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1.2. CONCEPT, THE ROLE AND THE PLACE OF CUSTOMS BODIES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION OF SYSTEM OF ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITIES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Liberalisation of foreign trade activities of Russia has opened exit possibility on the foreign trade contracts for many legal and physical persons - new participants of foreign trade activities. In due time the Decree of the President from November, 15th, 1991 « About liberalisation of the foreign trade activity to territories of the Russian Federation »1 has accorded a right to all organisations with equal reason to participate in foreign economic relations, that also has fixed the Federal act« About state regulation of the foreign trade activity »from 13.10.95г. №157 - FZ. The exit on foreign markets of numerous managing subjects began to require a legal regulation. In this connection customs business has undergone considerable changes in Russia: were generated new ponja - tija: customs system and institutes (entering into it), customs territories of the CIS countries and the customs union with Russia, free economic and customs areas; okolotamozhennaja activity etc. Its development all contacts essential problems of mankind, and first of all safety, ecology, information, morals more closely.

After disintegration of the USSR Russia, as well as other CIS countries, has inherited separate technologies and elements before a uniform production cycle which in the majority cannot exist independently and to develop without the adjacent interfaced manufactures, appeared placed in the different countries. To keep former technological communications, [31 [32] [33] it is unconditional, it is necessary, differently there is a requirement of creation of duplicating manufactures, that at a present condition of economy of any of the CIS countries it is too expensive, besides it simply contradicts common sense. In protection prioritetnosti preservation and the further development of economic relations within the post-Soviet territory such arguments, as absence of a language barrier, identity of educational level of people, and also the mentality which has been turned out on centuries act.

Mutual neighbour's position of the CIS countries also comprises considerable potential benefits. At Russia four neighbours with whom there are overland and sea borders (Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan and Ukraine). Neighbours with whom there is a general overland border (Belarus) and the direct sea message (Turkmenia). These are the countries - direct neighbours of Russia of the first order on whom the basic part of economic potential of the CIS countries outside of the Russian space is necessary.

Other four CIS countries (Armenia, Kirghizia, Moldova and Uzbekistan) are neighbours of the second order and one country (Tajikistan) - the third order.

The neighbourhood of Russia with other CIS countries has the special importance as in modern international trade it is necessary to direct the basic part tovaropotoka through transit territories or to use distant sea (ocean) transportations, that, certainly, negatively affects end production cost. On space of the CIS because of the transportno - a geographical position Russia carries out a role of a binding kernel for other countries. The positive factor is fitness of its territory to use of various types of transport. For years of existence of the union of idea of rapprochement have found reflexion in set of the documents accepted both on multilateral, and on bilateral основе.1 Realization of norms of the specified documents is carried out by the customs bodies which strategic importance is obvious in development of integration processes within the limits of the union.

In these conditions customs bodies are a key to the decision of problems in area: budgetary receipts; trade; the industries; society protection; environment protection.

Activity of these bodies is universal and specific, it has no analogues. Its diversity is shown in a variety of the social functions which are carried out by them. The cores from them are fixed in item 10 of the Customs code of the Russian Federation (further TK). Basic changes in economy, foreign trade activities demonopolization, allocation of customs bodies in independent state structure and many other things factors have led to that more than 20 ministries and departments

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Russia have transferred to these bodies a part of the powers and functions: economic, statistical, nature protection and dr [34 [35] [36].

I.V.Timoshenko has defined customs bodies of Russia as the state bodies regulating legal relations, arising, changing and stopping in sphere of customs business. It is necessary to have in view of,

That at the characteristic of these bodies it is necessary to allocate their following specific lines and features.

Customs bodies of the Russian Federation are enforcement authorities, links of system of the government. It is not out of place to underline, that these bodies are bodies executive, instead of any other of power branches. They are carried to number of enforcement authorities according to approved by the Decree of the President from May, 17th, 2000 1 structure of federal enforcement authorities. Proceeding from understanding of the executive authority as the activity consisting in the practical organisation and realisation of norms and positions of the Constitution, federal acts both other legal acts, and enforcement authority definition (it is the state organisation being a part of system of public authorities in the Russian Federation and founded by the state for execution and maintenance of execution of laws and other standard legal acts, realisation of functions of the government in all spheres of a life of the state and a society by means of use of special forms and methods of realisation of the administrative actions, possessing corresponding structure, the competence, state-imperious powers and staff of civil servants [37] [38]), it is possible to tell, that customs bodies as enforcement authorities carry out executive and administrative activity in sphere of customs business [39].

