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History of studying of a biological variety

The biodiversity - «a biological variety» is a variety of living organisms: from genes to biosphere. For the first time the term has used Bejts Henry Uolter (Bates) (1825-1892). The above-named concept was included Into a science in 1972 at the Stockholm conference of the United Nations on environment where ecologists have managed to convince politicians that wildlife conservation is a priority problem at realisation of any human activity on the Earth.

To questions of studying, use and biodiversity preservation the big attention after signing by many states of the Convention on a biological variety (Conference of the United Nations on environment and development, Rio-de ZHanejro, 1992) began to be paid.

There are three basic types of a biodiversity:

- Genetic diversity (genetic polymorphism) -

A variety of populations to signs or markers of the genetic nature. This type of a biological variety is caused by adaptable necessity for natural populations and represents an inherited variety inside and between populations of organisms (Iogansen, 1935, Altukhov, 2003, Lebedev, 2004);

- Species diversity - a variety of kinds of living organisms (plants, animal, mushrooms and microorganisms) in a certain ecosystem or concrete area (Odum, 1986, JUrtsev, 1992);

- A variety of ecosystems which is based on distinctions between types of ecosystems, a variety of inhabitancies and ecological processes. Mark a variety of ecosystems not only on various ingredients (structural, functional), but also on scale - from a microbiogeocenosis to biosphere (Pianka, 1981, Tereshchenko, 1994, Lebedev, 2004). Within the limits of the given research at various ways of reafforestation phytocenoses with various level ekosistemnogo a biodiversity are formed. And by the greatest number of kinds of flora and fauna it will be characterised tsenoz, generated by biogroups as only typical for С3 wood mediuim (in this case is as much as possible preserved at reafforestation rjadkami a pine ordinary it is superseded by an aspen) (Koldanov, 1966).

In a separate category it is accepted to allocate the variety of visual environments reflecting features of the territorial device and influence of local, regional and national cultures of a society.

All types of a biological variety are interconnected with each other: so genetic diversity generates a variety of kinds. A variety of ecosystems and visual environments creates conditions for formation of species (Severtsov, 1990). Species diversity increase increases the general genetical fund and potential of living organisms of Biosphere. Each kind brings the contribution to a variety - thus, there are no useless and harmful kinds. All types of a biological variety should be considered indissolubly from biosphere «obshcheplanetarnoj a live cover» (Vernadsky, 1925, Vernadsky, 1944).

In 1980 R.Uitteker depending on environment factors has allocated following levels of a biodiversity:

A-variety - a biodiversity of certain homogeneous biological community, tsenoza or its biotas. To the given level in research the greatest attention, as object of research - artificial phytocenoses of a pine ordinary is paid;

A R-variety - a biological variety of various dwelling places; an u-variety - a biodiversity of set of dwelling places spatially connected among themselves, and also the communities introduced on them (Uitteker, 1980).

Studying of specific riches of fauna of our planet has old history. In 1758 the well-known scientist Charles Linnej has listed all animals known at that time, having given to them Latin binary names. For more than two centuries which have passed since time of issue of the tenth edition linneevskoj "nature Systems", the mankind has received enough new knowledge of fauna of the Earth and continues to receive. In the scientific literature of concept with which "variety" is connected, are known for a long time. It is heterogeneity, variability, variability, inconstancy, differences etc. objects and the phenomena of the material and ideal world. Finding-out of differences and similitude of objects on the basis of comparison of their signs is one of the knowledge first steps. In cybernetics "difference" is one of fundamental concepts. Therefore the term "variety" is based on concept of "matter" and co-ordinates with its such properties as it is non-uniform, qualitative and quantitative varieties of a matter (Ursul, 1967). From positions of the systemic approach "variety" introduces set of relations of distinction and similarity between elements of flock (system) (Tchaikovsky, 1990). As integrity (the basic property of a matter) understand inner unity, basic nesvodimost properties of system to the sum of elements making it (the system possesses properties whole, indivisible) (Zykov, 2008). From a systemic approach position, a biological variety characterises ecological systems as whole and indivisible, consisting of flock of elements (and separate elements cannot be considered out of system).

