the Special attention in the modern legal and economic theory and experts is involved with Federal act chapter 7 "On joint-stock companies" which characterises general meeting of shareholders as the supreme body of management of joint-stock company.

At the analysis of this chapter of the law there is a necessity to note the cores innovations present at it. They as shows experience, have very essentially changed, have transformed, have enriched our life, especially, when about sphere of interests of joint-stock companies many millions Russian citizens get.

It is caused by that in Russia from 2,6 million legal bodies more than half have the form of joint-stock company [114].

In federal act item 50 it is established, that the decision of general meeting of shareholders can be accepted by means of absentee ballot (polling by), that is without joint presence of shareholders on general meeting with use of bulletins for voting.

If the shareholder has received the bulletin beforehand, it has the right to post it or to vote personally, being present on shareholder meeting. In practice the mentioned form of carrying out of meeting has received the name of the mixed.

Our research allows to approve, that normal, regular functioning of joint-stock companies became possible as the law establishes, that date and an order of carrying out of meeting, an order of the notification of shareholders, the list of the information for preparation of participants of general meeting are defined by joint-stock company board of directors. On annual shareholder meetings which should be spent in 2-6 months after the termination of fiscal year, questions at elections of board of directors and a revision committee, the statement of the auditor and consideration of annual reports are solved.

Other shareholder meetings are called extraordinary and are spent under the decision of board of directors which, in turn, is accepted or at the initiative of the council, or on request of a revision committee or the auditor, or, at last, on request of the shareholders owning not less than 10 % of voting actions. The initiator of meeting has the right to define the agenda which the board of directors cannot change. Nevertheless, the board of directors can give up in meeting convocation if, for example, any questions brought for discussion of meeting, mismatch law requirements.

The competence of general meeting of shareholders is defined in such a manner that general meeting decisions on some questions are accepted or special majority of voices (three quarters), or simple majority of voices. The decision of some questions can be transferred in the competence of board of directors, and certain decisions are accepted only under the offer of board of directors.

As it is underlined in the legislation, special majority of voices, that is the majority in three quarters of owners of the voting actions participating in meeting, following questions are accepted:

modification and additions in the charter or the statement of the new charter (the question on the change of the charter connected with increase of the charter capital, can be transferred to the decision of board of directors);

society reorganisation;

joint-stock company liquidation, appointment of the liquidating commission and the statement of liquidating balances;

definition of the limited number of the declared actions;

fulfilment of large transactions.

Further, in our opinion, it is necessary to allocate those questions, decisions on which are accepted only under the offer of board of directors:

society reorganisation;

decision-making on non-use of the right of priority of shareholders;

definition of the form of an information transfer to shareholders;

crushing and consolidation of actions;

the conclusion of transactions in which there is an interest;

fulfilment of large transactions;

acquisition and the repayment a society of the placed actions;

participation in the holding companies, financial and industrial groups, other associations of the commercial organisations.

In joint-stock company practice in various regions of Russia on decision some question can be transferred board of directors (supervisory board) if it is reserved in the charter. In particular, as shows experience of Moscow, St.-Petersburg, Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, such questions are:

modification and additions in the charter or the statement of the new charter;

charter capital increase;

acquisition and the repayment a society of the placed actions;

participation in the holding companies, financial and industrial groups, other associations of the commercial organisations;

the questions provided by the Federal act "On joint-stock companies".

With development of the modern Russian right has undergone changes and an order of formation of the agenda of general meeting of shareholders. Now the owner not less than 2 % of voting actions has the right to bring in board of directors one or two motivirovannyh offers (in earlier operating certificates of such right at the given category of shareholders was not), and the board of directors within 15 days should or include questions in the agenda, or give the proved refusal. Discrepancy of offered items on the agenda of general meeting of shareholders to federal act requirements can be telling argument for such refusal.

Otherwise, than before, the question on competency or as defines the law, quorum of general meeting of shareholders is solved.

The federal act "On joint-stock companies", as well as earlier operating certificates, the quorum is defined in half of voices of the placed voting actions of joint-stock company. But in case of absence of quorum repeated meeting it will be possible to consider taken place at presence at least 30 % of the placed voting actions. Earlier repeated general meeting was competent in any case.

