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3.1 Methodical aspects of creation regional agroindustrial klastera

In modern practice essential experience in questions oryoganizatsii functioning large integrated sotsialnoyoekonomicheskih the systems including set of participants, having razyolichnuju branch specialisation and key parametres of efficiency is accumulated.

Such systems concerns also agroindustrial klaster. Process sozdayonie the integrated structures of a similar sort is interfaced to a number of problems both organizational character, and maintenance of interrelation of a miscellaneous royoda streams - investment, financial, current (operational). As consequence there is a necessity of working out of sequence (algoyoritma) processes of formation regional agroindustrial klasteyora. Such approach will allow not only to optimise creation process klayostera, but also to supply its balanced development.

Within the limits of dissertational research creation agropromyshlennoyogo klastera in sphere of production of consumer production are represented by the stage-by-stage process including three large stages (fig. 3.1).

Stage 1. The analysis and forecasting.

Is one of key stages, the further productivity of functioning depends on quality and reliability proyovedyonnyh actions on which agroindustrial klastera. The given stage includes following actions:

1. An estimation klasternogo potential of agrarian and industrial complex of region and its orientation on the basis of the methodical maintenance developed in item 2.3 disyosertatsionnogo of research.

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Drawing 3.1 - Algorithm of creation and development regional agroproyo

myshlennogo klastera

2. Realisation of the marketing researches directed on opredeyolenie: the general capacity of internal and external seller's markets; the forecast yomkoyosti seller's markets for the long-term period; flowing and prognoznoj capacities
On separate categories of agricultural production for definition of optimum regional range.

The major condition of effective functioning agropromyshyolennogo klastera is correct definition of a market capacity selhozyoproduktsii on sredne - and long-term the periods. klastera obosnoyovano when the market capacity is correctly predicted also the enterprises klayostera saleabilities of production in the internal and external markets have creation. Thereupon the major significance has a choice of methods of a current estimation and forecasting of capacity of seller's markets.

In theory and management practice by economic systems vyraboyotano the set of approaches to an estimation and market capacity forecasting, kazhyodyj from which can be to some extent used primeniyotelno to functioning of the regional market of agricultural products.

The expert approach which can include following methods:

- Method of the average estimation;

- Method of scenarios (with working out of parametres of development of the market in razyoreze various variants - pessimistic, probable and optimisticheyoskogo;

- Index method;

- Commission method;

- Method Delfi.

The standard approach in which frameworks methods normayotivnyh consumption budgets are defined on: to a subsistence; to a budgetary prosperity; to the rational budget.

The Economic-mathematical approach - with use of following methods and models of an estimation and market capacity forecasting: trendovyh moyodelej; life cycle curves; factorial models.

Besides obshcheekonomicheskih approaches, there is a number of special techniques of the forecasting adapted for the market of agricultural products, which
torye can be used during an estimation of market potential dolgoyosrochnogo functioning klastera. [XLVI]

The most important principles which should be considered subekyotami managements regional agroindustrial klasterom at formiyorovanii the forecast with allowance for potential development of separate market segments of agricultural products (the structural forecast of its capacity) are sle -

Blowing (fig. 3.2).

Drawing 3.2 - Principles of formation of the forecast of development regional -

nogo agroindustrial klastera

2. Following analytical action of the first stage of algorithm of introduction klastera, unlike described earlier, assumes reception of qualitative results. Besides action allows to evaluate strayotegicheskie prospects of influence on a situation of some the factors defining strong and weaknesses, possibilities and project threats on development agyoropromyshlennogo klastera; and also influence political, social, economic and technology factors on development klastera. MeroYOprijatie can be realised with use SWOT and PEST techniques. So, SWOT the analysis should consider potential influence of factors on following aspects:

- Commercial - characterises influence of seller's markets selhozproyoduktsii on its development;

- In a cut of separate characteristics of competitiveness predyoprijaty region agrarian and industrial complex;

- To financial and investment aspects of development agropromyshlenyonogo klastera;

- Infrastructural, institutsionalnomu and to legal maintenance of development agroindustrial klastera.

PEST-analysis realisation should consider specificity of it analiyoticheskogo the tool and contain the deep characteristic on separate elements on blizhne - sredne - and long-term the development periods regioyonalnogo agroindustrial klastera.

Stage 2. Organizational actions.

Includes realisation of following large stages:

- Establishments of criteria of hit agricultural predyoprijaty in klaster;

- Definitions of the mechanism and management structure klasterom;

- Model formations klastera and systems of interrelations between its participants;

- Working out of rules of functioning klastera according to functions of each participant.

One of most prominent aspects of realisation organizational meyoroprijaty creations agroindustrial klastera is process ustanovyolenija criteria of selection of the enterprises-participants. Such selection should osuyoshchestvljatsja with use of results of experts' reports, and also objective data about functioning of the enterprises. From the point of view avyotora kriterialnyj selection of participants klastera assumes the analysis and otsenyoku following aspects of functioning of the enterprises (drawing 3.3):

1. Development of industrial infrastructural maintenance (a condition of a fixed capital, level innovatsionnosti all tehnologicheyoskoj chains of production of meat production, absence of problems on prayovovomu the status of farmlands, etc.);

2. Financial soundness and investment appeal (indicators of productivity of financial and economic activity, possibility of use of extra resources, reception possibility doyopolnitelnyh sources of investments, etc.);

3. Quality and availability of a manpower (experience and the competence of the administrative board of the enterprises, a labour productivity level, nayolichie training programs, etc.);

4. Indicators of efficiency of the organisation of business processes.

During dissertational research criteria of selection without their detailed elaboration as, concrete quantitative and qualitative criteria can vary in practice depending on flowing situayotsii on seller's markets, in sector of deliveries of raw materials and other factors are designated. Besides the concrete definition and the accurate formulation of parametres and indicators otboyora is inexpedient disregarding results of revealing of an orientation klasteyorizatsii.

