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Chapter 5. Methodical recommendations at creation of wood cultures by biogroups

To the basic stages, wood cultures providing healthy growth the following concerns:

1. Selection of the areas with fertile soils;

2. Differentiated on regions and lesorastitelnym to conditions of the agricultural technician of cultural operations;

3.

Use of a certain landing material;

4. Maintenance of protection against competing vegetation, pests and illnesses;

5. Realisation of regimes of the optimum density integrated on stages of development. In dry conditions of dwelling places (especially in steppe and forest-steppe zones) higher intensity of growth can be reached carrying out agrotechnical uhodov, which purpose - water regime improvement. (Romanov, Eryomin, Muhortov 2007). Major factors of a life of plants which it is necessary

To consider at a stage of formation of young growth light, nutrients, and a moisture are. At this time, from the biological point of view, in cultures there is a necessity regularly to delete fast-growing tree species leaving fellings (osvetlenijami, procleanings), expanding the area light and soil nutrition of plants while the basic wood breed will not reach the height, naturally renewed foliar to breeds and not will is capable to form a planting upper layer.

The problem of a choice of breeds for creation of artificial wood plantings covers a wide range of questions of forest science, forestry, genetics, the organisation of a forest husbandry, its economy. The choice of the main breed should be based on its conformity lesorastitelnym

To conditions. The major element of this process - change of a pedigree compound of a forest fund (Romanov, Eryomin, Muhortov 2007).

Wood plantings with a high gain and high efficiency should develop of trees mainly the higher classes of growth on Kraft which grow longer and during the vegetation period accumulate the big mass, than trees of the lowest classes faster. For this purpose they should not be in dense standing as photosynthetic possibilities of the assimilatory device thus go down (Timothies, 1961).

In the given work us wood phytocenoses of a pine ordinary interest, the carrying out stable ecological functions, which creation demands the special approach.

The pine ordinary is among kinds with especially high level of plasticity and variability. It allows it to occupy during enough long time in biological systems a leading position, and also to support stability of a course of natural processes. However the phytocenoses focused on stable performance of ecological functions, should be created in optimum conditions of a climate and soil, i.e. in rather narrow range of conditions (Romanov, Eryomin, Muhortov 2007)

According to last workings out in the field of wood cultures (Romanov, 2007, Barsukova, 2008) drevesno-kustarnikovye the breeds forming phytocenose should meet two basic requirements: they should differ high efficiency and possess sufficient for certain conditions level of stability to various adverse factors. Possibility of stable performance of ecological functions here is meant efficiency. The pine ordinary as target breed quite corresponds to the given requirements

As is known, for the forest-steppe zone, an operating limiting factor - the lack of a moisture which contains growth of trees and negatively affects on prizhivaemosti a landing material. In this region at creation ordinary and plantatsionnyh cultures of a pine now it is necessary to be guided by use 1-2-летних sejantsev at which the length of roots several times surpasses stalk height.

The question on use possibility in these conditions at a bookmark lesosyrevyh plantations of a pine of larger landing material while positively is not solved (Romanov, 2007)

The choice of a way of cultural operations is necessary for carrying out according to following theoretical to calculations:

The soil water regime is characterised by water-absorbing ability, or potential of a soil moisture, and humidity permeability of soil. It is important to know, whether there is a threat of drying of the processed soil, and in what events it is real. The rain moisture is quickly absorbed in refuse dumps and microincreases because of their more friable structure and bolshego maintenances of a time, and on mineralizovannyh sites - much more slowly. Fast vpityvanie a rain moisture it is observed on suhodolnyh soils.

The great value for growth sejantsev in cultures has the maintenance of necessary quantity of air in soil. For soil respiratory metabolism crucial importance has that, how much long roots of trees are capable to maintain such conditions of aeration, which below the minimum values. Even some days of deficiency of oxygen stop growth of roots though older roots are capable to survive long enough. Value has also time of influence of a lack of oxygen. If there is a flooding of roots prior to the beginning of active growth, they maintain deficiency of oxygen about several weeks.

