2.2. Strategy of development of an enterprise network of small enterprises franchajzingovogo type

Working out of strategy of development of an enterprise network small predyoprijaty franchajzingovogo type is characterised following etapnostyo:

- Branch choice;

- Estimation of advantages and lacks franchajzinga;

- The substantiation of that strategy franchajzinga approaches for konkretyonoj to the business concept;

- Working out strategy of management of yours franchajzingovoj a network;

- Definition of forms and support methods franchajzi;

- Working out of strategy concerning territories franchajzi;

- Pricing policy definition;

- Definition of a policy of expansion franchajzingovoj networks;

- The account of legal aspects of formation franchajzingovoj networks;

- Search and selection franchajzi and management of their activity.

It is necessary to notice, that, in particular data are published in the USA

About the enterprises functioning in frameworks franchajzinga. Their list hayorakterizuet branch specificity of the last as follows:

1. Book keeping and services in the taxation, including calculations under the taxes, the automated systems of book keeping for spetsiayolizirovannyh the enterprises, the enterprises of small business and dealers.

2. The agricultural enterprises.

3. Art galleries.

4. The autodiagnostic centres.

5. Rent of motor vehicles.

6. Shops on sale of spare parts for cars.

7. Workshops on repair of transmissions of cars.

8. Car washes both the accompanying goods and the equipment.

9. Autospare parts and service.

10. Beauty salons and figure corrections.

11. Building.

12. Services in development of enterprise activity.

13. Places of carrying out of divine service on open air.

14. Sale of catalogues.

15. The household chemical goods goods.

16. The children's goods and services.

17. Cleaning and the maintenance of premises, sanitary services.

18. Cosmetics.

19. The Credit/collection.

20. Dancing studios.

21. The packing equipment (the Foodstuffs and drinks).

22. Services in housekeeping conducting.

23. Services in employment and rendering of the time help.

24. Entertainments.

25. The food enterprises. This category consists of 19 types.

26. Creation of funds.

27. Blackout of glasses.

28. Services in health protection.

29. Health clubs.

30. Hearing aids.

31. The goods for the house.

32. Industrial deliveries/services.

33. The equipment on care of lawns and a garden.

34. Advancement of marketing of sales.

35. Motels.

36. At home for the aged.

37. Orgoborudovanie.

38. Removal of a paint from a surface.

39. Coverings a paint.

40. Struggle against harmful insects.

41. The equipment for improvement of a physical condition.

42. A food for animals.

43. The Press/service on duplicating.

44. Publishing.

45. Sale of the trading equipment.

46. Rent (all kinds of the equipment).

47. Systems are sewn up.

48. Training of workers of trade.

49. Schools / Teaching activity.

50. Popularisation of scientific workings out.

51. Sewer services.

52. Signboards.

53. Sports/rest.

54. Points on granting of retail services (a dry-cleaner, bars - ice-cream, salons for newly married, jeweller services, autodrudgery laundries).

55. Swimming pools.

56. Telecopying systems.

57. Television systems.

58. Travel agencies.

59. Services in cultivation and care of trees.

60. Automatic machines on sale melkoshtuchnyh the goods.


Repair of vinyl and plastic products.

62. Systems on water treating.

63. Devices of the control over weight.

64. Wigs.

65. The various goods and services.

The British association franchajzinga offers 46 types of the enterprises with additional division on 38 subtypes.

1. Services in service of cars:

() protection against a rust

() adjustment of cars

() spare parts for the engine; motorcycles; spare parts for motorcycles; kemyoping; the goods for rest

() round-the-clock replacement of windscreens

() replacement of systems of exhaust gases

() the security alarm system

() an automobile escort

() autospare parts.

2. Breweries.

3. Rent of cars.

4. Clearing of drainage systems and pipes.

5. Тииоірафии.

6. The enterprises of fast service:

() fried chickens

() hamburgers

() fish and chips

() a batch and coffee

() a pizza

() a baked potato.

7. Services for the house:

() a double glazing

() protection against wreckers of furniture

() devices on maintenance of humidity of premises

() lattices at windows

() replacement of the kitchen equipment

() security locks

() window curtains

() registration of interiors

() the equipment for kitchens and bathrooms () furniture for a bedroom.

8. Delivery of parcels.

9. Hairdressing salons.

10. The enterprises of retail trade:

() coffee, tea

() a female fashion

() the equipment for rest on water

() the equipment for houses (soft drinks)

() health protection and care of a skin

() footwear

() garden constructions and canopies

() door furnitu ra from bronze and other metals () sewing ma


() ready-to-wear clothes

() accessories

() pharmacology

() a foodstuff which does not have the trade mark.

