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1.2 Condition and prospects of development of system of supply by mineral oil of the developed industrial countries

World experience confirms, that now the transport complex is one of the basic consumers of power resources, mainly at the expense of use of products of oil refining. The analysis of statistical data shows, that in 2003 at the general consumption of energy by all sectors of economic in 2677 million conditional tons on transport it was necessary more than 1705 million conditional tons that has made 63,7 %

From the general level, against 922 million conditional tons and 43 % in 1973 (fig.

1.3). It is necessary to notice, that the tendency of increase in a share of transport in the fuel and energy balance, observed during the period since 1970 till 2003, it is characteristic for all world economic system.

The analysis of the information of the energy balance of the countries-participants of the Organization of economic cooperation and development (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development - OECD) \allows to reveal proportions in production and consumption of various kinds of energy on economy sectors, and also on types of transport (tab. 1.7).

So, the statistical data resulted in table 1.7, testify to a high share of motor transport in consumption of products of petroleum refining: 83,2 % among other types of transport and more than 50 % to the general structure of demand for the yielded kind of power resources. As products of petroleum refining International Energy Agency (IEA) considers condensed gas, ethane, aviation kerosene, benzine, solar oil, rocket fuel, oils and lubricants, ligroin and other products.

Thus, transport, and motor transport - in even bolshej degrees, is the basic consumer and the most expensive refined oils - oil engine fuels (tab. 1.8)

2677 million at. t

Fig. 1.3. Distribution of consumption of mineral oil on economic sectors in 1973, 1995 and 2003

Considering so the great value of power supply for a transport complex as a whole and motor transport in particular, is obviously necessary to consider system of the factors influencing a consumption level of power resources by yielded sector of economy.

The analysis of existing sources shows a wide variety of opinions on the yielded problematics. So, in the description of model of development the world

Production and consumption of fuel and energy resources by the countries-participants OESD, million conditional tons

Table 1.7 the Index Petroleum crude Products of oil refining Gas Coal the Electric power of All the Offer 1918,49 272,2 975,8 909,83 0,49 3804,6 Demand 2,4 1693,02 651,55 157,58 595,6 3220,99 including the industry 2,4 300,44 272,74 140,87 235,3 997,01 transport - 1027,45 22,10 0,1 8,2 1057,86 - the international airlines

Internal airlines

Motor transport

Railway transportation

Pipeline transportation

Sailing charter

Other kinds - 41,4 - - - 41,4 - 94,09 - - - 94,09 - 855,27 0,52 - - 855,79 - 17,14 - 0,02 6,99 24,15 - 0,03 21,54 - 0,33 21,9 - 16,42 - 0,09 - 16,51 - 3,09 0,04 - 0,88 4,01 Others sektory economy - 251,77 356,71 15,74 352,1 1051,89 Neenergetichesky use - 113,36 - 0,87 - 114,32 including transport - 7,51 - - - 7,51 Structure of consumption of engine fuels in a number of the countries, %

Table 1.8 Indexes of the USA the Western Europe Japan Consumption of engine fuels, % to consumption of oil including transport 51,0 40,2 66,5 61,1 50,4 37,8 Share of transport in consumption of oil engine fuels, % 92,0 90,48* 74,5 for transport are transportation distance, volume of transportations and the expense of fuel of vehicles.

In the same source it is noticed, that on

Energeticses {The IEA World Energy Model), made by the International power agency, the main determinants of demand for fuel demand size significant impact the price of consumed automobile fuel makes.

In the document of News agency of the Organization of economic cooperation and development of "Prospect of world power 2000 (World Energy Outlook) the size of demand for energy carriers is connected with rates of economic growth and a population.

IMEMO the Russian Academy of Sciences as one of factors of increase of demand for oil refining products specifies an energy level of production as a whole.

Generalisation of a complex of the indexes used in practice of world statistical institutes, in particular, of the International power agency (International Energy Agency), National institute of transport statistics of the USA (National Transportation Statistic Institute), the Bureau of transport statistics at Department of transport of the USA (The Bureau of Transportation Statistic of US Department of Transportation), Administrations no the power information (Energy Information Administration) and so forth, and also the domestic organisations, has allowed us taking into account specificity as motor transport, and a considered resource to evolve some groups of the factors influencing a consumption level of power resources by yielded sector of economy: economic, technical, operational, socially-demographic, other (fig. 1.4).

