Modern approaches «modelling and estimation methods organiyozatsionnoj cultures of the enterprise

Last decades many researchers prosecuted subjects of modelling, classification and an estimation of organizational cultures.

G.Hofsted [94] classifies substantial cultural osoyobennosti the organisations on the basis of following characteristics.

1. Individualism/collectivism. Individualism assumes, that the person operates proceeding from own interests; the Collectivism, on the contrary, recognises that each person on a birth or on raboyote belongs to more or less rallied group and the nanosecond can consider, free from it.

2. A power zone. The sphere of distribution of the power as element kultuyory is defined by space in which limits even least nadeyolennyj the power the individual in group realises inequality in raspredeyolenii the authorities and considers as its normal state of affairs.

3. Uncertainty elimination. This characteristic specifies in degree of aspiration of people to avoid situations in which they feel uncertainly. Thus it is necessary to notice, that the culture deprived of perception of uncertainty, differs activity, aggression and intolerance.

4. Courage / feminity. This characteristic ustanavliyovaet degree of a susceptibility of culture to the features inherent zhenyoskoj in model of behaviour. Inherently culture weight bear in itself preoblayodajushchee the man's beginning.

In "courageous" cultures the accent becomes on material usyopehe and resoluteness, and in "womanly" the priority is given to quality of a life and care of the weak.

5. Long term/brevity. A little bit later Hofstedom the fifth measuring instrument of national culture — long term / brevity of orientation has been entered. Long-term orientation is characterised by a prospection and shown in aspiration to savings and nakopyoleniju, in persistence and persistence in purpose achievement. Short-term orientation is characterised, on the contrary, and the present and is shown by a retrospective view through respect of traditions and a heritage, through performance sotsiyoalnyh obligations.

American sociologist C.Handi on the basis of the number analysis krupnejyoshih the American companies has offered typology, in which basis leyozhit distribution of the power and the valuable orientations connected with it lichyonosti which cause character of the relation of the individual and organizayotsii, structure of the organisation and character of its activity.

1. Power culture («culture Zevsa»). Power culture formiruyoetsja when the director is not simply the head, but also the owner. A basis of relations in collective - the power and the rigid control. The company easily adapts to changes, but its mobility directly proporyotsionalna mobility of the leader. A problem that there is a limit of growth of the company because of unwillingness of the leader to delegate the polnoyomochija. It is observed big tekuchka among managers of an average link since discrepancy of their duties and powers is observed. Decisions are accepted individually.

2. Role (bureaucratic) culture («culture Appollona»). HaYOrakterna for the big companies working in stable enough market and occupying firm positions. At selection of workers uchityyovajutsja not so much their professional abilities, how many verojatyo
nost that, how much well they will approach under concrete duty regulations. Initiative display is considered inappropriate.

A problem that in a situation of changes in the market, to it will be heavy to adapt for new conditions. People who steal up in such companies, cannot be adjusted on performance any others, not acquaintances to them objazannoyostej and have got used to follow concrete duty regulations.

3. Personal culture («culture Dionisa»). Its difference that all collective consists of people highly professional. They in general can work as without the head, and the friend without the friend. Such culture is calculated on satisfaction of personal ambitions, personal interests. InoYOgda it is formed not in the organisation, and in its any department or division. Such culture cannot long exist. More often in it the leader is allocated, and it passes in the power.

4. Target culture («culture of Athena»). Target culture formiyoruetsja in the companies which activity is directed on the decision konyokretnyh problems. They are adapted for work in conditions dynamically razyovivajushchegosja the market. Structure of such organisations washed away. That izbeyozhat transformations of working collective into "party", usually there is a rigid form of the reporting and the control. The basic attention in such kompayonijah is given to professionalism of employees. The target culture demands command work.

The largest American expert in the field of U.Ouchi's management [55,96] has offered the variant of typology of the organisation which is based on distinctions in regulation of interactions and relations. On Ouchi, exists three most widespread types of culture: rynochyonaja, bureaucratic, clan.

The market culture is based on domination cost otnosheyony. The management and the personnel of such type of the organisations are guided mainly by profitability.

The bureaucratic culture is based mainly on sisteyome the power which is carrying out a regulation of all activity predpriyojatija in the form of rules, instructions and procedures.

The clan culture - an element of the informal organisations also is addition to two aforesaid. People in such organisation obedineyony any system of values divided by all.

T.Dila and A.Kennedi's classification. Researchers of firm cultures offer various classifications depending on that, kayokoj the aspect of culture of the organisation represents for them the greatest inteyores. For example, T.Dil and A.Kennedi'prishli to a conclusion, that culture orgayonizatsii is defined by two basic signs: the degree of risk peculiar to activity of the organisation; speed of a feedback, or an estimation of the accepted decisions. On the basis of these signs they; have allocated four ooze of cultures depending on variants of a combination of high/low degree of risk and - sgroj/medlsnnoj a feedback (tab. 2.1).


Types of cultures on T.Dilu and A.Kennedy

Risk Turn іая снячі.
The fast Slowed down
The high Tough guy culture Bet-your-company culture
The low Work hard, play hard culture Process culture

Tough guy culture - the culture of "rigid guys», those who the nanosecond is afraid to risk and aspires to success achievement. The requirement for a fast estimation and a feedback does not allow to be engaged strategic planirovayoniem. Such companies, promptly having become successful, so quickly come off second-best.

Work hard, play hard culture (who well works, that it is good otdyyohaet). This culture of action and pleasure is characterised low steyopenju risk in a combination to a fast feedback. The success comes cheyorez independent or command activity.