Unique exception was introduction of quorum for joint-stock companies with number of shareholders more than 500 thousand people for which the quorum at carrying out of repeated general meeting can be reduced, however it should be reserved in the society charter.

Thus, on the basis of the aforesaid it is possible with sufficient confidence to approve, that there is a development of business practice and rules of law even in present difficult Russian conditions.

Actually everywhere legal practice of functioning of executive powers of joint-stock company more and more affirms as regions of Russia. In particular, it is known, that Federal act chapter 8 "On joint-stock companies" defines the competence and powers of board of directors (supervisory board) of joint-stock company and an order of formation and power of an executive office of a society.

As well as in world practice, in the Russian joint-stock companies the board of directors carries out the general management of activity of joint-stock company and makes practically all decisions, except for questions, the decision on which can accept only general meeting of shareholders.

At number of owners of voting actions less than 50 functions of board of directors can carry out general meeting, thus the decision of questions on carrying out of general meeting and its summons is assigned to the certain person or body.

Under the decision of general meeting compensation or indemnification of the expenses connected with their membership can be paid to members of board of directors. The number of members of board of directors for small societies is not regulated, and if shareholders more than thousand, in board of directors should be not less than seven members. Rational character of such norm allows to promote effective functioning of joint-stock company.

Members of board of directors are selected general meeting of shareholders with a term of appointment within one year (quantity of re-elections neogranicheno), and general meeting of shareholders has the right to interrupt powers of any of members of board of directors or all board of directors with its full complement. It is necessary to notice, that it is a legal innovation as according to earlier operating Decision of Ministerial council of RSFSR from December, 25th, 1990 №601 member of board of directors was selected for two years and could not be re-elected ahead of schedule under no circumstances.

At elections of board of directors the list of the presented nominees affirms board of directors, and before introduction in action of the present law of a nominee in board of directors could be put forward by self-promotion and were put to vote at observance by the candidate of terms of promotion and other requirements established by the Decision of Ministerial council of RSFSR from December, 25th, 1990 №601.

Now the proportional representation guarantee at election in board of directors is given by cumulative voting when on each voting action the poll equal to the general number of members of council is necessary. These voices can be given one candidate or are meted between several. At election of board of directors as cumulative voting of its power can be ceased only under the relation to all structure of board of directors. Legal realisation of the given mechanisms will allow to attach, in our opinion, citizens of Russia to new perception of the right as tool of protection of economic interests of the person.

Members of an executive office cannot constitute the majority in board of directors. The chairman of board of directors is selected the majority vote of members of council and can be re-elected at any time. Sessions of board of directors are assembled by the chairman of council about its initiative or on request of one of members of board of directors, a revision committee or the auditor, an executive office. The quorum is defined by the charter and should constitute not less than half from number of the selected members of council. Decisions are accepted by the majority vote, transfer of voices to other member of council is not supposed.

It is characteristic, that combination of posts of the general director who was an individual executive office, and the chairman of board of directors now is legislatively forbidden. It is necessary to notice, that possibility of similar combination of posts of the head, that is an individual executive office, and the chairman of the supervisory board it has been established by legal acts about privatisation, including the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation from July, 1st, 1992 №721. The occurred legal evolution serves, in our opinion, as an evident illustration of how on particles, small parts formed new legal practice aktsionirovanija.

The analysis of norms of the law establishing the exhaustive list of questions which it is forbidden to board of directors to give to the competence of executive powers of joint-stock company, leads to a conclusion, that now the legal status of board of directors has considerably grown and at a certain design of the charter of a society the board of directors becomes the absolute master of joint-stock company.

Also it is represented to us, that expansion of powers of the supervisory board will allow many joint-stock companies, including created in the course of privatisation, more operatively and at high professional level to solve the strategic questions defining economic policy of a society.

Decisions on all questions of a management of current activity, except the questions which are within the exclusive competence of general meeting and board of directors, are accepted by an individual executive office of joint-stock company (the director, the general director) or along with an individual executive office and board (management) a joint executive office. In case of need general meeting has the right to transfer powers of an executive office of a society under the contract of the commercial organisation (the operating organisation) or the individual businessman (managing director). The competence of each body is defined by the charter.

