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2.4 Choice of formulas of reagents and laboratory researches of efficiency of influence on productive layers

At the first stage of laboratory researches for the purpose of reception steady and effective emulsions for zakachki the substantiation of formulas of reagents was made to productive horizons of deposit Uzen in real conditions of working out obvodnennyh layers after zavodnenija.

One of tasks in view consisted that at the heart of an emulsion there should be a petroleum crude selected from chinks as such oil with the residual maintenance of gas in solution and water in bolshej degrees reflects real properties of sheet oil in obvodnennyh layers. At selection of formulas of emulsions used:

- Oil from a chink № 2352 XIII horizon. The petroleum crude density made 884 кг'м3, and viscosity at 60 s - 26,1 mpa-with. Viscosity of the sample of oil considerably differs from values of viscosity resulted in table 1 that testifies to the maintenance in it of water;

- The water extracted together with oil;

Emulsifying agents of return type: neftenol NZ, neftehimeko-1, alkilfosfat HIMEKO;

Solvents: nefrac AK, solar oil.

For emulsion preparation in a beaker in volume of 250 ml run ined a mix preliminarily warmed up to 40 From oil and emulsifying agent. Into this mix entered the set quantity of solvent and stirred by means of a paddle stirrer. Speed of rotation made 400 rpm. From a measuring graduate added in a beaker the set volumes of sheet water in three steps approximately on 25 ml through each 2 mines from the moment of the beginning of work of an agitator.

Literary data of some authors [56,57] testify that viscosity disperspoj phases does not influence viscosity of emulsions, bolshee influence renders its chemical composition about what it was spoken earlier.

Viscosity of the continuous environment has defining value for viscosity of emulsions at any volume content of an internal phase. Thus the above the aqueous phase maintenance, the is less essential influence of viscosity of the hydrocarbonaceous environment on viscosity of return emulsions. It is caused by reduction of their general interface that proves to be true increase of relative viscosity of emulsions in process of decrease in viscosity of their hydrocarbonaceous component.

Relative viscosity of emulsions juomH is described by the formula

Motn = ^ (2.4)

Where fij - effective viscosity of an emulsion,/ls - effective (dynamic) viscosity of a dispersion medium with the emulsifying agent dissolved in it, measured at the same shearing rate. This relation is the distribution function of globules of a dispersed phase in the sizes according to the equation

Лсш=х ^ - + sh (2.5)

t

Where I: and a constant sou-; dm - diameter of globules of a dispersed phase.

In this case concentration of emulsifying agent influences on rjomH, in that bolshej degrees, than above water content in an emulsion water in oil.

Variety of researchers [56] draws a conclusion on influence of the nature of emulsifying agent on viscosity of emulsions. Distinctions in viscosity of the emulsions stabilised by various emulsifying agents, drop in process of increase in concentration of a dispersed phase. At the same time, at increase in viscosity of emulsions owing to increase in concentration of a dispersed phase, their stability against coalescence does not increase, contrary to its increase at increase in viscosity of a dispersion medium of an emulsion.

At research of influence on viscosity of rise in temperature of modelling return emulsions it is positioned, that last drops.

At increase ' temperatures in emulsions v/m dependence of viscosity on concentration of emulsifying agent is levelled.

With increase in a share of a dispersed phase in emulsions v/m their viscosity at rise in temperature drops to a lesser degree, obviously, in view of lower volume expansion coefficient of water, than similar factors of hydrocarbons.

Ageing of emulsions result ins to decrease in their rheological characteristics.

Thus, change of the general interface both in time, and at influence of various physical and chemical factors, instead of the individual size of drops can be the basic criterion of emulsion stability.

Dynamic viscosity is defined on a viscosimeter of rotational type - REOTEST-2. Measurements manufactured / with cylinder S-1 use on 12 speeds of ranges 1a-Ia. Results of measurements were processed with program use, dynamic viscosity was as a result defined at shearing rate 170 with.

Some series of experiments with the various maintenance of oil and reagents have been made. In the first series of experiment emulsifying agents were used: neftenol NZ, Нефтехимеко-1 and their mixes with solvent Э-1. Results of the first series of experiments are presented in table 2.1. In experiences 1-14 emulsifying agent neftenol NZ was used, and in experience 15 instead of emulsifying agent added sheet water with a soda small amount. In this case the mobile emulsion, unlike the previous experiences was received, but it has appeared unstable at elevated temperatures. Besides, in experiences 10 - 11 instead of sheet water soft water was used, but it was not reflected in any way in results of experiences. At carrying out of experience 14 besides solvent and emulsifying agent in sheet water have added 8 ml of 32 % of solution sas that has led to formation viscous and unstable at 60С to an emulsion. In experience 16 as emulsifying agent used Нефтехимеко-1 application of which also has not yielded the necessary result. In experiences 17-21

52

Used emulsifying agent Э-1 which has been prepared in the form of a mix of solar oil of 135 ml and 20мл neftenola NZ with the additive neftehimeko-1. But application of this reagent also has not yielded result.

