<<
>>

3.2. Optimisation of a configuration of a network of gasoline stations on logistical range of distribution of mineral oil for motor transport

Efficiency of functioning of a network of gasoline stations, as well as any objects of service, is in many respects defined by an arrangement of the yielded objects on logistical range, therefore the problem of definition of an optimum site of the gas station is exclusively important at a design stage of a network of the gas station.

It is logical to assume, that the choice of an optimum site of objects (gasoline stations or complexes), and also their capacities can be manufactured on the basis of pre-award marketing research of demand for services of object of service, studying of preferences of potential consumers.

The purpose of the research of preferences of consumers of services of the gas station organised within the limits of the present dissertational work (AZK), made in the form of questioning (it is in detail described in item З.1.), check of some the theoretical hypotheses formulated on the basis of the analysis of references and generalisation of expert opinions was.

Hypothesis 1. Intensity of a stream of demands for a batch depends on affinity of the gas station (AZK) to places of concentration of transport.

At check of the yielded hypothesis it was supposed, that places of concentration of motor transport can be: parking for motor transport in inhabited files, garage co-operative societies (in the questionnaire are presented as a variant źnear to the house╗), the motor transportation enterprises, business centres, the industrial enterprises, etc. (źNear to a work place╗).

Results of processing of the received materials are presented in drawing 3.6. Apparently from the resulted graphs, the majority of respondents, irrespective of type of an operated rolling stock, have no steady

Fig. 3.6. Preferences of consumers on the location of the refuelling

Stations

(1 - źnear to the house╗; 2 - źnear to a work place╗; 3 - źon a path╗)

Preferences in a place of placement of the gas station, choosing the stations located along the line of the vehicle.

Hypothesis 2. Steady preferences on objects of a distributive network have the majority of consumers.

During research the yielded hypothesis has proved to be true. Really, the majority (58 %) respondents 2-3 gasoline stations, 20 % - services of one gas station routinely use. It is necessary to notice, that absence of turn on a batch influences a gas station choice only 9 % of the interrogated; 13 % of respondents have no steady preferences and fill the car at any gas station as required. Apparently from drawing 3.7, the structure of preferences is identical for drivers of all types of a rolling stock, however it is necessary to notice, that for drivers of buses the casual choice of a place of a batch is more characteristic, than for other categories.

It is obvious, that with development of a network of the gas station of preference of consumers can vary. The analysis of factors (fig. 3.8), influencing formation to premail -

Fig. 3.7. Preferences of consumers for choice places of a batch of cars

Fuel

(1 - on 1 gas station; 2 - on 2-3 gas stations; 3 - at any gas station where there is no turn; 4 - on any proximate as required)

Fig. 3.8. The factors influencing a choice of a place of a batch (1 - fuel cost; 2 - presence of additional service; 3 - culture of service; 4 - a gas station arrangement; 5 - other factors)

ny for choice batch places, specifies in the importance for consumers of cost of fuel (the most significant factor) and the gas station locations.

By the least significant factors are named presence at the gas station of additional service (washing, shop, avenue), and also culture of service. Other factors specified by respondents, quality of fuel and accuracy of work of the equipment of the gas station on fuel holiday in most cases are.

Hypothesis 3. The gasoline stations located on transport trunks have competitive advantage.

As it has been specified above, gas station placement is one of the major factors forming preferences of consumers. Besides, as the majority of respondents use the gas station on a route of vehicles, it is possible to draw a conclusion on correctness of the put forward hypothesis. Additional researches (3.9) show fig., that "threshold"

Fig. 3.9. Influence of remoteness of the gas station from a transport trunk on preferences of consumers (1 - to 50 m; 2 - to 500 m; 3 - on any distance)

From a transport trunk it is possible to consider as value of remoteness of the gas station distance of 500 m: on such distance are ready to be wedged from a route of 51 % of respondents. However at designing of a network of the gas station it is necessary to consider,

That removal of a gasoline station more than on 50 m from a transport trunk of loss of potential clients can reach 26 %.

Thus, the choice of the best variant at decision-making on gasoline station or complex placement, in our opinion, first of all should be based on the analysis of the factors defining size of volumes of realisation of mineral oil through the projected gas station.

According to the made research, the major factors demanding the account at forecasting of quantity of batches at the projected gas station, are: road type on which the gas station (from the point of view of size of a transport stream) settles down; remoteness from crossroads and an arrangement concerning other nearby gas stations (AZK). To consider and estimate conditions of placement of the gas station it is possible by means of system of the correcting factors reflecting influence of each of specified factors (KL).

Construction of similar system of factors can be manufactured by two ways - the analysis or synthesis of values of factors. The combination of these two methods will allow to raise accuracy of the received values.

The task in view decision assumes in the first way performance of following actions: assembly of the information on the factors influencing size of considered indexes, construction of difficult multifactor dependences, construction of the plural correlation equations. To define required factors it is possible also with use of methods klasternogo the analysis.

Other way of the decision is reduced to designing of dependence for definition of required value, attempt of generalisation of its size to various signs. Thus, it is possible to pick up any dependences, to receive various configurations from KL, to make approbation on small samples with use of methods of planning of experiment.