As already it was marked above, an individual executive office of joint-stock company is its (director) who, in particular, operates on behalf of a society without the power of attorney, including represents it, makes transactions, approves the list of staff, issues orders. The board (management) operates on the basis of the charter and the position (regulations) approved by board of directors both establishing terms and an order of convocation of board and decision-making. Board meetings are spent by the director (general director) signing documents on behalf of a society and operating without the power of attorney according to decisions of board.

Now the law establishes responsibility of the persons entering into controls of a society, that is members of board of directors, the director, members of the joint executive office, the operating organisation or operating should operate in interests of joint-stock company, honesty and reasonably. The specified persons incur a civil responsibility for the losses caused by their actions (or inactivity), and responsibility of several persons is solidary. The members of the collegiate body who were voting against such decisions or not voting at all, do not bear responsibility.

Also it is necessary to consider as the important innovation the norm fixing the right of joint-stock company or the shareholder (shareholders), the owning not less than 1 % of the placed common stocks owning not less, to address in court with the claim to the persons entering into controls of joint-stock company.

In Federal act item 77 "On joint-stock companies" the concept "market cost" for the first time is legislatively fixed. The first mention of this concept has appeared in the Civil code of the Russian Federation, however legal definition of market cost is entered only in the specified federal act; according to the law "in market cost of property... The price on which the seller having the full information on cost of property and not obliged it to sell is, would agree to sell it, and the buyer having the full information on cost of property and not obliged to get it, would agree it to get" [107, c. 179-180]. However, in our opinion, the law has only declared the main principles deciphering this concept.

Apparently, in more details to define an estimation technique, possible approaches to its carrying out, ways of this estimation and its general concept the new federal act regulating estimated activity will help. Nevertheless, it is necessary to notice, that the similar approximate technique is already developed and settled by the legislation and regulatory legal acts on privatisation in the Russian Federation.

Analyzing legal definition of a market price, it seems to us pertinent to notice, that the law has accorded it a right to board of directors, except for definition cases its court or other authorised body. The members of board of directors interested in the transaction, do not participate in market price definition, in this case the independent appraiser (auditor) can be involved in an estimation. The independent appraiser as it is established now, is necessarily involved at the repayment of actions at shareholders of a society and if quotations of these actions are published in the press these data should be considered during an estimation. At carrying out of an estimation of common stocks the size of pure actives of joint-stock company, the price offered by the buyer, and other factors at will of the appraiser are taken into consideration.

If the owner of actions – the state or municipal union estimation compulsory condition is attraction for its carrying out of the state financial control body.

According to the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation from August, 18th, 1996 №1210 "About measures on protection of the rights of shareholders and maintenance of interests of the state as proprietor and the shareholder" it is established, that boards of directors of joint-stock companies, not less than 25 % of voting which actions is in a state ownership, are obliged to involve independent appraisers for definition of market cost of property of joint-stock company on request of the persons representing the state in Board of directors, or the authorised state body.

The state financial control body involved in cases, provided items 3 of item 77 of the Federal act "On joint-stock companies" [107, c. 180], now is Federal management on affairs about an inconsistency (bankruptcy) and to financial improvement at the Ministry of the Russian Federation of management of the state-owned property.

New word for domestic jurisprudence was that fact, that the separate chapter of the Law (chapter 10) is devoted large transactions [107, c. 186-188] which transactions made by a society or some the interconnected transactions on acquisition or the property alienation which cost exceeds 25 % of the book value of actives of a society concern, the transaction or some transactions on placing of common stocks in the quantity exceeding 25 % before placed common stocks, and also acquisition by any person of 30 and more percent of common stocks.

In our research characterising practice of functioning of modern joint-stock companies of Russia, it is important to notice, that if cost of the property mentioned above, constitutes from 25 % to 50 % of the book value of actives of joint-stock company for date of fulfilment of the transaction the decision on such transaction should be accepted board of directors unanimously or it is passed on the decision of general meeting of shareholders. The transaction which subject is the property which cost constitutes over 50 % of the book value of actives of a society, is made only under the decision of special majority of general meeting [107, c. 190].

As legal regulation of item 80 of the Law the order of a civilised method of buying up of a controlling interest of a society by acquisition by any person of 30 and more percent of common stocks of joint-stock company is provided.