Bet-your-company culture (stake the company). kultuyora it is characterised by high degree of risk at decision-making and dolyogim result expectation. People in the field of technical knowledge as decisions which they accept and on which the future success of the company depends, objazayotelno are connected with the strengthened attention to technical details become a culture core vysokokompeyotentnye.

Process culture (culture-process). It is connected with small risk and zamedyolennoj a feedback. It is peculiar bureaucratic pravitelstyovennym to the organisations and the manufactures, which employees sosredotocheyony on the process of the work. They know the slightest nuances vnutyorennej activity of the company and are able to protect the system from postoyoronnego interventions. Titles and ranks, privileges occupy one of vazhyonejshih places among their corporate values.

F.Trompenaarsa's classification [104]. Within the limits of studying of intercultures - nyh relations the big interest classification natsionalyonyh organizational cultures, on Fonsu Trompenaarsu represents (tab. 2.2), kotoyoryj regulates culture of the organisation on technologies, the markets and on national cultural preferences of heads and workers of the organisation.

Table 2.2

Classification of organizational cultures by F.Trompenaarsu

paramegry Egalitarnost (ravensgvo) Hierarchy
The person Incubator, the culture focused on achievement Family, culture, orientirovanyonaja on the power
The purpose Guided missile, culture, orientiyorovannaja on the purpose (problem) Tour d'Eiffel, culture, oriyoentirovannaja the password

At definition of type of culture it allocates three aspects zhiznedejayotelnosti the organisations:

• mutual relations between rabognikami and the organisation;

• the hierarchy defining chiefs and subordinates;

• representations of employees about destiny of the organisation, its mission and about the place in it.

For allocation of various types of cultures of the organisation F.trompena - ars has compared them on following parametres:

Equality, hierarchy; orientation na.cheloveka (person) th problem (purpose). It has allowed it to isolate four types of cultures; which znachiyotelno razlichajutsjatsm.kak in them it is accepted to think, study, vary (peyorestraivatsja); as the motivation is stimulated in them and are resolved: konyoflikty, as well as for kakiedostizhenija производятся* rewardings.

The American researchers of culture of the organisation of K.Kameron and R.Kvinn. [32] offer the typology of cultures of the organisation: adhokrayotija, a clan, the market and hierarchy. First of all authors allocate two main measurements on which considered indicators get to one of four main groups. One measurement separates criteria effektivyonosti the organisations which underline flexibility, step-type behaviour, and diyonamizm, from the criteria accenting stability, an order and the control. The continuum of this measurement is stretched from organizational mnogogranyonosti and plasticity on one edge to organizational nekolebimosti and durability on other. The second measurement separates criteria effekyotivnosti which underline internal orientation; integration and unity, from criteria, assotsiiruemyh with external orientation, diffeyorentsiatsiej and rivalry. The continuum of this measurement is stretched from organizational unity and a coordination on one edge to: Organizational dissociation and independence on other. Both izmereyonija form four groups of indicators, each of which represents accurately distinguishable set of indicators organizational effektivyonosti, defining what exactly people appreciate in activity indicators
or і'анизации, i.e. Those rod values on which it is taken out suzhdeyonie about culture of the organisation.

The definitive result of comparison was made out in the form of the total diagramme of a profile of culture of the organisation (fig. 2.1).

_________ - a present profile of culture of the organisation

------------- - Preferable profile of culture of the organisation

Fig. 2.1. gipologija cultures of the organisation on K.Kameronu and R.Kvinnu

J.Saratovtsev [72] offers management and estimation model izmeyoneny cultures of the organisation as difficult stage-by-stage and multilevel system of conceptual interrelations (tabl. 2.3).

Table 2.3

Model of structural stratification of formation and estimation of culture of the organisation






The internal maintenance


Actual layer

L «about ¶h about 5 At S In * =Г about

At z


*2 2 With and




Mission choice TO, idea of criterion function construction of abstract model modelling of conditions on obligations of the parties







Target indicators of volume and quality of function the account of influencing factors and conditions the decision of a problem of a choice of target strategy the conceptual program organizational planning formation of the centres of realisation

System of standard values system of real values communicative model




Scenarios The general estimation of communicative model


The internal environment







X Estimation of quality of communicative model 2 okkm


Management M
AT The internal environment С1


Environment С2
S Quantitative estimation of communicative model 3 kokm


Management M


The internal environment I С1


Environment С2
Island inte§ralnaja an estimation of communicative model IOKM

New reality

1 - strategic scenarios

2 - acceptance scenarios or і ^ nizatsionn§h decisions

3 - realizable scenarios

The general estimation of communicative model management, the internal environment and an environment (OOKM) represents process opredels -
nija positive or negative ortanta the received estimations. The estimation of quality of communicative model (OKKM) includes its estimation on kollinearnosti vectors, under the relation and a difference of values of model noyovogo type and base model. The estimation of level of communicative model (KOKM) is spent under the relation and a difference of values of model of new type and ideal model. An integrated estimation of communicative model (IOKM) predstavljajaet itself threefold integral of total estimations on axes: management H-estimations, Y-otssnki the internal environment, an environment Z-estimation.

At imposing of the scalar sizes of organizational culture received as a result of testing for scalar sizes of ideal model we will receive value (level) of organizational culture equal to the volume received as a result of their multiplication (or to value of threefold integral OK ~ § \f (xo, yo, zn) dxci dyo dzo) which will be equal fakticheyoskomu to value of level of organizational culture (fig. 2.2).

Spatial area D is set by inequalities:

About H „+/, 0 ^uo ^ +1, About

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A source: Tjurikova Maria Mihajlovna. Development of methods for assessing and shaping the organizational culture of a commercial enterprise. Thesis for the degree of candidate of economic sciences. St. Petersburg - 2007. 2007

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