphere of production of goods, will consider the factors influencing its development now. The part from them has the general character and consequently they influence any industrial activity. Others are more connected with specificity of production for the enterprises of concrete patterns of ownership.

It is necessary to carry consequences to number of the first from the natural market right of the enterprise independently to arrive at a price on production. Weight maximisations have arrived the enterprise can achieve in two methods – increase in a turn-over and increase in profitability of sales at the expense of recovery of price. The increase in a turn-over requires fixing of the price at consumer demand level, and it requires a production cost-saving (it is necessary to underline, that this position, it is unconditional, fair only for modern Russian conditions when owing to low effective demand of consumers and the raised production costs because of a deterioration of cars and the equipment, heavy prices for raw materials, etc. the balance price always appears below a possible ask price). Production Cost-savings can achieve as a result of intense struggle for economy of work, energy, resources, that in the long term coincides with social and economic interests of the state and company.

However in conditions not simply economic, but the technological monopoly inherited still from Soviet times when the principle "one product – one factory" [68] was strictly maintained, the enterprise - monopolist for increase in weight of profit prefers recovery of price on production, as to more simple and natural method on a microeconomic level. As an example the regular increase in tariffs at production and service of natural monopolies without any that can serve was positive change in quality of services: on an electricity (Russian Open Society "United Power Systems"), rail transportation (the Russian railways), utilities (housing and communal services). Danger of such way is shown at macroeconomic level: inflation (especially hardly from increase in the prices at an electricity) grows, reducing effective demand of consumers and by that reducing home market, indebtedness and defaults of payment increase, infringing market mechanism functioning. For it monopolists inflict on sanction consumers, removing with service the whole cities. A consequence of it is growth of social pressure in the country – that can see examples almost weekly on TV. Thus, the commodity producer itself worsens conditions of the managing.

The resulted example only shows necessity of state regulation of process of transition to market economy though at all does not prove it. Special works are devoted this separate big problem many. The set example shows also, that industrial business cannot independently arise, become stronger and survive in the conditions of deeply monopolised, oligarchical system which have arisen in our country on ruins of socialism.

Certain level of state regulation of economy is necessary for formation and development of industrial business. This interference can be shown in two planes: on the one hand, influencing market relations through the investment, tax, tariff policy, the legislation, etc., on the other hand – through regulation of relations between employers and workers. Thus it is necessary to consider, that as objects of regulation are the subjects of an economic life having certain liberty of action and the submissions about ways of development of economy (expectations), the state should not concern private persons, or separate firms as to passive and inanimate objects of macroeconomic regulation. As the Nobel winner in R.Lukas's economy has shown, "expectations of people are so important for economy, as well as state economic policy" [69]. Practical application of a principle of the account of expectations of subjects of managing at regulation by the state of market relations depends on critical judgement of positions on which the policy of economic transformations should be under construction.

First, in the conditions of deep recession of economy the state should regulate not only market relations through the investment, tax, tariff policy, the legislation, etc., but also to influence market conditions through a policy of incomes of the population (kejnsianskaja the macroeconomic policy), purposeful support of those branches and economic subjects which work in is strategic perspective directions. Such regulation helps to weaken natural fluctuations of the market at its aspiration to balance, reduces level of social costs at economy reorganisation, accelerates business development in production sphere.

Secondly, thus, that the majority of the Russian economists does not challenge necessity of state regulation of economy, the question on forms and a measure of this regulation causes the big disagreements. It is necessary to find that optimum side at which the state does not oppress the enterprise initiative, and promotes its development. Unfortunately, throughout first ten years of reforming of economy the state smothered business by taxes and bureaucratic restrictions, undermining the constructive enterprise initiative. Some positive motions in tax laws have occurred recently [70].

Thirdly, opening of the Russian company for world culture has ambiguous character. On the one hand, the Russian intelligency began to absorb actively achievements of the western economic and philosophical thought by which it has been deprived during Soviet time. The Russian experts began to run in the advanced methods of housekeeping in market conditions – management, marketing, logistics, insurance business and many other things, possession with which is a necessary condition of achievement of success on a world scene. On the other hand, break of the western mass culture to Russia has had shocking effect on the inhabitant, having caused in some layers attacks of the xenophobia supported by other politicians. Underestimation of own history and the contribution of the people to a world civilisation, noncritical perception of another's culture generates so-called "a colonial syndrome" – a worship for another's culture or its perfect negation (which example known opposition of germanophiles and Slavophiles serves in a public life of Russia of the nineteenth century). Both these directions proceed from sensation own vtorosortnosti, inability to create, equivalent. Two possible lines of conduct from this follow: or blind, noncritical copying of another's recipes, or on the contrary, groundless negation of another's culture from inability to understand and evaluate it. However negation does not remove an objective problem and consequently the subject a trial and error method is compelled "to invent an own bicycle". Therefore both the first, and the second lines can become an obstacle in a way of formation of effective national economy, and also increase costs on this way (especially with allowance for significant backlog of the Russian economy from the advanced economy and processes of an abnormal depreciation of the fixed capital limiting time for searches of correct decisions).