According to specified article the person, intended is independent or together with affiliated persons to get 30 or more percent of the placed common stocks of joint-stock company, is obliged not less than for a month in writing to inform a society on such intention. Not later than in a month after realisation of buying up of 30 % of actions the person who has carried out their purchase, is obliged to offer other shareholders to sell to it actions belonging to them under the price which should not be below the price in realisation of the previous purchase of actions.

At non-observance any of these requirements the owner of the consolidated package, without dependence from size of this package, will be presented at meeting no more than 30 % of voices.

However, in our opinion, now an essential lack of norm about affiliated persons is that circumstance, that in the legislation of the Russian Federation including in its antimonopoly law, there is accurate legislative definition affilirovannogo no person. Do not explain this norm and concept of a due measure and the publication of domestic lawyers [107, cс. 187, 194, 199-200].

Upon termination of so detailed consideration of the basic characteristics of a legal status of joint-stock company (according to the federal legislation) and after consideration of the new moments brought by the Civil code and the federal act, in our opinion, it is expedient and important to detain attention to actually estimation of a modern condition aktsionirovanija in the basic branches of economy of Russia, and then and legal regulation of activity of joint-stock company, on results reached during privatisation. For this purpose first of all we will consider concept of privatisation.

Interesting and substantial initial definition of privatisation is resulted by the German scientists.

"Privatisation in a broad sense this word is understood as transfer by the state of the property rights to the citizens, moving of sphere of social services to a private sector, and also restriction of activity of the state to give bolshy open space to the private initiative. Privatisation programs were developed in many states of the Organization of economic cooperation and development (OECD), especially in the state-participants of the European community, in Africa, Asia and Latin America, and recently also in Central and the Eastern Europe. In all these countries privatisation processes proceed under essential influence political and business factors as results of corresponding financial and social conditions in which these countries are. Privatisation political end is change and improvement of relations between the state and economy, no less than strengthening of positions of the governments and the markets, improvement of a competition within the limits of national economy and efficiency of the enterprises, strengthening of the national markets of the capital and wide distribution of the property among businessmen "[88, c. 120].

For our domestic practice, its deeper judgement foreign legal experience of the various countries which is attentively estimated in working reviews of the World Bank (carrying, the truth, informal character) is important.

In particular, working reviews №89, were issued in 1994 for the purpose of stimulation of discussion and representation of remarks, and also representations of results of the workings out which are carried out by the World Bank, to community of developing countries; at citing and use of materials of the present reviews it was recommended to take into consideration their preliminary character. The generalised data stated in the review, treatments and conclusions completely belonged to authors of the review and should not be considered in any form as representing the point of view of the World Bank, the organisations entering into its system, members of Council of chief executives or the countries represented by them. Any cards included in the text, have been prepared only for convenience of readers, a designation and a way of representation of materials containing in them did not mean expression of any opinion from the World Bank, the organisations entering into its system, its Council of the countries-participants concerning a legal status of any country, territory, a city or area, or their authorities, or concerning delimitation of their borders or a national identity [52].

Regarding the second considered reviews privatisation and its ways in Canada, Chile, Italy, Malaysia, Spain, Sri Lanka and That) [53] are in detail analysed.

Thus, with reference to the Russian legal practice it is possible to formulate some the basic questions.

How the scale generalised picture of the Russian economy, its privatisation and aktsionirovanija on a condition for 1998 looks as a whole, according to available data?

How affairs with the domestic property, and first of all for our research, with a state ownership, its privatisation and the joint-stock property, and also participation of the state in processes aktsionirovanija and its possession corresponding share holdings are?

That is what by the today's moment those practical results which were already given by legal regulation of the organisation and activity of joint-stock companies?

As a whole state ownership principal views concern:

the state unitary enterprises and the state enterprises;

share holdings of the joint-stock companies created in the course of privatisation;

the federal real estate;

the property of Russia abroad.

In the federal property as of January, 1st, 1996 was 4 200 share holdings, 29 000 state unitary enterprises, 1 200 objects of the real estate abroad [24 [24].

Nowadays a strategic target of the Government of Russia is reduction of dimension of the state share holding in conformity with state possibilities on their efficient control.