Certainly, influence of each of factors on a consumption level of mineral oil motor transport essentially varies.

Let's consider in more details each of groups.

According to IMEMO the Russian Academy of Sciences [94, 97], for last years has considerably improved security oil stocks. For 01.01.1995 the proved taken stocks of oil in the world have made nearby 137 mlrd t, or have increased on 38 mlrd t in comparison with 1985 At an existing oil recovery about 3270 million t security stocks makes about 42 years. prognoznye estimations of development of foreign power till 2015, resulted in

Fig. 1.4. The factors influencing a consumption level of power resources on motor transport

The same source, testify that during the considered period on volume basis production and consumption of primary power resources (PEER) oil will conserve in the lead position.

It is necessary to notice, that the statistical data received from various sources [10, 15, 25, 68, 57, 195] specify in significant changes occurred and expected, in geography of placement of an oil recovery (tab. 1.9, 1.10).

Table 1.9

Dynamics of change of an oil recovery in developed and developing countries,

1950-2003 Region the Oil recovery on years, million t / % 1950 1960 1970 1980 1985 2003 Only 494,3/100 918,3/100 1867,1/100 2244,2/100 2034,2/100 3431,86/100 Developed countries 292,5/59,1 420,9/45,8 544,9/29,2 628,0/28,0 793,8/39,0 1408/41,0 Developing countries 201,5/40,9 497,4/54,2 1322,2/70,8 1616,2/72,0 1240,4/61,0 2025/59,0 Western Europe 3,8/0,8 14,5/1,6 16,2/0,9 116,6/5,2 188,4/9,3 287,1/8,4 Asia 97,5/19,7 288,0/31,4 754,2/40,4 1032,9/46,0 662,4/32,6 337,0/9,8 Africa 2,7/0,5 13,8/1,5 292,5/15,6 297,1/13,2 243,1/11,9 373,3/10,8 America 390,3/79,0 601,9/65,5 795,6/42,6 778,8/34,8 912,1/44,8 868,4/25,0 Australia and Ocenia - - 8,6/0,5 18,8/0,8 28,2/1,4 54,6/1,6 Countries entering into the USSR - - - - - 498,38/14,5 Russia - - - - - 418,6/12,2 Countries of the near East - - - - - 1039,7/30,0 Forecast of production the PEER till 2015

Table 1.10 Indexes the Fact sheet on years prognoznye data (a centre variant) on years of world production of 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Volume the PEER, million t at. t / % 10875/100 11575/100 12370/100 13865/100 15550/100 17460/100 including oil of production of 4550/41,8 4680/40,4 4920/39,8 5350/38,6 5790/37,2 6310/36,1 Volume the PEER in the countries OESR, million t at. t / % 3625/100 3745/100 3815/100 3900/100 4000/100 4100/100 including oil of production of 1080/29,7 1110/29,6 1055/27,7 1000/25,7 950/23,8 905/22,1 Volume the PEER in developing countries, million t at. t / % 4545/100 5320/100 5865/100 6990/100 7970/100 9120/100 including oil 2640/58,1 2935/55,2 3155/53,8 3450/49,4 3790/47,6 4150/45,5

The cited statistical data testify to increase of a share of developing countries in the general world extraction the PEER, including oil. So, the share of the countries OESR conserves the steady tendency to decrease: 33,3 % in 1990, 32,3 % - in 1995, prognoznoe value for 2015 - 24 %. The Same index for developing countries, on the contrary, grows rather dynamically: from 41,8 % in 1990 to 45,9 % in 1995, the forecast for 2015 - 52,2 %.

However the resulted data on an oil recovery are not so indicative, if to consider them irrespectively yielded, characterising consumption the PEER in whole and oil and mineral oil in particular.

The statistical data characterising a consumption level of oil in developed and developing countries, testify that in 1950-1975 mid-annual rates of a gain of this index were high enough and averaged 7-8 %. Sharp increase of the prices for oil in 1973-1983 has led to significant changes in structure of world consumption the PEER: oil consumption has contracted to 47,3 %. In economically developed countries during the specified period oil consumption also has contracted in much big sizes, than fuel and energy in whole (tab. 1.11).