Using a method of synthesising of values of required factors, we will try to position borders of values of factors KL, having divided them on hardly - blowing groups: the first - the gas station is located in a city; the second - the gas station is located on a line; the third - the gas station is located on a line crossing border of a city, or on ring (roundabout) road.

Likelihood scale of change of factor Ki

Table 3.4 Number of lanes to 2 2-3 3-4 more than 4 Number of batches a day to 250 500 750 more than 1500 Factor Ki 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 Intermediate values of factor Kj are defined by interpolation.

Acknowledgement of the approach set forth above are results of the processing executed by us and ordering of data about volumes of realisation of mineral oil, size of a stream of lorries on the main roads and quantity of arrivals on a batch. Difficulty of ordering consisted that the initial data taken from work [148], have been used by the author for a substantiation and an illustration of various positions of the dissertation, were resulted in various partitions and forms of delivering of a material, in particular, in four tables and on two graphs. Results of ordering of data and primary statistical processing are resulted in table 3.5.

Factor of the account of type of road Kostanovimsja on the first group: the gas station is in line of the basic building of a city. We will admit, that the probability of a batch at the gas station will depend on intensity of a stream of cars which moves on road. In turn intensity of a stream of cars is connected with quantity of lanes. Hence, the quantity of batches should correlate with quantity of lanes on road and it can be accepted for basic at a choice of a scale of factors Kh According to [148] number of batches a day makes the following number of values: 250, 500, 750 and 1500. Having compared these values with quantity of lanes on road (in one direction) we will receive a likelihood scale of change of factor To/.

Table 3.5 Results of data processing on three gas stations of Ставрополя*

Index Number of the gas station 1 2 3 Number of Broadcasting Company 5 8 10 Quantity realised nefte products to lorries in a year of million tons of 2,067 6,620 6,657 million litres 2,670 9,195 8,720 Is realised mineral oil, litres in day 7865 25192 24922 at an o'clock 524 1680 1661 Median number of batches of all avtomo bilej 522 972 695 in day 35 65 46 at an o'clock the Stream of lorries in day 775 1045 959 at an o'clock ** 52 70 64 Median number of batches cargo av tomobilej *** in day 105 195 139 at an o'clock 7 13 9,2 Share of cars on a batch from about shchego a stream at an o'clock, % 13,5 18,6 14,4 * the gas stations are on trunks Stavropol - Elista (№ 1), Stavropol - Mineral

Waters (№ 2), Stavropol - Rostov-on-Don (№ 3)

** Duty of 15 hours a day (settlement)

*** Lorries make ~ 20 % from the general stream

From table 3.5 follows, that certain communication between a stream of cars and number of arrivals on a batch (fig. HARM (), and also between a share of cars on a batch and a stream of cars (fig. 3.10 ()) is observed. Undoubtedly, only continuation of labour-consuming researches similar enough will allow to receive steady and authentic statistical dependences for the various gas stations (AZK). The cited data allow to estimate and concretise parametres of the long-distance lines leaving of Stavropol. In a considered case average value of a share of cars on a batch from their general number (a cargo stream) has made 15 %.

Factor of the account of intersection of roads To % In case of a gas station arrangement on intersection of two roads in such a manner that there are convenient entrances at the gas station from each of them on a course of movement of a stream, the increase in number of batches depending on number of lanes on each road, since is apparently possible. The total flow of cars increases. We will take over a range of values of factor К2 depending on the sum of lanes on each of crossing roads the following:

Total number of lanes of 2 4 6 8 and more Factor К2 1,0 1,2 1,35 1,5

Factor of the account of remoteness from other gas stations Ki. We will consider influence of remoteness of the projected gas station from other points of a batch. As a first approximation it is possible to assume, that any car which is between two gas stations goes on a batch to that from them, distance to which on a straight line connecting the car from the gas station, is the shortest. If to connect points of an arrangement of the gas station a straight line and to reduce a perpendicular to its middle it will divide a plane on two areas. In this case, for

Fig. 3.10. Dependences of quantity of cars on a batch () and a share of cars on a batch () from the general stream of lorries at an o'clock

Any car from the point of view of distance is the gas station which are in area more preferably. In drawing 3.11 () the car (automatic telephone exchange) will go on a gas station-1 batch.

Let's increase number of the gas station to three. Having executed similar constructions we will receive three areas. Then, too the automatic telephone exchange car will go on the batch of the gas station-2 which is inside this areas (fig. 3.11 ().

Let's take advantage of the described procedure for any way located gas stations (fig. 3.11 (). Obviously, as a result of geometrical constructions we will receive borders of areas in which the distance from any point to the gas station - the centre of the yielded area - will be the least, than to other gas stations. Generally considered area represents a polygon which number of the sides is defined by quantity of the nearby gas stations.

At uniform distribution of cars, the area of each polygon will be proportional to quantity of cars and, hence, quantity of batches. For definition of the area of each polygon.S, - it is possible to deduce exact formulas as co-ordinates of each gas station are known and the rule of construction of the sides is entered. However are possible and the approached decisions, one of which it is reduced to the following.