Executive activity of customs bodies consists in the daily practical organisation and realisation of customs business which in Russia constitute the customs policy of the Russian Federation, and also an order

And moving conditions through customs border of the Russian Federation of the goods and vehicles, collection of customs payments, customs registration, granting of customs privileges, customs and exchange control, a legal regulation of responsibility for offences in sphere of customs regulation and other means of carrying out of a customs policy during a life (item I TK) [40]. We will notice, that in the listed fields of activity customs bodies represent itself as administratively-executive powers.

These bodies carry out not only administrative, but also accurately-organizational activity. Both these of an activity kind are closely interconnected and in aggregate constitute a single whole. Thus administrative activity has the features, major of which is its standard character. It is shown in acceptance by customs bodies of corresponding legal acts. Executive (organizational-executive) activity can be carried out as in legal, and not legal forms.

Not legal forms of activity of customs bodies find the expression in organizational actions, in particular, in the analysis and an estimation operative and kriminogennoj conditions customs bodies, the analysis and generalisation of materials of office investigations spent in customs bodies, entering to a management of the State Customs Committee of Russia of offers on activity perfection on struggle against corruption and malfeasances in customs sphere, recommendations concerning legal activity of customs bodies, etc. Organizational actions are carried out in the course of current customs activity and not connected with occurrence and the termination is customs-legal relations.

Material actions of customs bodies have auxiliary value. C their help financially provides actual realisation of all forms of customs activity.

Legal forms of activity of customs bodies are subdivided on pravotvorcheskuju which consists in development of rules and the norms regulating the relations concerning moving of the goods and vehicles through customs border and pravoprimenitelnuju activity which consists in actions on application corresponding tamozhennopravovoj norms to the concrete fact having the jural significance, for the purpose of acceptance of the individual decision or the certificate.

Reguljativnaja the form is used in customs activity for the permission of concrete affairs of administrative character, for realisation of the rights and legitimate interests of participants of customs legal relations, including in questions of licensing of participants okolotamozhennoj spheres (the Appendix 2 See).

The important discriminating line and feature of modern customs bodies is also that they are carried by the current legislation to number of law enforcement bodies. Their such characteristic demands additional explanatories. In a broad sense it is possible to consider any state enforcement authority law-enforcement [41].

However exists and narrower understanding of the term "law enforcement bodies" is standard. As them usually rank judicial and public prosecutor's bodies, legal profession, a notariate, law-enforcement bodies.

V.M.Semenov has formulated following definition of law enforcement bodies: «Law-enforcement are such state bodies and public organisations which on the basis of the law and in corresponding forms on democratic principles urged to provide with all activity legality and the law and order, protection of the rights and interests of citizens, labour collectives, societies and the states, to warn, bar offences and to apply the state compulsion or influence to the persons who have broken legality and the law and order» [42]. Leaning against it as a whole true definition of law enforcement bodies, and also on the customs legislation, we will analyse a question on customs bodies as law-enforcement.

Law-enforcement character of activity of these bodies is in many respects caused by the structure of customs business, and also that in sphere of customs business customs bodies carry out all primary goals and powers taking into account interests of the country, strengthening of its economic sovereignty and economic safety.

As also the general, both specific targets and functions of customs bodies are defined in the customs legislation which core is TK, pertinently in this case to refer to its preamble: «the Code is directed on protection of the economic sovereignty and economic safety of the Russian Federation, activization of communications of the Russian economy with the world economy, maintenance of protection of the rights of the citizens, managing subjects both the state bodies and observance of duties by them in the field of customs business». The state bodies are understood in this case as a wide range of the state bodies (and not just customs), performing according to the legislation of a duty in the field of customs business. As consequence, probably, to draw a conclusion, that customs business and customs bodies initially owing to the specific nature and structure of customs business are law-enforcement on the character and in most cases act in such quality.