Table 1.11

Dynamics of consumption of primary energy in the developed countries, 1970-1985

(On data [25]) Consumption the PEER in the developed countries 1970 1973 1975 1978 1979 1980 1985 Everything, million t at. t 4088 4618 4334 4732 4868 4709 4566 including oil, million t at. t / % 2049/50,1 2431/52,6 2248/51,9 2490/52,6 2511/51,6 2313/49,1 2170/47,5

However, despite some changes in structure of consumption the PEER and on noted decrease in rates of consumption, oil conserves in the lead position among other power resources. The same situation, according to [195], will be conserved and during the period till 2015 (tab. 1.12).

If to consider group of economically developed countries entering into the Organization of economic cooperation and development, that, despite

Table 1.12 Indexes the Fact sheet on years prognoznye data (a centre variant) on years of world consumption of 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Volume the PEER, million t at. t / % 10410/100 11320/100 12345/100 13700/100 15211/100 17150/100 including oil of consumption of 4100/39,4 4460/39,4 4910/39,3 5200/38,0 5520/36,2 6010/35,0 Volume the PEER in the countries OESR, million t at. t / % 5200/100 5745/100 6230/100 6635/100 7045/100 7375/100 including oil of consumption of 2360/45,4 2610/45,4 2770/44,4 2835/42,8 2915/41,3 2985/40,5 Volume the PEER in developing countries, million t at. t / % 1900/100 3550/100 4130/100 4995/100 5840/100 6840/100 including oil 1115/38,4 1375/38,7 1555/37,6 1750/35,0 1990/34,0 2250/32,9

The forecast of consumption the PEER till 2015

Substantial growth of absolute volumes of consumption of oil, rates of their gain up to 2015 are expected rather moderated. It can be explained two reasons: the general decrease in rates of growth of economy of the yielded countries and carrying out energosberegajushchej politicians, including on motor transport, as the basic consumer of refined oils.

So, expected rates of growth of economy and the USA, Canada and countries of Western Europe are estimated approximately in 2,8-2,9 % / year [25]. Thus mid-annual rates of a gain of consumption of oil in the countries OESR in 19952015 will not exceed 1 %. As a whole oil consumption in them by 2015 can make about 2985 million t at. t in comparison with 2140 million t at. t in 1995, i.e. Will increase approximately in 1,4 times.

As it has been noted above, as one of factors of decrease in consumption of oil in the developed countries acts energosberegajushchaja a policy. As growth of volume of consumption of oil in the developed countries will be, mainly,

It is connected with satisfaction growing requirements of transport sector, among actions for economy of energy the paramount role was got by restrictions of the expense of fuel on transport. And for achievement of economy of fuel are used as fiscal (increase of the prices and taxes to the cars using fuel over positioned norms), and legislative measures. One of the basic directions are decrease in norms of the expense of fuel by new cars, reduction of dimensions and weight of cars, increase in loading and more an effective utilisation of vehicles, expansion of use of public transport.

The analysis of the statistical data resulted in the Appendix 1, testifies to increase of the specified tendencies, in particular, in the USA. So, average discharge of fuel of 1 vehicle from 1970 on 2000 has contracted on 30 %. The greatest decrease in the expense of fuel is observed on groups "Cars" (Passenger Car) - on 37 % and Other 2-osnye 4-wheel vehicles (Other 2-Axle 4-Tire Vehicle) - on 42 %, a little bit more low this value on group "Lorry convoy" (Combination Truck) - on 19 %. It is possible to speak also about increase of efficiency of use of vehicles on the basis of size of a turnover of goods (on the international transportations - Intercity Truck), park of a cargo rolling stock falling to unit (Single-Unit 2-Axle 6-Tire or More Truck + Combination Truck): 140 tonno-miles in 2000 against 89,9 tonno-miles in 1970

Comparison of data about production and consumption of oil and mineral oil specifies in increasing dependence of economically developed countries on import of oil from developing countries. So, by 2015 deficiency of oil in the specified countries can make about 2075 million t at. t. However problems of deficiency of oil in the yielded situation is not unique. If to take into consideration a geographical position of regions of extraction and consumption of oil, abundantly clear, that the problem of transportation of oil and mineral oil becomes aggravated.

In particular, in the Western Europe such position defines structure of the West European international and internal transportations of oil from extraction areas to places of processing and the further distribution of mineral oil in consumption sphere. For transportations of oil and mineral oil use following types of transport: river, pipeline, railway and automobile, and the choice of this or that type of transport is caused by character of transported cargo. So, transportation of imported oil is carried out by sea transport that is caused by significant remoteness of areas from which oil enters on the West European manufacturing factories. For transportation of oil from deposits of the North Sea it is used, basically, a pipeline transportation.