In work [179] dependence of throwaway run of the car on a batch (for evenly distributed consumers located on all zone of building of a city) from the area of a zone of service of the gas station is received:

L =/3*4S (3.1)

Where S - the area of a zone of service of the gas station;

R - the factor depending on a configuration of a zone of service of the gas station and the schema of transport streams.

LZI

For//th convex polygon the most comprehensible settlement schema, from considered in [179], is the circle from the gas station located in its centre. At circle radius equal R and/? =0,48 we will receive: (3.2)

L = 0,48Jal/l "= 0,85Rź R. As the number of the sides of a polygon is defined by quantity of the nearby gas stations and their arrangement, let us assume, that the circle radius which area is equal to the polygon area, defined under the formula

(3.3) where R3 - radius of a zone of service of the gas station;

p - quantity of the sides of a polygon, 3;

Ri - distance from a point of an arrangement of the gas station to / - j the polygon sides.

In that specific case gas station constructions near to existing, i.e. Rmin-> About, we take over Rз* = 0,5/? z.

Other variant of the formula (3.3) can be written down in a kind:

(3.4) we Will define a range of values of factors К3, being based on data of statistical inspections of some authors [148, 179, etc.] and the information collected by us. So, for a large city annual realisation of the gas station makes from 1600 to 12000 thousand litres of fuel a year (average value of 6000 thousand litres), i.e. Scope of values d=7,5.

As a first approximation, it is possible to take over:

К/max * К2тах * Kztah ~ d ~ 7,5 Considering, that К1тах = 2,5; К2тах = 1,5; we will receive К3тах = 2,0. 2,5 km. It is possible to take over I follow -

Taking into account data of work [179] at Rep = shchie values of factors К3. Radius of a zone of service of gas station R3, km. Factor К3

To 1 km. 2,5 5 km and more 1,0 1,5 2,0 Similar data are received on the gas station of of Stavropol, carrying out a batch mainly lorries. The volume of realisation of mineral oil a year has made from 2500 to 17500 thousand litres (average value of 11300 thousand litres); scope of values d=l.

It is necessary to emphasise, that at calculation under the formula (3.4) factors Ki should be otnormirovany concerning the average values: To] = 1,75; К2 = \, 25\KZ = \, 5. It means, chtokn = 3,3.

<< | >>
A source: Geiev Mauladi Arbievich. Organizational-economic management methods automobile transportations of mineral oil in a distributive network "the Tank farm - gasoline stations": the Dissertation of a Cand.Econ.Sci.: 08.00.05. - Stavropol,. 2007

More on topic 3.2. Optimisation of a configuration of a network of gasoline stations on logistical range of distribution of mineral oil for motor transport:

  1. 2.1. Formation of a distributive network of gasoline stations with use of logistical principles
  2. Geiev Mauladi Arbievich. Organizational-economic management methods automobile transportations of mineral oil in a distributive network "the Tank farm - gasoline stations": the Dissertation of a Cand.Econ.Sci.: 08.00.05. - Stavropol,, 2007 2007
  3. 1.3. The analysis of scientifically-applied workings out in the field of supply by motor transport mineral oil
  4. 3.3. Scheduling of a network of gasoline stations with use of information technologies
  5. chapter 1. The analysis of a condition and the tendency of development of system of supply by mineral oil of motor transport in the conditions of market economy
  6. 2.3. The Design procedure of characteristics of transportation process of delivery of mineral oil in a network źthe Tank farm - the gas station╗ with principle use "precisely-in-time"
  7. Conceptually-methodological approaches to maintenance ekologicheyoskoj safety of gasoline stations (gas station)
  8. CHAPTER 1 THE MODERN CONDITION OF RESEARCHES IN THE FIELD OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF THE GASOLINE STATIONS PLACED IN LINE OF CITY BUILDING
  9. 2.1 Working out of the generalised algorithm of a configure of logistical system of distribution of production
  10. 1.2 Condition and prospects of development of system of supply by mineral oil of the developed industrial countries
  11. GARMONOV CYRIL VALEREVICH. the TECHNIQUE of the ESTIMATION of ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY of CITY GASOLINE STATIONS. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Tech.Sci. Voronezh - 2019, 2019
  12. 2.1. Essence and features of financing of the enterprises of motor transport of the general use
  13. 1.2. Foreign experience of financing of the enterprises of motor transport of the general use
  14. 1.1. The State of the art and problems of passenger motor transport in Russia
  15. Genetic algorithm for instruction of a neural network for vertikalizatsii ekzoskeleta with two criteria of optimisation
  16. Genetic algorithm for instruction of a neural network for vertikalizatsii ekzoskeleta with one criterion of optimisation
  17. Chapter 2. Model building of functioning and techniques of an estimation of transportation process in a logistical network źthe Tank farm - the gas station╗
  18. 1.2 Quantitative distribution of residual oil on the deposit area
  19. 2.2. Forms and methods of financing of the enterprises of motor transport of the general use