11. Services of the driver.

12. The goods on care of hair and cosmetics.

13. Agencies on employment.

14_ Industrial services in cleanliness maintenance.

15. Rent of the big tents.

16. Agencies on granting of services in transportations.

17. Real estate agencies.

18. A tile.

19. Colour glass — stained-glass windows.

20. Industrial service of vehicles.

21. Book keeping.

22. Shops on sale of products of the first necessity.

23. Repair of bathrooms.

24. Warehouses.

25. Industrial chemical preparations.

26. Services in landscape creation.

27. The bakeries selling hot bread.

28. A frame of instant photos.

29. Cleaning of offices and the industrial enterprises.

30. Services of housekeepers.

31. Hotels.

32. Tools and the equipment.

33. Repair of buildings from a brick and a stone.

34. Furniture updating.

35. Roofing works.

36. Cement delivery.

37. The industrial equipment and its service.

38. A bureau on carrying out of investigations.

40. Driving schools.

41. Manufacture and sale of breastplates.

42. Sale of tools.

43. Development of a film and the press of photos within an hour.

44. Insurance agents.

45. Vinyl coverings and their restoration.

46. The centres of training to office-work.

Branch in which application franchajzinga will be effective, hayorakterizuetsja possibility of local manufacture and creation local seyoti distributions within the certain geographical market. A significant condition also — a site of the enterprises. A prominent aspect javljayoetsja knowledge of features of the local market. The initiative of managers on mesyotah is encouraged, the reputation of a brand provides important competitive preyoimushchestvo. Process of creation and granting of production and services konechnoyomu to the consumer should come under to standardization and codification. OperaYOtsii should be labour-consuming, and measurement of efficiency of activity of the personnel to represent a problem easier, than measurement prilayogaemyh the personnel of efforts.

Franchajzing is not panacea from all problems and has four osyonovnyh a lack:

- franchajzer and franchajzi are the independent enterprises pursuing the various aims that leads to occurrence to a soya
The replying conflict;

- Use of the agreements defining mutual relations franyochajzera and franchajzi, leads to occurrence of the problems connected with opeyoratsionnymi by expenses which are not characteristic for the enterprises, javljajushchihyosja the property of the companies;

- Innovations and the changes initiated by the head company, vneyodrjat it is more difficult, than in networks of the enterprises belonging to the company;

- The pure size of the profit generated franchajzi, below level priyobyli which provide the shops which are the property of the company.

Estimating possibilities of creation of system franchajzinga on the basis of this or that business, it is necessary to consider following criteria:

1. The enterprise concept, including the made goods and services, should be checked up practice and prove the efficiency.

2. The economic system, business management methods, public image of the enterprise should be brightly expressed.

3. There should be a possibility of successful transfer of this sisyotemy and methods another.

4. Financial receipts from operations franchajzinga should be sufficient to provide to the operator:

- Recoupment of capital investments;

- Rational payment;

- Possibility to pay franchajzeru reasonable compensation for services which are given to them.

5. The income received franchajzerom from created system, should cover its overhead charge and make reasonable profit.

Maintenance of efficiency of activity franchajzinovoj networks treyobuet other strategy of management, than activity se ti shops, priyonadlezhashchih the companies as franchajzer and franchajzi are nezaviyosimymi the enterprises which activity is caused by the contract


The phenomenon franchajzinga is shown in those branches where profit and sales volume growth occurs more likely at the expense of increase in number of shops within the limits of the given system, instead of at the expense of expansion of operational scales within concrete territory. This circumstance also defines that poloyozhenie, that the choice of a way of geographical expansion franchajzingovoj networks is the solving strategic factor of success for achievement predyoprinimatelskogo success.

Effective territorial strategy of development predprinimatelyoskoj franchajzingovogo type should a network of small enterprises predusmatriyovat three aspects. First, it is required to prove the decision about tselesoobyoraznosti multilevel franchajzinga, i.e. to define logic franchajyozingovyh relations: franchajzer — ♦ franchajzi—* subfranchajzi. Secondly, it is necessary to solve, what territory should be offered franchajzi. In chayostnosti, it is necessary to find out expediency of granting franchajzi exclusive territories so, and to reserve their borders. Thirdly, sleyoduet to make the decision on whether what to allow franchajzi to expand the activity in concrete territory.