Law-enforcement character of activity of customs bodies has also more concrete specific displays which are clearly visible at the analysis of structure of customs business, and also of some separate powers of these bodies. Complex character of customs business predetermines presence in it of non-uniform elements, including such law-enforcement as: protection of state security of the country, a public order, a life and health of people, morals, moral foundations and society cultural values; in maintenance of interests of the Russian consumers of the imported goods; in application of a preventive punishment of illegal circulation of the weapon etc.; and corresponding activity of considered bodies. The basic volume of work in connection with manufacture on affairs about administrative violations in the field of customs business (infringements of customs rules - further - NTP) and their consideration is assigned also to customs bodies and their officials that is fixed by the Code about administrative правонарушениях1. Struggle against contraband and NTP - the traditional problem defined and in the code 1993 [43 [44], and in Positions about the State customs committee [45], the Regional Customs (further - the MOUTH), customs and a customs post [46].

Possibility of the appeal and consideration of decisions, acts or omissions of customs bodies and their officials testifies to law-enforcement character of customs bodies (item 17 and section 13 also

TK, item 404-419 TK). In particular, code item 407 is provided giving of the initial complaint to decisions, acts or omissions of customs bodies, and also their officials.

It is necessary to notice also, that according to the Governmental order of the Russian Federation from June, 22nd, 2002 №660 «About the list of the federal enforcement authorities participating in limits of the competence of the prevention, revealing and suppression of terrorist activity [47]» law-enforcement character of customs bodies more and more time proves to be true.

B.N.Gabrichidze makes following definition of these bodies: the customs body is the enforcement authority which is on the character law-enforcement; operating on behalf of the state and allocated with imperious powers; carrying out of the problem and function in sphere of customs business and in other areas of management connected with it by means of forms inherent in it and activity methods. That customs bodies carry out functions of is administrative-remedial character (manufacture and disposal of legal proceeding about NTP), does not change their nature and character as executive, executive organs, but simultaneously pulls together them with other law enforcement bodies, in particular with law-enforcement bodies.

Offering this definition, B.N.Gabrichidze does not apply for its completeness and indisputability, however believes, and the author with it agrees, that it

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It is possible to accept as a variant, especially with the account nerazrabotannosti a question.

Other variants of definition of customs body are possible also. For example, K.K.Sandrovsky writes: «... Customs bodies can be defined as the state bodies which are carrying out ispolnitelnorasporjaditelnuju activity in special sphere of the government, connected with the admission through frontier razlich - nogo sorts of cargoes, including luggage and currency values, and also the vehicles serving for transportation of passengers and cargoes» 1. Not pressing in detailed analysis of the given definition, we will notice, that in it specificity of customs bodies accurately is not designated; transfer of these bodies some of functions, in particular the admission of cargoes, luggage etc., is obviously not enough for the characteristic of activity of the specified bodies.

Project TK contains following definition of body: «customs body - the federal enforcement authority authorised in the field of customs business, and the customs bodies of the Russian Federation subordinated to it, except for cases when in TK customs bodies of the foreign states» are mentioned. In the given definition we observe two lacks: 1) the customs body is body and the customs bodies subordinated to it - a frank defect in respect of repetition: the body is body; 2) there is no mention of the status "law-enforcement". It will be pertinent to state A.N.Kozyrina's opinion. It consists that activity of law enforcement bodies is characterised by a number of discriminating lines:

1. Law enforcement bodies carry out the activity in strict conformity with the law which in some cases provides for this purpose certain remedial form.

2. Law-enforcement activity can be carried out only by the persons who are in the service in law enforcement bodies.

3. Results of law-enforcement activity are reached by realisation of following functions: the constitutional control, delivering justice, procurator's supervision, investigation of crimes, operativnorozysknoj activity, execution of judgements, rendering of a legal aid and protection on criminal cases, preventions of crimes and other offences. The listed functions are carried out by law enforcement bodies according to basic principles of separation of powers. Thus the functions with the same name are carried out by various law enforcement bodies at differentiation of their jurisdiction, the competence or jurisdiction.

4. Decisions of law enforcement bodies represent the measures of legal influence accepted on the basis of the law and taking into account concrete circumstances, in communication with which intervention of law enforcement bodies has been carried out.

5. Law enforcement bodies operate and in the presence of a concrete occasion - the fact of an offence or necessity of the prevention of its fulfilment.

6. Lawful decisions and the proved requirements of law enforcement bodies come under to obligatory performance by all citizens and officials.

7. The decisions of law enforcement bodies mentioning the rights and interests of citizens, and also interests of the state, the various organisations (state, private, public), can be appealed in established порядке1.