Transportation of ready mineral oil is divided into two basic goods traffics: large-capacity transportations of mineral oil on distributive bases and sending of short runs of mineral oil to end users from distributive tank farms or it is direct from petroleum refineries (NPZ). It is in case of the former used coasting or river tankers, in the second - automobile tanks which belong to petromarketing firms or transport firms of the general using [15].

Thus, speaking about increase in an oil recovery and consumption of mineral oil, it is necessary to expect and developments of transport of the yielded kinds of energy, therefore questions of optimisation of transport streams, an estimation of economic efficiency of variants of combinations of various types of transport at transportations of oil and mineral oil get a special urgency. These questions are difficult enough, represent significant scientific and practical interest and can act as a theme of separate research.

At last, a final link of a considered logistical chain is realisation, sale of ready mineral oil. As we rassmatriva - I eat perpendicular logistical chains, a point of their intersection as it has been noted above, the gasoline station (gas station) is.

As a result of the analysis of domestic and foreign references concerning the organisation of sale of mineral oil for motor transport [10, 15, 18, 22, 26, 27, 62, etc.] it is revealed, that the estimation of a level of development of a network of the gas station is manufactured with use of some absolute and specific indexes. The first group is made by the following: total number of the gas station, volume of realisation of mineral oil through the gas station. Volume of realisation of mineral oil through 1 gas station in year, extent of highways and a median number of the cars, the falling 1 gas stations, form the second group of indexes.

Generalisation of the statistical data containing in various sources [91, 178, 125, 149, 187, 197], has allowed to track dynamics of development of a retail network of sale of mineral oil for motor transport in the USA, Japan and countries of Western Europe (tab. 1.13, 1.14, 1.15) during the period since 1982 on 2003

Table 1.13

Level of development of a network of the gas station abroad, 1982 the Country gas station Number, thousand sht Realization of mineral oil through the gas station for a year protjazh avtomos TO ennost

(ILNYH

eog Number of cars of everything, million t on one gas station, t everything, thousand in km on one gas station, km of everything, million sht on one gas station, sht the USA 214 217,7 1015 5900 27,7 90 421 Germany 46 11,05 238 390 8,4 13,6 330 Great Britain 38 14,8 390 320 8,5 14 369 France 44 8,6 215 1425 32,4 12,5 285 Italy 39 6,2 206 200 6,7 4,4 223 Japan 33 7,8 240 985 30 10,3 310

Estimating a level of development of a network of the gas station on the indexes specified above it is possible to draw following conclusions.

Table 1.14

Realisation of mineral oil for AT and a level of development of network AZK i abroad, 1996 the Country Number AZK, thousand sht Realization of mineral oil through the gas station for a year Extent of highways Number of cars of all million t on 1 AZK, t on 1 AZK, t only, thousand Km on 1 AZK, km of all million sht on 1 AZK, sht Austria 3,522 6,52 987,8 989,3 34 9,65 3,25 929 Great Britain 16,244 35,5 1323,0 1323,0 389 23,95 24,5 1508 Hungary 1,7 3,4 1440 1440,0 30 17,6 2,32 1364 Germany 17,957 71,6 2046,2 2060,6 640 35,64 34,37 1914 Greece 6,987 6,69 627,8 636,5 40 5,7 - - Denmark 2,647 4,954 918,0 966,2 - - 1,9 720 Italy 28,2 43,53 866,9 946,1 305 10,82 30,98 1099 Spain 6,4 24,39 2325,6 2371,7 324 50,6 - - the Netherlands 4Д 7,863 1373,0 1383,8 - - 6,31 1539,0 Norway 2,4 2,813 844,6 844,6 90 37,58 - - the USA 175,834 - - - 6283 35,82 185,8 1059,4 Finland 1,841 4,259 1208,2 1210,3 78 42,53 2,2 1195 France 18,046 47,793 1561,7 1579,7 916 50,76 29 1607 Switzerland 3,777 6,2 846,7 860,4 61,5 16,2 3,0 794 Sweden 3,614 8,882 1263,6 1386,0 97,8 27,06 - - Japan 27,06 - - - 1200 44,35 - -

