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2.1. Formation of a distributive network of gasoline stations with use of logistical principles

As it has been noted above, the gas station is a final link of a logistical chain of production of the mineral oil, carrying out the distribution function, i.e. One of the major logistical functions.

As it is marked in [154], sale posesses a key role in maintenance of commercial success of firm in the market. The same opinion expresses also the author [22] considering, that development of a network of gasoline stations is key for system development toplivosnabzhenija.

In the modern literature on questions and logistics problems [6, 29, 50, 84, 154, 174, etc.] the increasing attention is given to such component of sale of production as distribjutsija. Today there are some definitions of the specified concept, however, in our opinion, the definition yielded in work [154] is the most successful: distribjutsija here it is defined as set of the logistical operations consisting in advance of finished goods from generators to final (or intermediate) to consumers, the organisation of sales, preselling and posleprodazhnogo service.

Abundantly clear, that for realisation of similar operations presence of certain channels by means of which production and accompanying service will be finished to consumers is necessary. According to [154] the distributive channel is understood as the ordered set of links of logistical system (i.e. Economically and (or) functionally isolated objects which are carrying out the local criterion functions, connected with occurrence, transformation or absorption material and accompanying them information and (or) financial streams), making a mat - rialnye streams of finished goods of one name (or assortment), and also accompanying service from firm-manufacturer to final or intermediate consumers. In the economic literature it is accepted to name full set of such channels a distributive network.

Thus, speaking about a network of gasoline stations, in our opinion, it is quite logical to speak about the yielded objects as making developed distributive channels and networks. Really, in this case it is possible to evolve accurately enough the elements (links) which are carrying out the basic functions distribjutsii; concentration (consolidation) - oil storehouses (base), physical distribution - oil pipelines, specialised vehicles; distribution on end users - gasoline stations and complexes. Besides, in this case it is a question of a material stream of finished goods of certain assortment - automobile benzines and solar oil.

The distributive networks functioning today realising the logistical distribution function of mineral oil, include both distributive channels of vertically integrated oil companies, and logistical intermediaries - independent ritejlerov. For example, in Moscow of 17 % from a sales volume of automobile fuel it is necessary on the participants of the market owning in basic one gasoline station.

Thus, it is possible to speak about necessity of management of development of networks of the gasoline stations (complexes) which as a matter of fact are elements of distributive networks, by realisation of functions of logistical management with reference to aktivnostjam, characteristic for sale function: an exchange (purchase and sale), physical distribution and supporting.

From the point of view of efficiency of functioning of a distributive network the set of problems at realisation of the specified functions will vary depending on management level.

So, at strategic level the primary goals are the choice of the schema of distribution of finished goods, placement of distribution centres on logistical range, a choice of the schema of placement of points of realisation of production to end users.

Operative level of management, in our opinion, should provide the decision of following problems: planning of process of realisation, the organisation of processing of the order, production delivery, the organisation of transportation, process of realisation of production to end users, etc.

It is obvious, that at all levels a principle of the organisation of management of considered distributive networks is observance of following conditions: «just-in-time» ("precisely-in-time"), «minimal expenses and costs» («with the least expenses and losses»), «necessary quality and in necessary quantity» («the goods of necessary quality and in necessary quantity»).

Let's consider the problems, managements falling into to strategic level, in more details.

The decision of a problem of a choice of the schema of distribution of finished goods it is most actual for vertically integrated oil companies, generators of products of oil refining. The specified problem assumes, in - the first, a form choice tovarodvizhenija (transit or warehouse), secondly, formation of distributive channels. In drawing 2.1 distributive channels [154] are presented typical for considered kinds of production.

The problem of placement of the distribution centres which functions in system of power supply of motor transport carry out tank farms, in the modern economic literature on logistics is described in detail enough [22, 29, etc.]. Traditional candidates solution of the specified problem are presented in table 2.1 (and,). At a choice of a variant of placement of a similar distribution centre criterion of an optimality the size of total logistical expenses on finished goods distribution in this case defined in the size of cumulative hauling charges on tovarosnabzheniju routinely gets out.