To number of the joint-stock companies which actions are fixed in the federal property, the societies getting to one of three groups should concern:

1) working in spheres of natural monopolies both all-Russian, and regional value;

2) occupying a leading position in the corresponding commodity market and demanding re-structurings with a view of creation of the competitive environment;

3) which share holdings are used for creation of the integrated formations at carrying out of structural reorganisation in defensive branch, on transport and in other branches of economy.

In Russia at list formation "strategic joint-stock companies" it is considered, that the share holdings of the joint-stock companies which have entered into the second and third groups fixed in the federal property, in the size less than 25 % do not allow the state to participate in work of controls of such joint-stock companies effectively.

Such participation can grant the special right – "the gold action", – which introduction (according to item 5 of the Law on privatisation) is possible at decision-making on sale of the fixed actions. Considering, that this group includes 1 400 joint-stock companies, sale of their actions will allow to fill up the federal budget essentially.

Today state ownership privatisation still is the important direction institutsionalnyh reforms. By present time in the country it is privatised 126,8 thousand enterprises. negosudarstvennym economy it is made about 70 % of a total national product. This sector already became dominating in economy of Russia.

In 1999-2000 considerable on trade turnover volumes there is a market of the state securities, however a segment occupied with them on the Russian stock market, will gradually decrease. In our opinion, the share of long-term securities can increase. The control over release of debt securities by municipal and regional authorities will be simultaneously ordered.

Profitableness decrease under the state promissory notes as it seems to us, will create preconditions for an exit of the enterprises on the market of capitals for the purpose of attraction of investment resources for modernisation of fixed assets and manufacture development. Thus the basic part of the offer in the market of corporate securities will form about 200 largest joint-stock companies making 3/4 industrial outputs.

By available expert estimations, besides two hundred largest companies, about eight hundred "averages" (under the Russian standards) the companies will have possibility to enter the market of capitals. Thus, the total of the Russian joint-stock companies which will form demand for the capital through securities market mechanisms, by 2000 can reach 1 000.

At the same time perfection of legislative base and judiciary strengthening will create a necessary basis for crime control in economy sphere, and also corruption.

For increase of efficiency of spent works on legal reforming of the Russian society, especially in sphere of social and economic relations, purposeful and regular activity in the field of legal education of the population should be spent.

For this reason it would be desirable to pay attention that in our dissertational research the facts of activity of separate joint-stock companies are defining not, and an overall picture of their activity. Thereupon there are some questions.

How affairs in the basic branches of economy are today? How processes aktsionirovanija have affected it? About what dynamics and tendencies there can be a speech?

Electric power industry. To the beginning of 1998 of the Russian Open Society "United Power Systems" of Russia consolidated in parallel work 68 of 73 power supply systems. The East electric power pool works separately from UES of Russia. From networks of UES of Russia export of the electric power to Finland, Norway, Mongolia and China is carried out. Manufacture of the electric power and Russia in 1997 has constituted 834 billion in kw. ch against 1082,5 billion in kw. ch in 1990, i.e. Has decreased for 23 %.

For last years the Russian electric power industry has undergone radical transformations at the expense of transition from integrated, on-line operated state system, to completely aktsionirovannoj and partially privatised structure of the power companies working at federal and regional levels.

It is necessary to notice, that by present time are created:

At federal level – the Russian Open Society "United Power Systems", which actives consist of the property forming obshchesistemnye high-voltage electric mains and system of dispatching management (TSDU UES of Russia), large power stations of federal value, actions of affiliated regional joint-stock companies of power and electrification. The state controlling interest in the Russian Open Society "United Power Systems" constitutes 52,7 %;

At regional level – 73 joint-stock companies of power and electrification.

Petroleum industry. In an oil complex are practically finished institutsionalnye the transformations connected with transition to market economy. Vertically integrated joint-stock companies "LUKOIL", "YUKOS", "Surgutneftegaz", "Sdanko", "Slavneft", "East oil company" (Open Society "ВНК"), the Orenburg oil joint-stock company ("ONAKO"), Open Society "Sibirsko-Ural neftegazohimicheskaja the company" ("SIBUR"), "the Tyumen oil company" (multinational corporation), "the Siberian oil company", Open Society "NORSI-OJL", Open Society "Востсибнефтегаз", "Oil company" Komi-thermal power station "and two joint-stock companies on transportation of oil and mineral oil" Transneft "and" Transmineral oil "are created.