Cultural operations normally delete isolating organic layer from a surface of mineral soil or the microincreases which are getting warm better, than an equal surface form. For growth of roots sejantsev and mastering of a moisture by them and nutrients rise in temperature is useful in all types of places of growth. In microincreases the annual sum of effective temperatures on depth of 5 sm was on 30-60 % above, than on raw places. Distinctions of temperatures reach peak in the middle of summer and in dry-weather periods. Also the minimum temperatures in microincreases hardly above, than on raw places. The greatest value caused by cultural operations, rise in temperature has in the north and in general in cool conditions. In process of growth sejantsam nevertheless it is necessary to adapt for gradual chilling effect of soil.

On the basis of specifications, the scheme of technological process we make the settlement-technological map on creation of wood cultures by biogroups (tab. 32) (Interbranch specifications of performance standard on lesokulturnye the works which are carried out in flat conditions, 2006).

Table 32. The settlement-technological map Cultivation of artificial cultures of a pine ordinary in

Biogroups

Calculation

It is led on 1 hectares

The work name, the formula of calculation of expenses The reference to performance standards Use of cars and mechanisms Use of workers The expense of materials
Marks of cars and tools Norm

Developments,

Hectares

Expenses

The engine

Time,

M/sm

The category

Works

Performance standard, amendment unit Expenses

Work,

ch/dn

The name

Material

Units

izmereni

I

kol -

In

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Preparation of platforms by means of bulldozer DZ-42. ТНВ-1989 ДЗ-42 2,2 0,45
Planting c podnoskoj sejantsev under Kolesov's sword of biogroups with quantity of landed plants of 5,4-6 thousand in sh/hectares on depth to 22 sm, the size of biogroups 3*2,5м, distance among 40 see III 5,8 2 summer sejantsy pines ordinary Thousand piece 7-8
Addition of wood cultures without soil renewal III 639 1,7 2 summer sejantsy pines ordinary Thousand piece 0,7

0,8



At the given way of reafforestation (biogroups) soil preparation is expedient for making by means of the bulldozer which is applied to moving of the upper layer of earth (which it is left in valkah). For example, it is possible to apply бульдозерДЗ-42 on the basis of catarpillar ДТ-75ДРС-2 (or analogues). Removal (moving) of the upper layer of earth leads to its mineralization.

The optimum area of one biogroup 3x2,5 metre (the width is defined by width of a refuse dump of bulldozer DZ-42). At such sizes the biogroup will be self-sufficient, trees will be well differentiated on classes of growth of Kraft. And to age of ripeness on 1 hectare density will be optimum (for the account of trees of biogroups and background breeds).

Feature of the given way of creation of wood cultures is the maximum preservation of wood mediuim. Maintenance of protection of biogroups from influence of ruderal vegetation is based on the technician of preparation of soil.

The given way of reafforestation does not mean carrying out agrotechnical and mechanical uhodov as since the moment smykanija crones in biogroups natural mechanisms of regulation join,

Supporting community of biogroups in an equilibrium stable condition for a long time long time.

The structure of formed biogroups provides protection against phytophags.

Besides, the way of reafforestation by biogroups is favourable and from the economic point of view (tab. 33,34,35).

Calculation of expenses at reafforestation rjadkami is resulted in table 33 (Interbranch specifications of performance standard on lesokulturnye the works which are carried out in flat conditions, 2006).

Ordinary cultures

Table 33. Calculation of expenditures of labour and wages on creation of 1 hectares
The name

Operations

Unit

Amendment

Volume

Works

Norm

Developments

potrebnoe

Quantity

ch.-dn./

The m.-see

The tariff

The category

The tariff

The rate

Fund

The wage

Payments

1Удаление an elevated part of stumps Piece 400 360 1,1 V 327 359,7
2Нарезка

Furrows

Hectares. 1 8,15 0,12 IV 311 37,32
3Посадка

Manually

Hectares. 1 3,2 0,31 2-III 286 88,66
4Уход m row-spacings Hectares. 10,56 7,7 1,37 V 327 445
5Уход in numbers Hectares. 1,44 0,648 2,2 III 286 629,2
6Дополнение Piece 800 860 0,93 III 286 265,98
Total 1825,86


Thus, the wages on creation of 1 hectare of ordinary cultures of a pine ordinary make 1825 roubles of 86 copecks. Expenses for services of auxiliary manufactures make 6825 roubles. The general expenses for creation of 1 hectare of ordinary cultures of a pine ordinary make 11425 roubles.