Fig. 2.1. Typical distributive channels of distribution of the automobile

topliv

It is obvious, that variant realisation () is accompanied by the greatest hauling charges on delivery of production from a distribution centre to retail points. Meanwhile, for distributive networks of system nefteproduktoobespechenija motor transport such arrangement of tank farms most typical. So, the carried out research of distributive networks of such large oil companies as Joint-Stock Company "LUKOIL-SARATOV", «the Petersburg fuel company» specifies in use of the similar schema of placement of tank farms (fig. 2.2,2.3).

From the point of view of the chosen criterion more preferable the variant () when transport costs manage to be reduced at the expense of approach of distribution centres to places of final consumption of a product is represented. However in this case expenses for building and operation of new distribution centres are frequently comparable to possible reduction

Table 2.1.

Variants of placement of distribution centres in territory of served area

Fig. 2.2. The schema of placement of a distribution centre (tank farm) on logistical range on an example

AJK-5 1

IPV

-0

AGRARIAN AND INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

iC'IrNRI

Joint-Stock Company «LUKOIL - Saratov»

Fig. 2.3. The schema of placement of a distribution centre (tank farm) on logistical range on an example of "the Petersburg fuel company»

Hauling charges, that finally levels prospective economic benefit.

However, now such variant of placement of tank farms finds in considered distributive networks more and more a wide circulation. Thus reconstruction of available capacities is frequently applied, that essentially reduces investment cost on their input in action. As an example it is possible to result the design «Petersburg fuel company» (fig. 2.4) Reached reduction of transport expenses at design introduction is estimated in 47 % from the existing size.

According to [177] to the optimal is the variant of placement of a distribution centre in the geographical centre of logistical range (a variant (). However, in our opinion, specificity of production distributed within the limits of the considered distributive network, practically excludes possibility of realisation of the yielded variant.

Feature of a distributive network of gasoline stations consists that the configuration of logistical range not always has the area form, i.e. "Spots". Studying kartoshem allows to speak placements of points of retail realisation of mineral oil about a "linear" configuration of range when gasoline stations (complexes) are located along highways (tab. 2.1., a variant (). It is obvious, that such schema is most zatratnoj from the point of view of size of hauling charges on delivery of finished goods from a distribution centre to retail points.

Besides a choice of the schema of placement of a distribution centre (tank farm) at strategic level the problem for choice distribution centre type dares. On the basis of the made analysis of functioning of existing distributive networks we had been evolved following classification signs of investigated object (tab. 2.2)

It is necessary to notice, that today the major signs, characterising investigated object, capacity and productivity of tank farms is.

Fig. 2.4. The schema of placement of two distribution centres (tank farms) on logistical range (the design «Petersburg fuel company»)

Table 2.2 Classification signs of tank farms

Criterion of classification Indexes On capacity • tank battery size

Storage volumes On productivity • an annual turnover of mineral oil

Quantity of cycles oborachivaemosti mineral oil On the organisation of reception and holiday of mineral oil • a way of delivery of mineral oil on a tank farm

Quantity of points for drainage of mineral oil

Productivity of pumping plants

Type of installations for fulness of mineral oil

Quantity of points of fulness

Productivity of points of fulness On a level of development of transport communications on a tank farm • type of internal oil pipelines

Extent of internal oil pipelines

Productivity of internal oil pipelines

For example, the tank farms largest in St.-Petersburg belonging to "the Petersburg fuel company» and the company «Neste St. Petersburg» have storage volumes - 75000 м3 and 31 thousand tons, an annual turnover - 300 thousand tons and 500 thousand tons (scheduled) accordingly.

Ways of delivery of mineral oil on a tank farm are defined by a type of transport used for transportation of ready mineral oil from petroleum refineries to oil storages (tank farms): a sailing charter (tanker fleet), railway (railway tanks), pipeline (oil pipelines) and automobile (automobile tanks). Use of motor transport for delivery of mineral oil to tank farms is used rather seldom, mainly, by the small wholesale dealers operating tank battery on a hire basis. In our opinion, possibility of the organisation of unobstructed delivery of mineral oil in storehouses in necessary quantities shows - sja one of defining factors at a choice of the schema of placement of tank farms on logistical range.