There is a perfection of structures of management in the companies and joint-stock companies. The oil companies spend work on management centralisation by the organisations which have entered into them. Transition to uniform actions and transformation of affiliated joint-stock companies to branches is carried out. The uniform financial system is thus created, allowing to concentrate investment resources on the decision of the major projects.

The oil companies, joint-stock companies co-ordinate work of the organisations in the field of investigation, arrangement and operation of deposits, transport, processing and sale of oil and mineral oil. The oil recovery in 1997 has constituted 305,8 million tons or 101,5 % to level of 1996

The gas industry the steadiest in the Russian economy. Now gas has strongly taken an in the lead place in manufacture of fuel and energy resources, and its share in thermal power station constitutes about 50 %. The Gas production is carried out by Russian joint-stock company "Gazprom", joint-stock company "Норильскгазпром", joint-stock company "Якутгазпром" and the oil-extracting enterprises.

Russian joint-stock company "Gazprom" provides manufacture of 94 % of gas. It consolidates in complete technological and organizational structure of 42 branches located in various regions of Russia and constituting Uniform system of gas supply. These enterprises provide a full production cycle from drilling of chinks before delivery of gas to consumers.

Prospecting branch. In it 163 enterprises, or 47 % from the general number of the organisations and the enterprises, privatizeable are privatised. Concerning 79 enterprises from May, 16th, 1994 № 942 privatisation is forbidden by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation.

Nowadays in geological studying of bowels are engaged 230 state federal enterprises and the organisations, 26 state geological enterprises of subjects of Federation, about 240 joint-stock companies with the mixed and private patterns of ownership.

In ferrous metallurgy transformation of the state industrial enterprises to joint-stock companies now is practically already complete. In a state ownership there are basically organisations of non-productive character of activity.

On all other enterprises realisation at auctions and competitions of all share holding is provided. Now on the majority of the enterprises are realised at check and monetary auctions from 29 to 40 % of actions. There were at the disposal of the Russian Fund of federal property and its territorial bodies only the share holdings provided to sale at commercial competitions with investment conditions or monetary auctions.

It is necessary to notice, that the big attention to the enterprises of a metallurgical complex is shown by bank structures. AKB "the Russian credit" owns Open Society actions "Stojlensky GOK", Open Society "Mihajlovsky GOK", Open Society "Lebedinsky of GOK", Open Society "Oryol steel foundry", Firm "Гленкор", having got a large share holding through the affiliated persons, has established, the control on Open Society "Mechel".

Nonferrous metallurgy. Into branch enters 145 enterprises extracting and directly making metal products, and also 800 enterprises making gold, diamond and jeweller production.

Complexities of the current period for the nonferrous metallurgy enterprises are expressed in a proceeding rise in prices for all elements of the cores and circulating capitals, raw materials, fuel and the equipment at a remaining unsatisfactory condition of technical and economic level of a fixed capital (especially out-of-date factories of Urals Mountains).

The special attention the next years in branch will be given to creation of financial and industrial groups for the decision of large-scale problems of re-structuring.

In nonferrous metallurgy transformation of the state industrial enterprises to joint-stock companies is practically finished. In a state ownership there are basically organisations of non-productive character of activity.

Chemical complex. The branch enterprises make ten thousand kinds of production of different function. In a complex functions 580 large and average industrial enterprises and about 100 scientific and design organisations, skilled and experimental factories with an aggregate number working – 929 thousand persons.

By present time the majority of the large and average enterprises of branch is transformed to joint-stock companies (on the beginning of 1998 92 % of the enterprises are privatised). In a state ownership now are 97 state unitary enterprises. In 1996 process of transformation of the state enterprises and the organisations in joint-stock companies will be practically finished, except for the enterprises not privatizeable.

In the chemical and petrochemical industry process of formation of financial and industrial groups proceeds. Now are created and function FPG "eksohim", "Aramidy and technologies" "neftehimprom" (are registered in 1997). A number of the enterprises of the chemical industry have entered into such financial and industrial groups, as "the Nizhniy Novgorod cars" (Open Society "Kirov shinnyj factory", Open Society "Балаковрезинотехника"), FPG "Dwelling" (Open Society "Vladimir chemical factory"), FPG "the Slavic paper" (Open Society "Balakovsky fibres"), FPG "the East-Siberian group" (Open Society "Саянскхимпром", Open Society "Усольехимпром") and others.