Calculation of expenses at reafforestation by biogroups is resulted in table 34.

Ordinary cultures

Table 34. Calculation of expenditures of labour and wages on creation of 1 hectares
The name

Operations

Unit

Amendment

Volume

Works

Norm

Developments

potrebnoe

Quantity

ch.-dn./

The m.-see

The tariff

The category

The tariff

The rate

Fund

The wage

Payments

1Подготовка

Platforms

Hectares. 1 2,2 0,45 VI 359 161,55
2Посадка manually c podnoskoj sejantsev Hectares. 1 3,2 0,31 2-III 286 88,66
6Дополнение Piece 800 860 0,93 III 286 265,98
Total 516,19


Thus, the wages on creation of 1 hectare of cultures of a pine ordinary on biogroups make 516 roubles of 19 copecks. Expenses for services of auxiliary manufactures make 2500 roubles. The general expenses for creation of 1 hectare of cultures of a pine ordinary on biogroups make 3883 roubles of 60 copecks.

Economic benefit will make 7541 rouble of 40 copecks.

Thus, a way of reafforestation by biogroups less zatratnyj, than on numbers.

Conclusions:

1. Action of mechanisms of competitive interaction in the investigated

Forest stands it is expressed by following laws: at

Reafforestation by biogroups as a part of planting trees of 1-4 classes of growth of Kraft (a percentage parity of accordingly equally 55 %, 8 %, 20 %, 17 %) predominate. In cultures of a pine

Ordinary on numbers trees of 2 and 3 classes of Kraft (54 % and 25 %) predominate. Intensity of an intraspecific competition in biogroups above in young growths (K=0,1) and more low in the middle age (K=0,82). In plantings of a pine ordinary on numbers to 10-year-old age trees practically do not differ in the diameters and heights. As at reafforestation by biogroups wood mediuim thanks to competitive mechanisms it is formed ekosistemnoe a biodiversity corresponding to type lesorastitelnyh of conditions С3 is preserved.

2. At a bookmark of wood cultures biogroups in type of conditions С3, wood phytocenose will be characterised by very high grow power and as consequence - high stability (parity H/G at the age from 6 till 46 years does not exceed 125 points). Parity H/G for cultures on numbers changes from 206 (age of 6 years) to 134 (age of 46 years). Hence, they are characterised by average (6-24 years) and high (39-46 years) grow power.

3. The wood cultures created on biogroups, less are damaged by phytophags in comparison with plantings on numbers. In biogroups of damage by hoofed animals average less than 10 %, and in cultures on numbers - more than 40 %. At reafforestation by biogroups formed planting will be less subject to influence of insects-phytophags (in biogroups on one trunk the quantity of individuals pine podkornogo a bug in 2,7 times is necessary less, than in cultures on numbers). Trees of biogroups are not damaged by a root sponge, thanks to presence of background breeds.

4. Factor SHennona for srednevozrastnyh plantings makes 0,42 for biogroups, that more than the given indicator for cultures on numbers of the same age (0,13). Biogroups are characterised by the big level of a biological variety, than ordinary plantings.

5. In comparison with cultures on numbers of biogroup at the age of 46 years have bolshy an index of biodiversity SHennona for live napochvennogo a cover (0,63 and 0,42 accordingly), that testifies about bolshem its variety of phytocenoses considered by us. Live napochvennyj the cover against is not formed anew, and preserved at a way of manufacture of wood cultures by biogroups.

6. Dependence of biometric parametres of biogroups and plantings on numbers carries polinomialnyj character that testifies to an identical orientation of biological processes. However trees of biogroups have higher factor of growth (for diameters 0,5768 and 0,7035 for heights), than ordinary plantings of a pine ordinary (factors are equal accordingly 0,4267 and 0,4931), as defines their stability and ability stably to carry out ecological functions.

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A source: Semyonov Michael Aleksandrovich . Ecological mechanisms for the formation of ecosystem biodiversity in artificial reforestation (on the example of the Tsninsky forest area). 2014

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