At the same time the Federal act «About a monetary contentment of employees of some federal enforcement authorities, other payments to these employees and conditions of transfer of separate categories of employees of federal bodies of tax police and customs bodies of Dews -

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sijskoj Federations on other conditions of service (work) », become effective on July, 2nd, 2002, actually defines administrative reform, sushchno - ' the Article by article comment to Customs code RF/Under edition of the doctor of juridical science, professor A.N.Kozyrina. - M.:"Status", 2001. With. 22-23.

The federal act from 30.06. 2002. №78-ФЗ//the Russian newspaper. №118. With.

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stju which transfer of a part of employees of customs bodies into conditions of federal public service and employees of budgetary sphere is. The legal status only 30 % of employees on the specified law remained former (the conditions equal to military service and service in law enforcement bodies). It those employees who are authorised to constitute reports on administrative violations in sphere of customs business to take measures of maintenance of manufacture on affairs about administrative violations in the field of customs business (infringement of customs rules) and to spend administrative investigation, and also heads of structural divisions (not below chiefs of departments).

If to consider A.N.Kozyrina's opinion (see above item 3 - its description about results of activity of law enforcement bodies), and heterogeneity of competences of customs bodies (this both customs registration, and the customs control, and maintenance of payment of customs payments, and at the same time: detection of the fact of a customs offence, manufacture on business about NTP, a legal investigation and application of administrative punishment etc.) it is necessary to disagree with it since. In a case with the characteristic of customs bodies of item 3 item 2 will contradict inherently.

First, results of law-enforcement activity of the remained 70 % of customs civil servants and customs employees of budgetary sphere not always are reached by realisation of functions of the discriminating lines of law enforcement bodies listed in item 3.

Secondly, according to item 13 TK, customs bodies with a view of the decision of problems of customs business co-operate, and receive the real help, not only with other law enforcement bodies, but also with other state bodies, the enterprises, establishments, the organisations, and even citizens. But at the same time if from item 2 maintenance to withdraw a categorical word "ONLY" the description of discriminating lines of law enforcement bodies given to A.N.Kozyrinym will be quite comprehensible and to modern customs bodies.

The characteristic lines set forth above and features of modern customs bodies, allow the author to agree with the important role and a place of these bodies in system of enforcement authorities (such as the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Ministry of Taxes and Tax Collection, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Justice, the State committee on statistics, Federal security service and others).

Financing of customs bodies from the state budget allows to carry them to federal bodies.

Among federal there are bodies of the general (Government) and the special competence. The last share on two группы:1 Central (in our case is the State Customs Committee) and territorial. The State Customs Committee of Russia possesses powers in all territory of the Russian Federation, and its under control bodies (Regional Customs (the MOUTH), customs and customs posts (TP)) - only on a part of its territory, i.e. in regions of their activity (to the MOUTH is, as a rule, on activity territory - federal district, customs - the subject of the Russian Federation, and TP - or area of the subject of the Russian Federation, or a zone of the customs control, for example, a site of customs border).

It is obvious, that if it is a question of the executive authority, about the state activity on its practical realisation, the conclusion that the Government of the Russian Federation supervises over work of the federal ministries and other federal enforcement authorities [48 [49] (to which is inevitable the State Customs Committee) concerns and supervises their activity. It proves to be true the Federal constitutional law from December, 17th, 1997 (has entered validity later TK) №2-ФКЗ «About the Government of the Russian Federation» [50] article 12. Enforcement authorities submit to the Government of the Russian Federation and are responsible before it for performance of the charged problems. The president of the Russian Federation supervises over activity of the federal enforcement authorities knowing questions of defence, safety, internal affairs, foreign affairs, prevention of extreme situations and liquidation of consequences of acts of nature (item 32 of the Federal constitutional law «About the Government of the Russian Federation»). The State Customs Committee of Russia to number of such federal enforcement authorities probably to charge to maintenance of economic safety. But according to article 14 of the same Law the Government of the Russian Federation, realising the powers in economy sphere, «carries out the general management of customs business». And according to item 2 of item 7 TK the central federal enforcement authority which is carrying out a direct management by customs business, the State customs committee of the Russian Federation (the State Customs Committee of Russia) is.

At the same time it is necessary to consider, that in item 1 of article 7 TK the legislator named the President of the Russian Federation as the body which is carrying out also the general management by customs business. And according to item Z item 80 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation (a having higher validity), accepted later, than the Customs code from June, 18th, 1993, the President of the Russian Federation «carries out the basic directions internal and state foreign policy». TK defines, that the customs policy is a component external and internal policy of the Russian Federation. The executive power of the Russian Federation is carried out by the Government of the Russian Federation (item 1 of item 110 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation).