Mechanical engineering. The machine-building complex delivering the cars and the equipment for needs of the industry, transport, building, agriculture, the consumer market and a defensive complex, consists from 8 integrated podotraslej, the consolidating 1 569 enterprises and the organisations on which it is occupied by 1 978 thousand persons.

Privatisation process in this complex is practically finished (about 90 % of the enterprises and the organisations are transformed to joint-stock companies, from them more than 60 % are completely redeemed, i.e. Are private), available data and the information of some joint-stock companies testify that actions of the majority of joint-stock companies are meted among a considerable quantity of small proprietors. The created situation does not promote occurrence of the real rights of the proprietor that does these societies unattractive for domestic and foreign investors.

At the same time in separate joint-stock companies consolidation of share holdings with the limited quantity of proprietors takes place. So, for example, on some large joint-stock companies of the action are meted:

joint-stock company "Vladimir tractor factory" – 34 % physical persons, 66 % legal bodies, including 33,7 % – the company "Internejshnl Trektor Limited", 16,4 % – Russian-American joint venture "Peнoвa".

joint-stock company "Ulyanovsk car factory" – actions are meted basically between physical persons, the largest package of 20 % – "Rusinvest", 11 % – a state ownership.

joint-stock company "Uralmash" – 36,4 % physical persons, 63,4 % of joint-stock company "Ural machine-building factories".

In a timber industry complex functions more than 2,5 thousand large and average enterprises. For last years 85 % lesozagotovitelnyh, 96 % derevoobrabatyvajushchih, 99,8 % of the enterprises of the pulp and paper industry, practically all enterprises furniture, plywood and plitnoj the industries are privatised. The basic share of production (56 %) is necessary on the enterprises of the mixed pattern of ownership, approximately 34 % – on private and about 10 % – on the state enterprises.

Into structure of the industry of building materials and products enter more than 20 podotraslej which consolidate about 2,5 thousand large and average enterprises and the organisations with an aggregate number of workers of 638 thousand persons.

By 2000 the basic patterns of ownership of the enterprises of the industry of building materials and products remain mixed and private. The share of the enterprises with a private property in the general number of the enterprises will constitute more than 80 %.

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A source: Dolinsky Vladimir Vladimirovna. LEGAL REGULATION of the ORGANIZATION And ACTIVITY of JOINT-STOCK COMPANIES In the RUSSIAN FEDERATION. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the master of laws. 0000

More on topic the Special attention in the modern legal and economic theory and experts is involved with Federal act chapter 7 "On joint-stock companies" which characterises general meeting of shareholders as the supreme body of management of joint-stock company.:

  2. I, the Place of general meeting of shareholders in structure of controls of joint-stock company
  3. the CHAPTER II. Corporation to the USA and Joint-stock company in Russia as subjects of joint-stock legal relation
  4. 4.2 Approbation of a technique statistical management of difficult processes on Joint-Stock Company "Алирм"
  5. 2. The LEGAL STATUS of modern JOINT-STOCK COMPANIES in rossii
  6. 1. Transformation of the state and municipal enterprises to joint-stock companies and entering of the state or municipal property as the contribution to charter capitals of joint-stock companies as the basic ways of privatisation in Russia. Management of the actions which are in the state and municipal property, as one of the main mechanisms of management of the state and municipal property
  7. Chapter 1. Essence of joint-stock company in the light of the theory of "the personified property.
  8. 3.3. Perfection of management of shares of a state ownership in the joint-stock companies.
  9. 2. The basic directions of direct public influence concerning management of joint-stock companies
  10. 3. Features of management and the control in the joint-stock companies created in the course of privatisation of the state and municipal property, at the transfer of stock, the being in state and municipal property, in confidential management and pledge
  11. 1.3. Concept and a position general characteristic minoritarnyh shareholders in joint-stock company.
  12. 1. Features of indirect public influence in the organisation of management of joint-stock companies of Russia