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Initial preconditions and the hypotheses accepted in work

At the heart of the offered approach of increase of environmental safety of urban lands the principle of increase power efyofektivnosti objects of building lays. In the dissertation the result of application of devices of passive solar heating in objects of building gets physical judgement in the form of decrease in emissions of carbonic gas in atmosferyonyj air.

For perfection of techniques architecturally-planirovochnyh, komponoyovochnyh and constructive decisions of objects of building for the purpose of increase of their environmental safety are offered and formulated following isyohodnye hypotheses and preconditions:

The first. To achieve decrease in emissions of carbonic gas in a free air it is possible at the expense of increase of power efficiency of objects stroyoitelstva. To define ecological and economic benefit of application UPSN in object of building, it is necessary to estimate it energetiyocheskuju efficiency:

Where - excess of thermal energy from the device of solar heating, kw-h;

- Quantity of the carbonic gas not thrown out in a free air, at the expense of decrease energopotreblenija during the heating period, kg;

- Cost of the fuel saved at the expense of passive heating, rbl.

The procedure of payments under formulas (2.1) and (2.2) is resulted in item 3.2.2 and item 3.2.3.

The second. In areas with a high indicator of solar radiation in otopiyotelnyj the period it is expedient to apply devices of passive solar heating since it promotes reduction of emissions of carbonic gas at menyoshem burning of organic fuel for the account of solar heat. Power the kw-h, - a difference between thermal postupyolenijami from solar radiation through svetoprozrachnuju a design ustrojyostva passive solar heating and thermal losses through it is expressed to efficiency of devices of passive solar heating pokazateyolem excess of thermal energy, ∆Q:

Where - thermal receipts from solar radiation through the device pasyosivnogo solar heating, kw-h;

Thermal losses through the device of passive solar heating, kw-h.

The third. Before the beginning of designing of object of building, vkljuchajuyoshchim in itself devices of passive solar heating, it is necessary to make an estimation of ecological appeal of a site of building through one of its indicators - geliopotentsial, that will allow to be defined in advance with arhitekYoturno-planirovochnymi and technical decisions of the future object stroiyotelstva. The basic indicators geliopotentsiala a building site javyoljajutsja a direction of a slope of a site, a bias of a land forms, %, zatenennost a site, %.

The fourth. At high geliopotentsiale a building site, vozyomozhno application of any kind of devices of passive solar heating, poyoetomu the algorithm of more concretised predesign choice of an expedient kind of the device of passive solar heating for dalnejyoshego its applications in object of building is necessary. Thus, one of problems is selection svetoprozrachnoj designs for the device of passive solar heating which allows to receive positive value of an indicator izyobytka thermal energy: AQ> 0.

The fifth. For acceleration and simplification of a predesign estimation energeticheyoskoj and ecological efficiency of objects of building with application of devices of passive solar heating, it is possible to develop maps of isolines of graduso-days of the heating period, solar radiation and excess teployovoj energy, under condition of application in a design of devices passive solyonechnogo heating svetoprozrachnyh elements with is minimum admissible soproyotivleniem to a heat transfer in building district.

The sixth. Besides ecological efficiency, objects of building with application of devices of passive solar heating are characterised also by other indicators, such as aesthetic expressiveness, comfort in exploitation, cost, conformity to requirements of sanitary-and-hygienic and other building norms. To consider all these indicators the complex estimation of environmental safety of objects of building with application razyolichnyh kinds of devices of passive solar heating on the most important for the person, making the decision, to indicators - ecological, power or economic efficiency UPSN, cost UPSN, aesthetic pokayozatel and a comfort indicator will allow.

2.2

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A source: KLEVETS XENIA NIKOLAEVNA. INCREASE of ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY of OBJECTS of BUILDING AT the STAGE of THEIR DESIGNING AT THE EXPENSE OF PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Tech.Sci. Simferopol - 2019. 2019

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