The multilevel logic of development franchajzingovoj networks has a number neyodostatkov. Basic of them consists that franchajzer avtomaticheyoski loses the right to select subfranchajzi. Thus maintenance operatsiyoonnyh standards in a network, undoubtedly, becomes complicated. Besides, franchajzer loses a motivation effective remedy franchajzi as possibility it to open new shops usually it is given in quality voznayograzhdenie for fidelity to enterprise idea of a network.

It is necessary to notice, that the choice franchajzi is responsible operation on which efficiency of a considered network in many respects depends. This position means, that delegation of powers franchajzi and to a choice subfranchajzera is connected with essential commercial risk.

The agreement about territorial franchajzinge gives franchajyo
zi the right of placing of several shops on defined territoyorii. Foreign practice testifies that apply the concept of a similar sort no more than 30 % franchajzerov. One of the cores preimuyoshchestv territorial franchajzinga consists that this concept of strategy of development of enterprise activity allows to reduce number franchajzi which it is necessary to involve in franchajzingovuju a network

Search of one podhodjashcheju franchajzi in concrete region manage, as a rule, much more cheaply, than search of their considerable number. In case the profit from territorial franchajzinga exceeds priyobyl from management of one shop, this economic zakonomeryonost is shown even more sharply. Proceeding from that circumstance, that good franchajzi to find uneasy, agreements about territorial franchajzinge poyozvoljajut an enterprise network franchajzingovogo type to extend byyostree and with smaller expenses.

One more considerable advantage territorial franchajzinga consists that in this case franchajzi can achieve effect masyoshtaba at level local franchajzingovoj a network. This position opredeljayoetsja that before them opens more possibilities, than before franchajzi, owning one shop. Thus, vozmozhyonost the conclusions of agreements about territorial franchajzinge can poyovysit appeal of an investigated enterprise network for franchajzi at the expense of prospect of increase in the size of profit. DopolnitelYOno here it is necessary to note, at least, one more circumstance. Territorial franchajzing allows to use the transfer mechanism znani іі from one shop to another as the experience got franchajzi, can be applied on several shops odnovreyomenno. Meanwhile at franchajzi, owning one shop, there is either no stimulus, or a possibility to share the saved up experience with others franchajyozi.

Thus, the territorial franchise provides as stimulus.

And possibility of transfer of knowledge from one shop to another in preyodelah certain territory.

There is one more circumstance which is worthy. Territorial franchajzing allows to minimise risk of infringement of conditions of the agreement from the party franchajzi. In particular, if last buyodet is always interested in carrying out of publicity on it teryoritorii as it is the owner corresponding local predyoprinimatelskoj networks.

However territorial franchajzing it is not deprived lacks. In - the first. Territorial franchajzing leads to a decrease problem efyofektivnosti work hired) the personnel. The holder territorial franyoshizy should hire managers for management of shops. To such employees the fixed wages are charged, that is its size of nanosecond depends on volumes of the operational profit generated by the given shop. The similar scheme of charge of wages otritsatelyono affects efficiency of work of the hired personnel. Moreover, in the system constructed by a principle territorial franchajzinga, the certain hierarchy led by franchajzi sooner or later is formed, is similar to hierarchy of shops which the company owns, with all accompanying lacks.

One more lack territorial franchajzinga is a strengthening of influence franchajzi on an enterprise network of small enterprises franyochajzingovogo type. The problem consists that this network will already consist not of set franchajzi which carry out the activity in mayolyh scales, and of system large franchajzi with which dogovarivatyosja it is already more difficult. One of consequences in this case will be defined utrayota franchajzerom the of administrative positions.

To define prospects of development considered predpriniyomatelskoj networks on principles subfranchajzinga, it is necessary to take into consideration following positions.

The positive moment subfranchajzinga consists that it promotes development of a considered enterprise network. OtvetYOstvennost for selection subfranchajzi, granting by it necessary podyoderzhki, realisation of monitoring of their activity and royalty gathering bears subfranchajzer (i.e. franchajzi, allocated corresponding polnomoyochijami). This position means, that the enterprise network can rasyoshirena at the expense of attraction franchajzerom smaller means in comparison with if he was engaged subfranchajzingom. This economic efyofekt is the main advantage of this enterprise kontsepyotsii.

However realisation of this concept in practice leads to that franchajzi are allocated with a considerable share of the power as them otvetstvenyonost for profit extraction increases. This circumstance leads toyomu, that with them franchajzeru begins to carry on negotiations more difficult as it is at a great disadvantage.