In 1963 the International union of wildlife management has let out

The international Red Data Book of animals and plants. The given edition has drawn attention of mankind to rare and to vanishing species (a problem of preservation of a biological variety). More widely the given question has been stated in the report «growth Limits» (Medouz, 1972). Authors had been drew following conclusions: at natural growth of the population, manufacture, an exhaustion of natural resources and environmental pollution, the world already in the XXI-st century will reach limits of the growth. As a result there will be a reduction of a biodiversity and there will be a crash of human population and manufacture.

In 1980г. The term "sustainable development" (sustainable development) - «change of biosphere and use human, financial resources, resources of the live and lifeless nature for the purpose of satisfaction of requirements of the person and for his life improvement of quality» (the World strategy of wildlife management, 1980) has been offered. In modern understanding the sustainable development is a social and economic process at which the satisfaction of vital needs of today's generation of people without deprivation of such possibility of the future generations is reached. As a result of these and other politically significant events there was the Strategy of the sustainable development which has connected together a society, economy and an environing natural habitat (the World strategy of wildlife management, 1980).

The sustainable development assumes, including stable use of natural resources. In the beginning of XX century the increase in growth of requirement for wood, decrease in requirements to quality of raw materials, mechanisation of timber cuttings have expanded sphere of application of continuous felling and have increased a zone of economically accessible forests. In second half XX century there was an information on negative environmental implications of an intensive forest husbandry. In intensively managed forests (monocultures) a biological variety more low, than in natural forests. It is connected with their monotony, an ecological condition and age. In monocultures there are no old trees and dead wood and, as consequence, the kinds of living organisms connected with these dwelling places. Thus, they do not differ a high biological variety (Krivoshein, 2013). From the point of view of modern forestry at artificial forestation and various kinds of forest exploitation it is necessary, that wood planting answered ecological requirements, that is carried out various ecological functions. Thus, by manufacture of wood cultures it is necessary to aspire to the maximum preservation of wood mediuim.

«For today in Russia stable forest exploitation is possible only at observance of operating is standard-legal and legislative base of conducting the forest husbandry, comprising main principles of stable forest exploitation, wood certification, agrees which criteria, economic activities process means in itself observance of principles of stable forest exploitation, and an alternative variant is creation of ecological nets in lesosyrevyh bases of the enterprises which are in conditions of multiwood not mastered territories at the account that the ecological skeleton of territory will be capable to preserve the basic functions of forest ecosystems at conducting extensive type of a forest husbandry and in process of development of the new territories, the given skeleton of an ecological net will allow to restore plantings during development and exploitation of not mastered territories in a qualitative condition corresponding to region» (Vedernikov, 2012).

Within the limits of the given research formation ekosistemnogo a biodiversity is considered at various ways of reafforestation. Wood phytocenose, as is known, changes environment, that is forests are characterised by a specific microclimate (specific wood mediuim) (Senov, 2006). Therefore it is expedient to speak about preservation ekosistemnogo a biodiversity at preservation of certain properties of wood mediuim. G.F.Morozov in the work «about a forest» so specified the Doctrine in presence of wood mediuim: « All well-known, that in a forest, or, even more precisely, under bed curtains of a forest, other climate, other soil and other soil mantle »(Frosts, 1949). Thus, wood mediuim - set of climatic and soil conditions in which there is a wood phytocenose. Into the given concept enter not only abioticheskie environmental factors, but also multilateral biotic communications between living organisms. Within the limits of the given research preservation of wood mediuim is understood as preservation of a certain specific compound of a wood biogeocenosis at the certain factors of environment typical for TLU С3.

Preservation of a biological variety is possible only at stable forest exploitation which in turn provides application at creation of wood cultures of ways of the reafforestation focused on certain type lesorastitelnyh of conditions and preservation of wood mediuim.

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A source: Semyonov Michael Aleksandrovich . Ecological mechanisms for the formation of ecosystem biodiversity in artificial reforestation (on the example of the Tsninsky forest area). 2014

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