Table 1.15

Realisation of mineral oil for AT and a level of development of network AZK abroad, 2003

The country Number AZK, thousand sht Realization of mineral oil through the gas station for a year Extent of highways Number of cars of all million t on 1 AZK, t everything, thousand in km on 1 AZK, km of all million sht on 1 AZK, sht 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Austria 5,781 10,7 1851,2 34 5,88 4,3 74 Great Britain 26,477 57,85 2185 372,2 14,1 29,6 1118 Hungary 2,681 5,362 2000 158,8 59,2 3,22 1201 Germany 26,031 103,79 3987 230,8 8,87 47,69 1832 Greece 10,8 10,34 957 40 3,7 - - Denmark 4,405 8,242 1871 - - 2,6 590 Italy 40,9 63,15 1544 305 7,46 38,29 936 Spain 9,728 37,07 3811 324 33,3 - - the Netherlands 6,561 12,58 1918 - - 7,91 1206 Norway 3,485 4,08 1172 91,5 26,25 - - the USA 251,442 - - 6283 25,0 231,4 920 Finland 3,822 8,84 2313 174 83,0 4,3 1125 France 27,810 73,7 2648 894 32,15 35,19 1265 Switzerland 5,585 9,2 1642 61,2 11,0 4,14 741 Sweden 5,963 14,7 2458 212,4 35,6 4,51 756 Japan 48,111 - - 1172 24,36 72,5 1506

First, it is necessary to note the tendency of transformation of the gas station in refuelling complexes - AZK, equipped with the modern high capacity equipment - multipistol fuel-distributing columns (Broadcasting Company), devices for calculation on credit cards and so forth, rendering, besides fuel retail, a complex of accompanying services.

Secondly, for the specified period significant growth of volumes of realisation of mineral oil as a whole through a gas station network (AZK) is marked. So, in comparison with 1982 realisation total amounts have increased more than in 6 times (in the Great Britain - in 3,9 times, in France and Italy - in 8,6 and 10 times accordingly). One of the major factors which have affected increase of volume of realisation of mineral oil, on niches the sight, is increase in park of vehicles in the considered countries.

Thirdly, significant changes have occurred and in size of the specific index characterising volume of realisation of mineral oil, falling to one point of retail of PETROLEUM PRODUCTS. Here too it is possible to speak about its significant growth: if in 1982 on one gas station in countries of Western Europe it was necessary 262 tons of the sold fuel for 1996 this index has made 1259,5 t, and in 2003 - 2033 tons. Here it is necessary to notice, that at the comparative analysis we use the specific index calculated as the relation of bulk volumes realised through 1 point of automobile benzine and solar oil to total of the gas station (tab. 1.14, the column 4). However more exact values of an index can be received, summarising relations of volume of the realised solar oil to quantity of the gas stations having specialised toplivno-distributing kolon - ki for solar oil (tab. 1.14, the column 5). In our opinion, the calculations manufactured on the yielded method, are more correct, though are more labour-consuming at a stage of assembly of the primary information.

The increase in values of a specific index is defined by two factors: growth of total amount of realisation of mineral oil, and also decrease in number of points of realisation of PETROLEUM PRODUCTS. Reduction of number of the gas station formally can testify to decrease in a level of development of system nefteprodukto - maintenance. However detailed consideration of a question as it has been noted above, specifies in tendencies of transformation of the gas station in refuelling complexes (AZK), essentially more productive PETROLEUM PRODUCTS giving besides maintenance a wide spectrum of services. Thus, increase of efficiency of a network of the gas station in economically developed countries at the moment occurs mainly at the expense of a qualitative component, instead of extensive development.

At the analysis of a level of development of a network of retail trade of PETROLEUM PRODUCTS indexes of extent of highways and quantity of the automatic telephone exchanges falling to one point are traditionally used.

The manufactured calculations testify to increase in centre extent of the highways falling 1 AZK, in comparison with 1982 (26,4 km / AZK in 2003; 32,2 km / AZK in 1996 against 20,1 km / the gas station in 1982).

In our opinion, this index, yielding primary representation about a level of development of a network of the gas station, cannot act as unique. For example, total AZK in Sweden makes today 5963 units. Having calculated a specific index, we receive, that AZK 35,6 km are placed with an interval on the average. But if to consider, that only on state capital - Stockholm - is necessary about 1100 gas stations and AZK, it is possible to conclude, that the received index is not absolutely correct.