It is necessary to notice, that selection subfranchajzi by the nature okayozyvaetsja is much more difficult, than a choice franchajzi. First of all, it opyoredeljaetsja that potential candidates for a role subfranchaizi, as a rule, do not possess necessary financial resources.

By working out of strategy of development of an enterprise network of small enterprises franchajzingovogo type is inexpedient to apply kontsepyotsiju:

- Multilevel franchajzinga at the initial stages of formation of this of villages and if is absent possibilities of selection approaching franchajzi or control over their activity;

- Territorial franchajzinga if there is no positive prospect of partnership with subfranchajzerami or possibility of decrease in efficiency of work of the personnel employed on shops.

- subfranchajzinga if there is no accurate representation about that, kayokim there should be a plan for development of shops.

It is necessary to notice, that there is one more aspect of territorial strategy which should be considered at development of a considered network. It consists that it is necessary to estimate expediency predosyotavlenija franchajzi the rights to expansion within allocated territoyorii before franchises to the persons who are at present outside of this territory will stand out. The majority franchajzerov predosyotavljajut the franchajzi this right. Moreover, development of some predyoprinimatelskih networks franchajzingovogo type in many respects depends iskljuchiyotelno on number increase franshiznyh points.

Basically granting strategy existing franchajzi vozyomozhnosti expansions by acquisition of new shops opravyodyvaet itself. The right open new points can to become for franchajzi doyopolnitelnym stimulus to observance corrected systems, that, in the ocheyored, considerably simplifies process of monitoring of their activity. In this case it is recommended to use results of audit practical dejayotelnosti as criterion at decision-making on accordings a right on opening of additional points. This approach promotes that franyochajzi will aspire to show the best result to acquire this right.

Delivery franchajzi permissions to open additional shops opens possibility to expand an enterprise network at otyonositelno insignificant expenses e the points of view of selection, hiring and obucheyonija new franchajzi. More than two thirds of all franshiznyh systems in which existing franchajzi the right to open dopolnitelyonye shops is given, work by a principle of collection from them as the same franshizyonoj a payment and the same sum of a royalty, as with new However when they priobreyotajut additional points, franchajzer does not bear the additional expenses connected with selection new franchajzi. Moreover, existing franchajyozi, as a rule, do not demand such support which is given noyovym.

Granting existing franchajzi the rights to open dopolniyotelnye points allows to minimise a problem of "territory capture which leads to conflict occurrence in an enterprise network. Here it is necessary to notice, that one of the basic problems of management franchajzingovymi networks are fears franchajzi that a new site we will negatively affect a sales volume that will lower profitableness of their shops. However in practice franchajzi even if they did not wish to open new shops, they go on it to exclude their opening by others franchajzi. By estimations spetsialiyostov if franchajzi to accord a right to open new shops, to it, probably, it will be possible to save as a result of increase in scales sisyotemy, that will soften a negative effect from market glut, skazyyovajushchijsja on efficiency of work of existing points.

In last context franchajzeru expediently follows rekomenyodovat:

- Not to carry out attempts on sale additional trading toyochek new franchajzi when in a network exist franchajzi, demonstrirujuyoshchie high indicators of efficiency and aspiring to expansion;

- Not to forget about that granting franchajzi the rights of expansion within the limits of the territory allocated with it can become effective way poyovyshenija to their motivation and, hence, productivity.

Foreign practice testifies that is frequent franchajzery give franchajzi exclusive territories, i.e. reserve grayonitsy territories in which limits franchajzer undertakes not to open own trading a point and not to sell such points another franchajzi. On the statistican about 70 % of percent franchajzerov allocate with the franchajyozi exclusive territories.

Such strategy has a number of advantages, especially for new or neyobolshih enterprise networks of small enterprises franchajzingovogo type. ekskljuzivnost to territory represents still the big value on
Early stages of formation of this network when the role franchajzi in it formirovayonii is more considerable. When franchajzer starts to sell noyovyj the goods or services) - about which clients practically know nothing, usiyolija, applied franchajzi for achievement of an appropriate break-even sales level, are very important. In due course, when clients learn about the goods more, for podyoderzhanija and increases of a break-even sales level by more important become actions franchajzera on granting of guarantees and its advancement commodity znayoka while efforts franchajzi and ekskljuzivnost territories, still remaining valuable, fade into the background.

By estimations of experts, more than 90 % of beginners franchajzerov, koyotorye have become successful subsequently, gave the franchajzi eksyokljuzivnye territories while 30 % franchajzerov did not do it.