Chiefs and experts face this problem both state, and private sectors. One of the reasons of failures in reforming of economy and formation of socially-responsible business in sphere of production and frequently ugly displays in business, in sphere of the finance and circulations was blind transferring of the western methods. At macroeconomic level it was showed in nekriticheski apprehended liberalistskoj and the monetarist of model of reforming of economy, and on a microeconomic level this transferring of the western models and methods of managing without maintenance of corresponding conditions.

Formation of the Russian business and first of all in production sphere should be carried out with allowance for real Russian economic, legal and sotsio-cultural conditions. The account of national culture (features of "the human material", on expression of philosopher A.Zinoveva) gives necessary stability to the social development which examples it is possible to see in Japan, South Korea and China. In these countries the market economy is combined with traditional for east civilisations kollektivistkimi the beginnings in a public life which do not interfere, and on the contrary, promote economic successes of these countries (for example, the well-known mugs of improvement of quality, widespread at the enterprises of Japan, almost unimaginable in individualisticheski the focused United States).

Fourthly, it is necessary recognise that formation of any industrial activity it can not to be carried out on an empty place, it should be under construction on the basis of available industrial, scientific and professional basis. At all defects (errors and crimes) the Soviet period at this time has been created not only powerful industrial potential, but especially unique system of the general and vocational training which supported and developed a company mental potential. These two resources (especially the second) are a main condition of development of enterprise activity in modern Russia. Existing erosion of these potentials worsens entry conditions for formation of business and its development brakes, therefore it is necessary to take measures not simply for decrease in rates of erosion, but also resolute change of tendencies.

Fifthly, the necessary condition for formation and development of industrial business consists in a recognition of that, despite all variety of lines of business in market conditions, and priority production of goods in which process the person, influencing a natural subject of work, or its derivatives, creates the material benefits necessary for existence and development of company it is main. From other ways of accumulation of the initial national capital (operation of natural resources, nonequivalent colonial trade, the robbery of the next people widely used by nowadays developed countries at the stage of accumulation of capital) in Russia is intensively used the first as in the form of export of mineral resources and energy carriers, and in the form of actual leasing of the territory under a burial place of a foreign nuclear waste. Both these have of a method the limited economic resource and, besides, shift economic and environmental problems of today on shoulders of descendants, repeatedly strengthening them.

At the same time it is necessary to consider objective laws of accumulation and capital flow. In Russia process of accumulation of capital proceeds. At the initial stage of the movement the capital consistently runs in two spheres – trade and the finance. Using the entry conditions of market reforming rather differing from a market equilibrium, the capital collects "free money" from the financial market and the exchange sphere, involved with short cycle times in these spheres supplying high rates of an increment of the capital. Thus the capital does not disdain the obvious and latent infringements of existing laws, and weak power "vague time" cannot and does not wish to counteract it because itself participates in process of initial accumulation of capital. After all "easy" money is collected, the capital can direct in production which by the nature is the inexhaustible generator of cost though and not such fast as circulation sphere (which such generator is not). Alternative to this process is the export of capital dooming the country for the second and third roles in a world economic and political life.

For Russia the "romantic" epoch of easy money, voucher privatisation, dashing mortgaging auctions, etc. has already ended. And though podspudno there are processes of repartition the properties caused by oligarchical character of the Russian capitalism, capital circulation time in production sphere already comes. The problem of state bodies to direct process of natural advancement of the capital to socially significant channel, and for this purpose it is necessary to develop system of motivating stimulus for attracting capital in sphere of the production, capable to prevent flight of capitals from the country and to reduce time of "idle time" of the capital in trading and a financial field.

At the first attempt of the circulation of the Russian capital to the production working on home market, taken place in 1996-98, the Russian manufacturers have faced the strong foreign competitiveness caused by the overestimated rouble exchange rate and high inflation. After a default of 1998 the situation was a little facilitated, as in the impoverished Russian consumer market the western production has lost a significant part of the price appeal, and Chinese production often loses Russian on quality. Nevertheless, the competitiveness to the Russian manufacturers in home market is still enough great, as they have not quite taken possession of work methods in the market, methods of competition, correct distribution of forces in it and other subtleties. The strong-willed spirit on struggle is important also: as a rule, those businessmen who have no firm installation on competition, suffer in it defeat, including from foreign competitors. The businessman, who begins well supplied with resources (material, financial, personnel) innovative activity, can reach the superiority over competitors at the expense of higher technological and organizational level. This circumstance stimulates any businessman to freedom of economic competition, a freedom in choosing of spheres and activity methods. Therefore the competitiveness is a natural and integral condition of enterprise activity. Thus expansion of economic freedom of one businessman limits, narrows a field of freedom of other businessman. The success of one businessman in unlimited expansion of freedom conducts to an establishment of its monopoly.