Productivity of installations on fulness of mineral oil is caused by their type. For today the most high capacity are installations of the bottom fulness, however their wide introduction in the Russian Federation restrains absence of expressly equipped vehicles.

As it has been specified above, one of logistical problems at formation of a distributive network of distribution of mineral oil is the choice of a variant of the organisation of transportation automobile topliv from a tank farm to a filling station. Thus, in our opinion, the basic criterion of a choice is possibility to provide performance of logistical principles «precisely - in-time», «with the least expenses and losses», «necessary quality and quantity».

It is possible to evolve three variants of the organisation of transportation of mineral oil from tank farms to gasoline stations: own transport of the oil companies, under the contract of transportation as the unique customer of services of the yielded motor transportation enterprise, for the contract of transportation with the motor transportation enterprise on the general conditions, each of which possesses certain advantages and lacks from the point of view of specified above logistical principles (tab. 2.3).

At construction of distributive channels for a basic point traditionally take over positions of the theory of the costs, connected with the conclusion of transactions. According to these positions, for the fuel company strategy of buying of transport services at the motor transportation enterprises will be more favourable, than orientation to independent performance of transportations, if intrafirm costs on their realisation more than costs ATP. However there are the additional costs connected with transactions which also are necessary for considering at a choice of distributive channels.

Table 2.3 the Comparative estimation of variants of the organisation of transportations of mineral oil in system «the Tank farm - the gas station»

Under the contract pen Under the contract pe Own vozki with ATP (in revozki with ATP transport neftja quality edinst (on the general uslo ache the companies vennogo zakazchi vijah) ka) Advantages • possibility op • absence kapi • absence kapi timalnogo races talnyh vlozhe talnyh vlozhe predelenija about ny both flowing for ny and flowing voznyh vozmozh the expenditure connected from expenses, Transport pluatatsiej a steam • possibility ef nyh means and ka transport fektivnogo ope technological means is connected nostej park by acquisition and nyh with priobre transport operation teniem and eks means of park and the techno rativnogo justices of the equipment logic lenija transportation • possibility op the equipment mi timalnogo races • low stoi • liquidity ak predelenija about most services on tivov voznyh vozmozh to transportation a nave nostej park teproduktov vehicles Lacks • essential • possible vyso • possibility de capital kaja cost a moustache fitsita investment transportation in at a meadow on transportation nyh is possible finding a trance of mineral oil stej tailors of means • the difficult schema and necessary operative technological management pe the equipment revozkami • necessity • complexity orga the organisations about nizatsii kontro izvodstvennyh lja behind purification of processes avto containers rezer transport vuarov avtotsis productions a sloe

In case of the organisation of performance of transportations from a tank farm to the gas station own transport the oil company has internal costs (), consisting of current operational expenses, obshchehozjajstvennyh expenses, and also specific capital investments. If transport services are bought from the motor transportation enterprise, costs of the oil company in this case will make size of a payment for services () and the costs connected with realisation of the transaction (), for example, such slozhnoformalizuemye expenses as losses of a gain of the gas station from untimely delivery of fuel, fuel deteriorations by transportation about crude tanks lorry and so forth it is obvious, that performance of transportations by own transport of the oil company is expedient for organising in that case when And < В + С.

In system nefteproduktoobespechenija motor transport of one of the most actual problems dimensional placement of points of retail automobile topliv today is.

The sphere of distribution of mineral oil in all complex from an oil recovery to a gasoline station is most attractive both on profit size, and on time of a turn of money resources. Therefore formation of a network of gasoline stations in the Russian Federation occurs to development of market relations fast rates and as practice shows, frequently spontaneously.