To avoid the specified discrepancies as such situation is typical for the majority of the countries, it is expedient to evolve, in our opinion, if -

chestvo refuelling complexes in large cities and to count an index characterising size of the area of territory, served by one AZK.

Also it is expedient to supplement with the specified index calculations at the analysis of development of a network of sale of mineral oil as a whole on the country. So, in Germany on 1 AZK it is necessary on the average 19,8 км2 to the area, in the USA - 53,4 км2, in

2 2

Finland and Sweden - 183,0 km and 124,5 km accordingly.

Thus, the careful analysis of existing system of realisation of PETROLEUM PRODUCTS for motor transport should precede a stage of formation of a network of gasoline stations. Use at the analysis of offered indexes along with the traditional should to raise, in our opinion, reliability of analytical conclusions about a condition of development of system nefteproduktoobespechenija.

Research of factors and laws of formation of a network of gasoline stations in economically developed countries, and also values of the specific indexes used at the analysis (their graphic interpretation is presented in drawings 1.5 - 1.8), are extremely important at forecasting of sizes of the indexes describing a level of development of a network of sale

Fig. 1.5. Dependence between extent of highways and quantity of the vehicles falling 1 AZK

Fig. 1.6. Dependence between volume of realisation of mineral oil 1 AZK and quantity of served automatic telephone exchanges

Fig. 1.7. Dependence between volume of realisation of mineral oil 1 AZK and extent of highways on 1 AZK

Fig. 1.8. Tridimensional dependence between object of realisation of mineral oil 1 AZK (1), number of served cars (2) and extent of highways on 1 AZK (3)

Mineral oil in the Russian Federation. Such forecasting can be carried out, for example, on the basis of the asimptotical dependences, in quality asimptoty specific indexes of the developed countries using average value. Nefteprodukto - maintenance, and also received prognoznye estimations it is expedient to use results of the comparative analysis of systems for the description of a condition and prospects of development of system of supply by motor transport mineral oil as Russian Federation as a whole, and separate economic region.

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A source: Geiev Mauladi Arbievich. Organizational-economic management methods automobile transportations of mineral oil in a distributive network "the Tank farm - gasoline stations": the Dissertation of a Cand.Econ.Sci.: 08.00.05. - Stavropol,. 2007

More on topic 1.2 Condition and prospects of development of system of supply by mineral oil of the developed industrial countries:

  1. chapter 1. The analysis of a condition and the tendency of development of system of supply by mineral oil of motor transport in the conditions of market economy
  2. 1.3. The analysis of scientifically-applied workings out in the field of supply by motor transport mineral oil
  3. CHAPTER 2. The ANALYSIS of the CONDITION of SOCIAL SPHERE of Russia And the DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
  4. CHAPTER 2. The ANALYSIS of the CONDITION of SOCIAL SPHERE of Russia And the DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
  5. the Chapter III. The System of penalties for minors under the Russian criminal legislation: a modern condition and development prospects
  6. organizational culture as the factor of a supply with information of activity on development of industrial systems
  7. the Flowchart of mathematical model of the two-fuel combined power supply system of the drive of the car for expenditure calculation topliv is presented in drawing 2.3. It has been developed on the basis of models/50, 66, 86,90/.
  8. 3.1. Industrial parks in Russia: a state of the art and development prospects
  9. the Technique of revealing of competitive advantages and a substantiation of prospects of development of resource potential of agrarian and industrial complex of region
  10. 3.2. The analysis of a current condition and prospects of development of the Russian market of corporate bonds
  11. 2 CONDITION AND PROSPECTS OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH SCHOOLS OF RUSSIA
  12. 3.2. Optimisation of a configuration of a network of gasoline stations on logistical range of distribution of mineral oil for motor transport
  13. a modern condition of inquiry in law-enforcement bodies and prospects of its development
  14. CHAPTER 1. LOGISTICAL SYSTEMS: THE ANALYSIS OF THE CONDITION, PROSPECTS AND LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT.
  15. CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH OF THE CONDITION AND PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT REGIONAL AGROINDUSTRIAL KLASTEROV
  16. a modern condition and development prospects nauchnoyopopuljarnyh children's mass-media
  17. supply with information Development in a control system of quality in motor industry