On the basis of stated, according to the author, with a view of liquidation of contradiction TK, the Federal act and the Constitution, it is necessary to disagree with article edition «the Management of customs business» in project TK: «the General management of customs business carries out the Government of the Russian Federation» (it is necessary to include words: and the President of the Russian Federation).

In connection with acceptance of the Order of the State Customs Committee of Russia from 10.10.2002 for №1082 ', according to the author, one more problem was designated. Its essence consists that the law enforcement body status is fixed in the Appendix 1 to the order (these general provisions on the Regional Customs) and in the Appendix 2 to the order (these general provisions on customs), and here in the Appendix 3 to the order (about a customs post) such norm is absent (the author's Appendix 3 see). Considering the maintenance of item 8 TK that customs business is carried out by the customs bodies being law enforcement bodies and constituting uniform system: the State Customs Committee; the Regional Customs; customs and customs posts, the conclusion about the contradiction of two normative acts arises: the code and the order of the State Customs Committee of Russia registered in Ministry of Justice.

It is necessary to notice, that the status of customs body interests the author of work not only from the point of view of that presence, but also from a position of legitimacy of existence of a customs post as customs (an independent link) customs system of body in general (but about it later).

Investigating fastening of a legal status of customs bodies interesting us in laws most often applied in the field of customs business, the following situation is traced:

In the Constitution of the Russian Federation there is an accent on the uniform importance for Russia at questions of foreign policy, the international legal relations and questions of customs regulation. It is established: unity of the customs territory (unity of economic space); moving freedom as in the country (customs bodies to this question have the weak relation), and for its limits, but with observance of all norms of the current legislation.

The current legislation concerning customs regulirova - [51] nija for today first of all is provided by six codes: 1. Budgetary, 2. The code about administrative violations (KoAP), 3. Tax, 4. Criminal, 5. At a goal ovno-remedial (UPK) and 6. Customs. The budgetary code represents the right to customs bodies to participate in budget formation, that they successfully and carry out as a whole on 30-40 % throughout last years.

The code about administrative violations defines necessity of struggle against administrative violations, manufacture on which is carried KoAP Russia to the competence of customs bodies. Inquiry and carrying out of urgent investigatory actions by customs bodies are fixed in UPK Russia.

The criminal code defines, that customs bodies organise, co-ordinate and supervise realisation of the measures directed on suppression of illegal circulation through customs border of the Russian Federation of narcotics, psychotropic substances, the weapon, subjects of art, historical and archaeological property of the people of the Russian Federation and foreign countries (cultural values), objects of intellectual property, kinds of animals and the plants which are under the threat of disappearance, their parts and derivatives, other goods.

The tax code in item 9 accurately assigns to customs bodies the status of participants of the relations regulated by the legislation on taxes and tax collections, with the rights following from here and duties.

Well, and the Customs code details also a legal status of customs bodies in system of all enforcement authorities, and their rights, a duty, a problem, responsibility.

On the basis of the above-stated (the resulted definitions of various authors), the comparative analysis of legal acts and the maintenance of concept of customs business from the operating customs code and its project, the author the following concept of customs body is offered: is the state body which is a part of system of bodies of the federal executive authority in the Russian Federation, founded according to the legislation of the Russian Federation for execution and maintenance of execution of laws and other normative acts concerning customs regulation and in other areas of management connected with them - by means of use of special forms and methods of realisation of administrative actions; being on the character law-enforcement, possessing corresponding structure, the competence, state-imperious powers and staff.

It is necessary to notice, that under the authority of the Russian Federation are:... An establishment of system of federal enforcement authorities, an order of their functions and activity; formation of federal enforcement authorities [52]... Customs regulation...; foreign policy and the international relations of the Russian Federation, international treaties of the Russian Federation...; definition of the status and frontier protection..., the exclusive economic area (from item 71 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation).

From resulted article of the Constitution of the Russian Federation follows, that for the first time under the work text there is a constitutional mention of customs regulation (before speech was about customs business) federal enforcement authorities (customs bodies).

To have to establish the fact, that in many textbooks at definition of legal, economic and organizational bases customs дела1, the description of its structure, administratively-legal status customs bodies etc. dates of acceptance of operating basic normative acts for some reason are often forgotten.

