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the Conclusion

Franchajzing or system of "preferential" business predstavyoljaet itself the form of contractual cooperation between legal nezaviyosimymi the parties. One of them - franchajzer gives for a payment the right to be engaged in enterprise activity, using its trade mark, etc., other party - franchajzi.

As the first of them as prayovilo, the enterprise which has got business reputation in reyozultate achievements of professional successes in business acts, and the second - more often small enterprises.

Franchajzing as the specific method of distribution of the goods and usyolug developed from the simple right to donation, to use of privileges. Its history has begun in Europe, to be exact, in medieval France. The word "franchajzing" designated in those days the special privilege, or the "liberty" given by the French kings to the vassals: it could be the right to hunt in royal woods or exclusively to trade kakiyomi in the goods, the right to hold the markets and fairs.

The analysis of foreign experience has shown, that one of the first successful franchajzingovyh systems has been created in 1898, when the beginnings the dejatelyonost the company General Motors which had no the sufficient capital necessary for opening of shops and sale of the first engines through system of dealers.

Franchajzing — international and internal it is used in nastojayoshchee time more than in 80 countries of the world and covers the majority of branches of trade and services. On a share franchajzinga in the USA 34 % of volume retail goods turnover, in Canada — 50, in England — 11, in France — 10 % are necessary.

It is necessary to notice, that franchajzing it is considered as the form of small business as as operators - franchajzi small enterprises which create a certain layer - act

stojateliyh the businessmen closely connected by industrial or other economic relations with large firms-franyochajzerami. Feature of this form of business consists that the enterprises working under the contract franchajzinga, despite juriyodicheskuju independence, are a part of uniform system.

Contract relations and cooperation large and a small-scale business are the serious factor of stability of small business. Essential value has also that fact, that franchajzing is guided by involving in business of beginning businessmen that promotes soyokrashcheniju unemployments and helps to solve problems social partneryostva.

Phenomenon fast, time of avalanche development franchajzinga vyyozval in the international literature characteristic comments about vegetativyonom reproduction and even about "cloning" franshiznogo business. Both teryomina, borrowed of biology, designate various ways razmnoyozhenija live organisms and urged to underline the highest degree poyodobija franchajzi franchajzeru, their maximum "relationship".

It is necessary to notice, that interest strengthening to franchajzingu is in many respects caused today by following positions. First, franchajzing has received last 30 years wide recognition as a simple, accessible, practical way of the organisation of business in foreign countries even with ucheyotom considerable initial expenses for it.

As conceptual basis of model franchajzingovyh relations the nonlinear prices or vertical restrictions serve. Here it is pertinent konstatiroyovat, that in the economic literature franchajzingovye systems klassifiyotsirujutsja as vertical. Really it is possible to present interaction to them in the form of the following hierarchical chain: franchajzer—> franyochajzi—> subfranchajzi. However it is impossible to forget that franchajzer, as a rule, concludes set of agreements by means of which round not it organizational structure solar type where okonchayo is formed
nija "beams", owing to subcontracts, in turn can acquire sayotellitami.

In narrow sense discriminate following kinds franchajzinga:

- Commodity - mutual relations of the parties franchajzinga in trade sphere at which franchajzer transfers, and franchajzi poduchaet exclusive prayovo, limited to concrete territory, on realisation under trading znayokom franshizodatelja production let out by it;

- Industrial - relations within the limits of the contract franchajzinga, koyotorye grant the right franchajzi on manufacture and sale under the trademark franchajzera production e use delivered by it of raw materials, materiayolov or technologies:

- Business - mutual relations of the parties franchajzinga in sphere obsluzhivayonija, training and public catering at which franchajzi creates and business but develops models and at participation franchajzera with use of its technologies, a know-how, a trade mark and business experience;

- Conversion - a way of expansion franchajzingovoj networks, at koyotorom the operating independent enterprise passes to work but to the contract franchajzinga and joins system franchajzingovyh predyoprijaty. Working under the control of one franchajzera;

- Regional - the organisation form franchajzingovogo business, at kotoyoroj franchajzi acquires the right to development of certain area, i.e. sozdayonie franchajzingovoj networks and the control over it according to the reserved quantity of the enterprises and the schedule of their opening;

- subfranchajzingovyj - the organisation form franchajzingovogo business at which the addressee general (master) of the franchise carries out konyotrol over certain area with the right of sale of subfranchises

In the modern world there are some geographical regions, in koyotoryh there is the separate legislation accepted specially for reyogulirovanija franchajzinga. In each of regions it differs origin history, Istochnikovoj base legislative and pravoprimenitel -

Ache activity and other features. However it is possible to allocate three basic samples of such legislation: the American (USA), evropejyoskoe (the EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY countries) and Russian. In the Russian Federation analogue franchajzingovogo contracts is the contract on commercial concession.

Being the new contract in the Russian practice, the contract kommeryocheskoj concessions admits to one of the most difficult, if not to the most complex civil law.