Drawing 3.3 - Parameters of selection of the enterprises-participants regionalyonogo agroindustrial klastera

Stage 3. Creation of system of monitoring of efficiency dejatelyonosti klastera.

Includes:

1. Definition of indicators of efficiency of functioning klayostera;

2. Formation of information-technical maintenance funkyotsionirovanija monitoring systems;

3. An establishment of periodicity of realisation of monitoring and it reayolizatsii.

As the system of monitoring of efficiency bases, mainly, on corresponding special criteria and indicators, sforyomuliruem principles which realisations should be taken as a principle

Process of an estimation of efficiency of functioning agroindustrial klastera (drawing 3.4).

Drawing 3.4 - Principles of an estimation of efficiency of activity regioyonalnogo agroindustrial klastera

Let's consider principles of an estimation of efficiency of activity regioyonalnogo agroindustrial klastera:

1. A principle of balance of interests, according to which formirovayonie systems of criteria and efficiency indicators klastera osushchestvljayoetsja from the point of view of necessity of maintenance of the objective analysis and the investment in activity of all basic participants klastera, including reyogionalnoj economy, as one of the cores vygodopoluchatelej.

2. A principle of the account of specificity klastera according to which criteria and efficiency indicators should be not only the general but include and the special, profile indicators characterising degree of development of agriculture of region.

3. The principle of integrated approach assuming necessity of the account of all spectrum of effects of occurrence agroindustrial klastera in region.

4. A principle normiruemosti the indicators, meaning, that the large part of indicators of efficiency or at once at a stage strategic playonirovanija its developments, or in due course, on a course of perfection of management klasterom, should be taken as a principle specifications funkyotsionirovanija as all klastera, and its separate participants.

5. An availability principle according to which, first, subjects of an estimation of efficiency should not have any serious difficulties with search, account and an estimation of indicators; and, secondly, orgayony, carrying out coordination and management klasterom, could at any moment and in the shortest terms to get access to a condition of all pokazateyolej.

In theory and management practice by the integrated structures imeyojutsja set of various approaches to an estimation of their efficiency funktsioyonirovanija. Meanwhile, approaches available in the literature are not applicable to problems of the given research as allow to analyse only separate aspects of functioning klasterov. However, for realisation of an adequate and objective estimation of efficiency of functioning agroyopromyshlennogo klastera all list of effects funkyotsionirovanija klastera should be considered.

Researchers allocate following kinds klasternyh effects, koyotorye should be considered during formation of methodical bases otsenyoki efficiency: [XLVII]

- The training effect, recognising that the close interrelation and cooperation, information interchange, knowledge within the limits of relations uchastyonikov klastera allow to increase the general level of knowledge in klastere.

- The effect of interaction of direct competitors - consists in vozmozhnoyosti to unite efforts and by that to lower financial and other losses to key players of the regional market;

- aglomeratsionnyj the effect - consists that besides benefits of legal economic interaction of the enterprises (from the point of view poyotentsialnyh possibilities of the announcement of such interaction monopolyonym), participants klastera have a possibility to lower transport and logiyosticheskie costs, to carry out economy on scales, to lower barriers of an exchange of the branch information and knowledge, to liquidate barriers dostuyopa to unique resources and assets.

As it has been noted above, the system of the purposes and the problems, pursued it uchayostnikami should become one of the basic reference points formirovayonija systems of indicators of efficiency of functioning agropromyshyolennogo klastera. The greatest importance is represented by strategic interests of bodies of the regional power, the enterprises which are the centre klastera, and also wide groups of the public.

So, the state on behalf of regional government bodies has two ukyorupnyonnye groups of interests: economic and social (drawing 3.5)

Drawing 3.5 - Ordering of interests of regional government bodies regarding formation of agriculture of region

Strategic interests, and also the purposes and problems of private enterprises more distantsirovany from social aspects of functioning klastera also are expressed in the following:

- Increase of key indicators financial and economic efyofektivnosti (profitability, a gain, profit);

- Expansion of seller's markets and share increase on internal and foreign markets;

- Updating of a fixed capital;

- Increase innovatsionnosti productions;

- Attraction of additional investment resources;

- Maintenance of stable deliveries of raw materials and the equipment;

- Growth of capitalisation of the enterprise, etc.

With allowance for the carried out research we believe, that indicators of an estimation of efficiency of functioning agroindustrial klastera include:

- Indicators of efficiency of functioning separate predpriyojaty nucleuses agroindustrial klastera, including indicators finansovoyoekonomicheskoj productivity; indicators marketing and kommercheyoskoj efficiency;

- Indicators of efficiency of functioning of all agropromyshyolennogo klastera as a whole, including: degree of adaptability to manufacture of participants klastera; indicators of investment efficiency; indicators ekonomiyocheskoj and administrative efficiency;

- Indicators of regional efficiency of functioning klayostera, including: social efficiency; regional economic efficiency (budgetary efficiency).

Thus, the offered indicators of an estimation should lay down in osnoyovu formations of system of monitoring and a current estimation of efficiency of functioning agroindustrial klastera region.

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A source: ZUBOVA TATYANA ALEKSANDROVNA. MANAGEMENT of DEVELOPMENT REGIONAL AGROINDUSTRIAL KLASTEROV. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Voronezh - 2018. 2018

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