As the first, as a rule, is called TK - it is accepted on July, 18th 1993 g. The Law of the Russian Federation «About custom duties» goes the Second always in spite of the fact that it is accepted earlier TK — on May, 21st, 1993 But the most interesting that the Constitution of the Russian Federation having leadership in all territory of the Russian Federation, is accepted on December, 12th, 1993

Despite the shown chronology of acceptance of normative acts, till now neither in TK, nor in the law «About custom duties», in other normative acts, and even in project TK of change of the term «customs business» on «customs regulation» has not occurred. And, as consequence, «customs regulation» we practically anywhere also will not meet definition discussion. If to take for a basis the mentioned phrase about customs regulation in V.V. article. Kuleshov «Constitutional wasps - are new fiscal activity of customs bodies of the Russian Federation» probably to inform, that this definition practically completely coincides with concept of customs business from item I TK.

To try to formulate not contradicting the basic source of all branches of the legislation definition of "customs regulation» we will recollect articles of the Constitution containing the information on a question interesting us. Item 71 items concern them: «Under the authority of the Russian Federation there is a customs regulation»; the item in"item 106:« to obligatory consideration in the Federation Council come under accepted Gosudarstven - ache the Duma federal acts concerning customs regulation ».

Considering formulated in TK (it was mentioned earlier) definition of customs business and its structure, and also the maintenance of article 74 of the Constitution, the author offers following concept of "customs regulation» — [53 [54] set of the measures which are carried out by customs bodies of the Russian Federation with a view of maintenance of observance of the Russian Federation established by the legislation of an order and rules for free moving of the goods, services, financial and vehicles through customs border of the Russian Federation.

Thus, considering the important role of customs bodies in system of enforcement authorities, in our opinion, there was a necessity of modification under all text of operating normative acts in sphere of customs regulation (it and TK, and the Law «About custom duties», and KoAP and many other things normative acts, and also Project TK) regarding replacement of words «customs business» on «customs regulation».

To such conclusion as acknowledgement probably to apply J.M.Kozlova's approving words that the executive authority inherently pravoprimenenie a special sort - positive character, i.e. direct execution of requirements of the legislation first of all with a view of normal and effective work of all being under influence, in our case, customs bodies - objects of economy, the finance, sciences, safety Etc. [55]

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A source: AGISHEVA ELENA NIKOLAEVNA. LEGAL And ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS of ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITY of CUSTOMS BODIES of the RUSSIAN FEDERATION. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the master of laws. Moscow -. 2003

More on topic 1.2. CONCEPT, THE ROLE AND THE PLACE OF CUSTOMS BODIES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION OF SYSTEM OF ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITIES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION:

  1. 1.1. System of customs bodies of the Russian Federation.
  2. § 3. The state contract on delivery of the goods for law-enforcement bodies of the Russian Federation and its place in liability law system
  3. 5.4. Represents to the President of the Russian Federation of the offer on structure of federal enforcement authorities, about appointment on dole/snost and osvobolsdenii from a post of vice-presidents of the Government of the Russian Federation and federal ministers, about imposing on them of summary punishments and about their encouragement
  4. the Second chapter – «the System of enforcement authorities of the subject of the Russian Federation» - consists of four paragraphs.
  5. § 2. Customs bodies in system of the enforcement authorities providing economic safety
  6. In the second paragraph – «Enforcement authorities of the subject of the Russian Federation
  7. legal regulation of passage of customs service by employees and federal civil servants of customs bodies of the Russian Federation.
  8. 1. Representation to the President of the Russian Federation of offers on structure of federal enforcement authorities.
  9. § 3. Konstitutsionno-legal regulation of the right of citizens on the reference in enforcement authorities of the Russian Federation
  10. In the third paragraph – «the Parity of the competence of enforcement authorities of the Russian Federation and its subject» – the author of dissertation considers a question on concept of the competence
  11. 2.2. Classification of staff of customs bodies of the Russian Federation.
  12. § 3. Functions of customs bodies of the Russian Federation
  13. the Chapter III. The CONCEPT of PERCEPTION of SOURCES of INTERNATIONAL LAW LEGAL SYSTEM of the RUSSIAN FEDERATION (ch. 4 items 15 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation of 1993)
  14. § 2. Legal certificates of Central bank of the Russian Federation in system of legal certificates of public authorities of the Russian Federation
  15. § 2. Legal acts of the Central bank of the Russian Federation in system of legal acts of public authorities of the Russian Federation