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1.3. Problems of a periodization of history of economy


One of most complicated questions of modern history of economy still have a periodization. Here it is possible to allocate some approaches.
Formatsionnyj the approach bases on marksovoj to the scheme of division of world history on primary (pre-class), secondary (class) and tertiary (classless) formations.
Despite logicality of the construction, the given scheme represents simplified enough understanding of history as linearly-progressive process of change of the lowest public forms by the maximum in which basis material factors lay. Furthermore it is applicable only to the limited region – the Western Europe and to a certain space of time (to the middle of XIX century).
TSivilizatsionnyj the approach originates from works of Russian thinker N.V.Danilevsky, English historian A.Tojnbi, the German philosopher O.Spengler. Its feature is the aspiration to describe economic processes from the point of view of the generalised synthesised sight at history. Therefore in the centre of its attention – not one country, and set of all lines of this or that company – material, ideological, cultural, religious, moral etc. In their unity and interaction. However such approach also is not deprived the defects connected first of all with neprorabotannostju of the basic terms. For example, the concept "civilisation" characterises both a stage of development of company, and cultural-historical type.
Now the aspiration of scientists to avoid extreme measures and contradictions of the named approaches has led to fast registration of a new cyclic direction in the analysis of a problem of a periodization. According to the theory of business cycles in economy history it is possible to allocate their four principal views:
intermediate term fluctuations with ten years' amplitude;
the semicentenial (Kondratiev cycles) connected with alternation of generations of people, technological ways, a fixed capital, with changes in economic and sociopolitical relations;
century, reflected in periodic change of world civilisations;
the thousand-year supercycles covering some of related civilisations.
As a result the modern periodization of history of economy has acquired more strict and exact form which includes seven civilisations and three supercycles (tab. 1).
Table 1

Cyclic periodization of history of economy
As shows the analysis, each subsequent cycle in 1,5 times is shorter than the previous. It gives the chance to define approximate borders not only a new postindustrial civilisation, but also all postindustrial supercycle (to the middle 30 century).
Component tsivilizatsionnyh cycles are Kondratiev cycles. It is established, that they in the rudimentary form have arisen in China on a boundary I and II thousand d.C. and on the Great silk way have moved to Europe in 11–12 centuries Originally the mechanism of distribution of these cycles have been connected with ekzogennymi (external) factors, first of all with trade. With development of industrial revolution the centre of gravity has been transferred on endogennye (internal) factors.
The cyclic approach allows to look at the problems occurring today in the world in whole and in Russia in particular in a new fashion. The condition of world and domestic economy is a result of natural process of human company, and transition to market economy – the objective necessity caused by change of an industrial civilisation postindustrial. Duration of a transition period if it to understand as a stage of crisis and replacement leaving and births of a new civilisation, on V.I.Kuzmin's accounts and And. V.Zhirmundskogo, makes 1/4 general durations of a cycle, hence, Russia will be included into a new civilisation into 2010 As our country owing to the different reasons later entered all supercycles, but passed them more fast, it is impossible to speak about progress or recourse of its development unequivocally.
Tests on a theme

Tests on a theme

Tests on a theme
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A source: D.A. Shevchuk. Economic history. 2009

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