Table 2.1

Data about results of the first series of experiences

№ Quantity of reagents, ml Viscosity at shearing rate 170 sek ' 1

Oil Nefrac AK neftenol NZ Sheet water Solution СаС12 20С 60С 1 20 - 10 70 - 983 579 2 10 10 2 78 - 373 4.9 3 10 10 3 77 - 476 1.2 4 20 - 4 76 - 487 544 5 20 - 8 72 - 181 270 6 20 - 30 50 - 304 40 7 10 10 6 74 - 512 21 8 - 20 6 74 - 478 - 9 - - 20 80 - very dense 10 - 20 6 74* - 258 12 11 - - 20 80* - very dense 12 20 - 10 70 - 988 579 13 10 9 1 80 - 146 4.3 14 10 10 2 70 8 447 8.5 15 10 10 - 80 + 0,5г NaCOj - 44 62 HX-1 Э-1 *Пресная water

Results of the second series are presented in table 2.2. Apparently return emulsions with high viscosity were formed, and in experience 5 emulsion has appeared unstable at temperature 60 S.Termin "very viscous" means, that it is impossible to measure viscosity with use of the specified way.

In the third series of experiments as solvent used solar oil, and as emulsifying agent neftenol NZ with the additive alkilfosfata himeko. The yielded carryings out of the third series of experiments are resulted in table 2.3 from which it is visible, that application only emulsifying agent result ins to formation of a viscous emulsion. In the second experience have applied also solar oil.

In the subsequent experiences 3-7 the solvent and emulsifying agent maintenance, for the purpose of validation of the received formula varied. Apparently from table 2.4 inching or increase in the maintenance of these reagents result ined to formation of too viscous or unstable emulsions. It testifies that at zakachke in a layer the return emulsion on the basis of petroleum crude can be flaked.

As a result of the made series of experiments it was possible to pick up the formula of a return oil emulsion for conditions of the Uzensky deposit:

Oil - 20 ml,

neftenol NZ with the additive alkilfosfata himeko - 6 ml,

Solar oil - 4 ml,

Passing water - 70 ml

This composition does not change the properties and phase structure even at temperature 70 s, i.e. possesses heat stability.

Have besides, defined the parametre characterising emulsion stability to phase reversion, a so-called index of electrostability () on the device indicator IES-512. This index is defined by pressure size on the electrodes diped in an emulsion, at passing between them the leakage current defined on size. This method allows quickly and to estimate operatively aggregate stability of an emulsion on electrobreak-down size in voltah. It has appeared, that an index of electrostability of yielded emulsion Э-108.

At emulsion research on heat stability within days it maintained at temperature 70 s. In a photo fig. 2.4 the samples of emulsions showing them prominent features are presented. Samples and also would correspond to experiences 2а and 26 tab. 2.3, the sample in, g, d - to experiences accordingly 18, 19, 20 tab. 2.1 Samples and and would represent the steady emulsion received on offered in yielded work recipes. However the increased fragments allow to see, that the sample is more homogeneous and in it is not observed oil scaling, in comparison with

The sample and. It is possible to ask a question why as it was marked above, emulsions in experiences 2 and 2а table 2.3 practically identical, and in experience 26 the steady emulsion with much bolshej viscosity was received. The answer appears from the saved up experience of researches. It has appeared, that the most significant impact makes on properties of an emulsion the oil which is a part of an emulsion. Emulsions of experiences 2 and 2а (tab. 2.3) have been received from one portion of the oil taken from the canister. The sample of an emulsion with the raised viscosity is received from other portion. Oil for experiments has been selected from a chink of XIII horizon and represents dense poorly fluid liquid. To select a portion of oil it is necessary to heat up and agitate oil in the canister. It has appeared, that properties of oil in portion depend on that how much intensively and for a long time agitated oil. Oil contains a quantity of a return emulsion which at storage fractionally scales. For this reason emulsions in experiences 2 and 2а tab. 2.3 taken from one portion of oil, practically identical, and strongly differ from an emulsion received in experience 26.

Steady emulsion of a Fig. 2.5. The increased fragment of samples and and

Unstable emulsion of a Fig. 2.6. The increased fragment of the sample in

On a photo 2.6 the sample of an unstable emulsion is presented. It is visible, as at heating to 70 s the emulsion was flaked and water has separated.

Thus, as a result of carrying out of several series of experiments on creation of a physical and chemical reagent for influence on sheet systems of productive horizons of the Uzensky deposit it was possible to pick up the formula for reception on an oil basis of the return emulsion, differing high thermo-and electrostability. Viscosity of the received emulsions increases with rise in temperature.

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A source: Kozhabergenov Murat Mokanovich. Substantiation of effective technologies doizvlechenija residual oil from obvodnennyh layers on an example of XIII horizon of deposit Uzen: Dis.... A Cand.Tech.Sci.: 25.00.17. - M: RGB, 2006. 2006

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