It is necessary to notice, that granting franchajzi exclusive territories is not always justified. As franchajzi it is interested in increase in the size of profit, and franchajzer in sales volume increase, it will object to intention of the last to open additional toryogovye a point in the given territory. Thus, granting franchajyozi exclusive territories involves restriction of possibilities franchajzera to regulate a market saturation.

Granting strategy franchajzi exclusive territories in tseyolom possesses following advantages. First, exclusive stayotus territories will be for franchajzi a guarantee of that franchajzer not stayonet to threaten them with opening of new shops in the given territory for the purpose of reception bolshej to profit on their activity. Secondly, ekskljuyozivnost territories allows to reduce to a minimum a competition between toryogovymi points within one network.

By working out of this strategy it is recommended:

- Not to pay excessive attention to density of shops (franchajzeru it is necessary to give franchajzi exclusive territoyorii to involve them in its network);


- Not to give franchajzi exclusive territories of too big scale [102].

It is necessary to notice, that one of constituting a component strateyogii developments of an enterprise network small the enterprise franchajngovogo type is search of an effective way of transfer of risk to other party [75]. In this context besides actually decision of a problem of a choice franchajzi gets the account of the following law.

The carried out researches show, that for the general harakteristiyoki to an enterprise network, from the point of view of a set peculiar to it risyokov, essential value has factor of uniformity of risk.

To = 1-., rn)/mcL \(q... frn\(2.1)

Where / |...,/;, - risks of separate potential participants predpriniyo

matelskoj networks of small enterprises franchajzingovogo type; l - number of these participants.

The factor of uniformity accepting values from 0 to 1, pokayozyvaet, is how much in regular intervals meted risk among participants proekyota. If the size to is close to 0 the risk is meted in regular intervals. This koyoeffitsient can be used at decision-making on structure uchastniyokov an enterprise network of small enterprises franchajzingovogo type.

By working out of strategy of development of this network it is necessary to give osoyoboe attention to following questions:

- To definition of a pattern of ownership franshiznyh shops;

- Regulations of corresponding mechanisms of the control of activity franchajzi, actions providing it in interests of a network;

- To establishment of correct terms franchajzingovogo agreements, and also possibilities of its renewal.

In tab. 2.15 average terms of contracts commercial konyotsessii in separate branches of economy are resulted.

Table 2.15

Average periods of validity of contracts in some branches

Field of activity Contract period of validity, years
1 2
The press and copying 18.6
Habitation search 15,4
Restaurant business 13,8
Fast food 12,2

Tab. 2.15 continuation

1 2
Bakery products 11,4
Autorepair business 11,2
Retail 10,1
The goods and services for children 9,4
Maintenance service 9.3
Sphere of services 9,1
Retail of a foodstuff 8,8
Personnel search 8.7
Building and designing 8.3
Business services 7.5
Sphere immovable imushchee і on 7,3
Formation 7,2
Tourism 5,7
On the average 10,3

Tab. 2.16 in turn characterises average values of a royalty for franchajzi in separate branches.

Table 2.16

Average values of a royalty for franchajzi in separate branches

Branch Average value of a royalty, %
Biznss-services 10,6
Employment and personnel selection 6,5
Press and copying services 5,9
Means on care of hair 5,2
Car repairs 5.0
Systems of maintenance of safety 4,9
The real estate 4.8
Fast lipshie 4.7
Restaurant business 4,5
Laundry and dry-cleaner 4,5
Habitation 4,2
Travel companies 0.4

The information on average quantity of years is presented to tab. 2.17, kotoyorye franchajzeru it is necessary prorabo tat in the market taking into account its features bizyonesa. Tab. 2.17 allows to draw the following conclusion. The enterprise success franchajzingovoj networks is in many respects defined not less than pjatiletyonim by the work experience franchajzera in corresponding branch.

Table 2.17

The work experience franchajzera in separate branches

Branch Quantity of years in the market
Car repairs 5.9
Baking business 6,9
Building 5.1
Business-) s.chu і and 4.5
Care of children 3.8
Formation 12.0
Fast food 7,1
Habitation granting 11,9
Repair work 6.8
Services in personnel hiring 7.0
Operations with the real estate 10,8
Restaurant business 9.3
Retail trade in a foodstuff 16.2
Retail trade 7.0
Service sphere 4.3
Sports and rest 2.9
Tourism 1,8
On the average 7.6

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A source: Malakhov DMITRY ALEKSANDROVICH. FRANCHAJZINGOVAJA STRATEGY of DEVELOPMENT of SMALL BUSINESS. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. St.-Petersburg. 2008

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