Predominating factors at a choice of a place of placement of a new gasoline station or its modernisation in a refuelling complex are the developed schema of placement of the gas station, presence of the free sites exposed on sale or leased, cost of such sites which is in turn defined by their placement in city boundaries. In the conditions of a high competition on a commodity market of mineral oil for motor transport similar spontaneous processes have led to the extremely non-uniform development of a network of the gas station in large cities. For example, the density of placement of the gas station around square of the Constitution of St.-Petersburg is extremely high: so, on the area less than 2 км2 5 refuelling points today function. The same situation is characteristic and for Moscow [18]. However it is necessary to note, what exactly in Moscow it is developed and the Program of creation of the private gas stations in which frameworks the attention to the question on system of planning of a network of the gas station is brought is implanted, based - ache on the mathematical models of a supply and demand considering as real volumes of realisation of mineral oil, predicted on the basis of data about population density, quantity of cars, an infrastructure condition, and potential of placement of the gas station, level of their equipment, and also management potential.

In our opinion, complexity of application of the traditional approaches described in the economic literature, to considered logistical system consists, mainly, that available techniques assume a free choice in placement of distribution centres according to the developed system of points of retail of finished goods. Meanwhile, feature of formation of a distributive network of distribution automobile topliv consists, first, in known restrictions of a site of its elements connected with requirements of the accident prevention, an arrangement of objects of physical distribution (oil pipelines), in - the second, high dynamics of development of a network of the gas station (AZK), gravitating to places of possible occurrence of demand that complicates a problem of search of optimum placement of distribution centres.

Therefore, in our opinion, efficiency of functioning of a distributive network of distribution automobile topliv is defined, mainly, by efficiency of operating control.

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A source: Geiev Mauladi Arbievich. Organizational-economic management methods automobile transportations of mineral oil in a distributive network "the Tank farm - gasoline stations": the Dissertation of a Cand.Econ.Sci.: 08.00.05. - Stavropol,. 2007

More on topic 2.1. Formation of a distributive network of gasoline stations with use of logistical principles:

  1. 3.2. Optimisation of a configuration of a network of gasoline stations on logistical range of distribution of mineral oil for motor transport
  2. 3.3. Scheduling of a network of gasoline stations with use of information technologies
  3. Geiev Mauladi Arbievich. Organizational-economic management methods automobile transportations of mineral oil in a distributive network "the Tank farm - gasoline stations": the Dissertation of a Cand.Econ.Sci.: 08.00.05. - Stavropol,, 2007 2007
  4. Conceptually-methodological approaches to maintenance ekologicheyoskoj safety of gasoline stations (gas station)
  5. CHAPTER 1 THE MODERN CONDITION OF RESEARCHES IN THE FIELD OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF THE GASOLINE STATIONS PLACED IN LINE OF CITY BUILDING
  6. 2.2. Working out of the general model of functioning of a distributive network «the Tank farm - the gas station»
  7. Pervedentsev, Paul Aleksandrovich. Working out of logistical methods of a choice of variants of warehouse distributive systems / the Dissertation / Moscow, 2006
  8. GARMONOV CYRIL VALEREVICH. the TECHNIQUE of the ESTIMATION of ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY of CITY GASOLINE STATIONS. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Tech.Sci. Voronezh - 2019, 2019
  9. Chapter 2. Model building of functioning and techniques of an estimation of transportation process in a logistical network «the Tank farm - the gas station»
  10. 2.4 Definition of economically defensible share of expenditure of gasoline from total travelling expenditure of gasoline and gas
  11. the Appendix 3. The questionnaire for research of subjective preferences and stereotypes of behaviour of potential consumers of services of a distributive network "gas station-tank farm"
  12. 3.1. Formation of reference base for the organisation and management of transportations in a network «the Tank farm - the gas station»
  13. Chapter 2. Formation and development of institutes of legislative and obychyono-legal regulation of zemelno-distributive relations in dorevoyoljutsionnoj Russia
  14. 3.1. Formation of an enterprise network of small enterprises franchaj zingovogo type
  15. use of resources of a network the Internet for formation key educational kompetentsy senior pupils
  16. influence of principles of the financial right on formation and realisation of principles of financial activity of Bank of Russia