Thus, the competitiveness and monopolism are two parties of one medal. As a rule, in the pure kind the monopoly in the developed market economies meets seldom enough as the competitiveness answers the basic consumer interests and the states. Therefore the anti-trust legislation in the developed countries in every possible way protects and encourages a competitiveness. Hence, ability to conduct competition is a necessary condition of stable and effective business.

Economic practice has produced three types of competitive behaviour. The first type – so-called creative behaviour – consists in achievement of the superiority over contenders at the expense of creation of the new requirements, qualitatively new production, use new resursosberegajushchih technologies, various innovations in the production and sales organisation. Following possibility on this way in many respects depends on innovative possibilities of the businessman. At the limited innovative possibilities more comprehensible there is a second type of behaviour – timeserving at which the businessman aspires to hold the items (and as required and to bypass the competitor) by copying of the production of the goods run in by others businessman and services. In this case the businessman does not create new possibilities for the market (and consequently it terminologically strictly followed to name the businessman, but there where it does not introduce semantic mess, we will use Russian word the businessman), and aspires to participate together with others in satisfaction of the demand created by others businessman. If such behaviour is divided by many businessmen, the period of saturation of the market can appear short and then participants of this branch move to other sectors of the market attractive to them. The third type of the competitive behaviour which has received the name supplying, is characterised by that the businessman at the expense of improvement of qualitative characteristics so-called "the generalised product" [71] (representing actually physical goods with its qualitative characteristics plus a package of commercial services – the price, discounts, after-sale service etc. Stimulating demand) aspires as it is possible to keep the won market longer. The businessman resorts to such type of behaviour in the absence of possibilities to adjust production of new production, or to modernise production for the purpose of a cost-saving and realisation of price competition on former type of production.

Competition art consists, in particular, in ability to choose correct (corresponding to environmental conditions and inwardness of firm) type of competitive behaviour. It is natural, that with such ability the businessman is not born, it develops in the course of real market activity. In the aspiration to win the market in competition and to take advantage advantages of a monopolist (is more exact, the leader of branch) the businessman should not forget, that rigid competition is interfaced to the big losses in the form of a real loss (for example, profit loss, and sometimes and the income in price competition), and also the missed benefit. Therefore it can appear very favourable to conclude with the competitor the union in the form of vertical integration, divisions of the markets of influence, etc. Such cooperation strengthens position of the businessman in the market. It is important to remember only, that this cooperation should be favourable to both parties (and to be realised also by both parties!) Differently the union will collapse, and competition will begin with new force. It does not mean, that the businessman should evade always from struggle, but it is important, that it entered it with open eyes, reasonably evaluating possible benefits from a victory and the risks interfaced to struggle.

In connection with processes of globalisation of economic typing rates the Russian businessmen should consider following circumstance. Maintenance of high vital standards in the developed countries have led to a high price of labour power to world measures and high costs on preservation of the environment in these countries (through the mechanism of the economic account eksternaly – outer effects [72]), that is natural, increases production costs in these countries. For the purpose of decrease in the costs, transnational corporations of the developed countries even more often aspire to place the production (especially ecologically aggressive) in the countries with cheaper labour and the liberal laws protecting an environment. Along with the countries of the third world, this process can mention and Russia as in the general composition of costs on production in our country the wages share made 13 %, that several times it is less, than in the developed countries (25-35 %). This phenomenon which has received the name of export of jobs, acquires more and more wide scales, and the Russian businessmen in production sphere should face sooner or later such form of competition.

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A source: OMELCHENKO EVGENIE VITALEVICH. ORGANIZATIONAL-ECONOMIC BASES of INCREASE of EFFICIENCY of the RUSSIAN INDUSTRIAL BUSINESS. 2002

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  1. influence social and business factors on development of institutes of the housing law of the USA.
  2. § 2.1. Business factors of corporate captures.
  3. Influence of tax load on activity factors
  4. § 2. Tehniko - business factors of development of cellular communication.
  5. factors of credit status of the borrower, used by business banks of Japan.
  6. the Analysis of influence of external factors on pricing in banks of commerce
  7. Influence of major factors on indicators of work of the pump
  8. Factors of influence on perception of candidates in presidents
  9. Influence of biotic factors on formation of biogroups
  10. factors of a social environment of the child and their influence on ontogenez
  11. § 3. A role of participants of the tax obligation in business about bankruptcy. Influence of the persons participating in business about bankruptcy, on the maintenance of the tax obligation
  12. Influence of the State expenditure on activity factors
  13. Influence of the State expenditure on solvency factors
  14. Influence of tax load on factors of capital structure (solvency)
  15. Influence of non-material factors on development potential regioyonalnoj economy
  16. the Appendix № 5 FACTORS of NEGATIVE INFLUENCE ON BUILDING MATERIALS
  17. 4.4. Definition of rational operating modes of the shower mixer on the basis of the analysis of influence of major factors on response function
  18. 4.11.2 Influence Na^SsG-inozina on factors of system of nonspecific immunologic resistance of an organism
  19. modern representations about the mechanism of reactions gidrokarbalkoksilirovanija and influence of various factors on their speed and selectivity.