Results of researches testify that in some obyolastjah activity franchajzerov is more effective, than in others. On a share franchajzerov the basic sales volumes in such branches, as granting of services of the press and copying, preparation tax otyochetnosti, firm retail trade in a foodstuff, and approximately half of sales in spheres of restaurant business and habitation granting have. It is possible to assume, that these branches are approaching for franchajyozinga. Also exist that proof, that some branches are in this respect more favorable.

Very much an important point — consideration of market positions of the given system of preferential business. Thus it is necessary not only to consider character of activity of the system, but also to spend an estimation of prospects razyovitija all branch or the economy sector which part it is. So, manufacture of the goods or okayozanie services can be a subject of its activity. To facilitate a similar estimation, we result tab. 1.5 containing estimated characteristics in the form of comparison of two sectors of economy.

During the modern period of development of the Russian economy formation mayolyh the enterprises gets special value. They do not demand considerable starting investments and are capable to provide high speed of a turn reyosursov. In other words, small enterprises are capable to react operatively to market condition change that allows to compensate a number vozmushcheyony in economy, than most, creating preconditions for existence in it
Flexibility zones. Besides, small business possesses znachitelyonym a reserve in a context of increase of an occupation level in a national economy that gives to a problem of its development a strongly pronounced social shade.

Working out of strategy of development of an enterprise network small predyoprijaty franchajzingovogo type is characterised following etapnostju:

- Branch choice;

- Estimation of advantages and lacks franchajzinga;

- The substantiation of that strategy franchajzinga approaches for konkretyonoj to the business concept;

- Working out strategy of management of yours franchajzingovoj a network;

- Definition of forms and support methods franchajzi;

- Working out of strategy concerning territories franchajzi;

- Pricing policy definition;

- Definition of a policy of expansion franchajzingovoj networks;

- The account of legal aspects of formation franchajzingovoj networks;

- Search and selection franchajzi and management of their activity.

The foreign statistics testifies that in 2—3 years

Many franchajzi start itself to lead opportunistically, i.e. to enter conflicts with franchajzerom.

The high factor of replacement of the shops working on franyochajzingu, is the important factor as serves as the reason voznikyonovenija fears franchajzi concerning unfair intentions franchajzera. Large specific investments franchajzi in a combination to the right franchajzera to cease with it contractual relations creates for the last possibility to render on participants of an enterprise network of investigated type pressure.

Specificity of investments in last context is shown in sleyodujushchem. Franchajzi forms target actives which it is strict orientiroyovany on special consumers. This position means, that at an exit from franchajzingovoj networks all its actives depreciate.

It is necessary to notice, that franchajzing raises exchange level inyoformatsiej in an enterprise network. Heads, for example, enterprise branches often express the consent with managers of the head company, i.e. lead certain diplomatic game with a view of reception povysheyonija or advancements on an office ladder. This circumstance not pozvoyoljaet to a management of the head company adequately to estimate a situation. FranYOchajzi are independent businessmen, therefore exists big veyorojatnost that they g I will defend the point of view, instead of it is simple vyyorazjat the consent with company management. As a result the management franchajyozingovoj the network organisation receives more exact information.

Last circumstance in practice is expedient for considering sleyodujushchim in the image:

- Not to use the branches belonging to the company, in that case, when to select the qualified managers more difficultly and more expensively, the hook as franchajzing offers the inexpensive and effective decision of a problem of selection of the personnel:

- Not to apply system of the branches belonging to the company if suyoshchestvuet probability of that its employees work not with full return, and in that case when she needs to adapt for conditions and spetsiyofike the local market (franchajzing in this case is much more effective).

Improvement of mutual relations in an enterprise network of small enterprises franchajzingovogo type is promoted by training of its participants.

Starting point of formation of an enterprise network of small enterprises on principles franchajzinga is search potential franchajzi. Contacts to them, by estimations of experts, are established by one of next ways:

- The client of the enterprise (franchajzera) which participated in one of trial it franchajzingovyh operations, can ask to become the operator, i.e. franchajzi;

- The potential operator has become interested in possibility through the
The colleague on business which has entered the agreement about preferential predprinimayotelstve;

- The potential operator has seen advertising or a mention about franchajyozinge in mass-media, has taken part in an exhibition devoted preferential predpriyonimatelstvu

In enterprise networks franchajzingovogo type often there are the conflicts which reasons become: short shipments of the goods; deliveries of the goods which are not in demand any more or have got out of fashion, etc. DoYOgovora commercial concession usually consist for long term, therefore revision of its conditions, owing to approach of unforeseen events, also can become the reason of disagreements. When the conflict razrasyotaetsja to such degree, that rupture of this contract is not excluded (franchajyozingovogo agreements), exists some ways of the action, one of which is immediate transition to proceeding. OdnaYOko its price is too high both for franchajzera, and for franchajzi. This position gives a special urgency to the resolution of conflicts between them by negotiations.

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A source: Malakhov DMITRY ALEKSANDROVICH. FRANCHAJZINGOVAJA STRATEGY of DEVELOPMENT of SMALL BUSINESS. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. St.-Petersburg. 2008

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  7. the Pathomorphologic conclusion
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