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risks of consumers. The analysis of risks by data about production losses in distribution sphere. Communication of risks with applied model of maintenance of quality. Subjects of quality in the contract.

As it was marked in section 1.2.3, FSA (the is functional-cost analysis) and its American version - FMEA consider the risks arising at the consumer and the dealer by production, reveal the defects causing risks, produce measures perventivnogo character to warn expenses for correction and production emission which volumes are huge.

The analysis of risks in FSA and FMEA is made on spheres of distribution and production operation.

The technology of realisation FMEA concerns now to standard for America, EU, Japan to technologies of the analysis of quality of items and processes, therefore there are typical forms of submission of results of the analysis and typical rules of its realisation [74]. It is co-ordinated to technique FMEA parametres of risk for consumers (RPZ) are defined by expression:

RPZ=B Х And Х E, where

In - parametre of weight of consequences of defect for the consumer, defined by an expert method.

And - parametre of frequency of occurrence of the defect, defined by an expert method.

E - parametre of probability of detection of the defect, defined by an expert method.

In our accounts of consumer's risks technology FMEA with essential changes was used:

Х At an estimation And - parametre of frequency of occurrence of defect we used not an expert method as it is recommended FMEA, and analysis Pareto which has allowed not subjectively, and objectively to group defects on degree rasprastranennosti on significant and less significant. Statistical research of the general distribution of defects has allowed to make even more exact grouping of defects: the settlement criterion of the importance of defects has been found, which the parametre of 8 % eksponentsialnogo equations Rh () = in e~vh, in the best way approximating significance of frequencies of defects in their general distribution is. This significance h is answered with four groups of defects:

2.2, 4.8, 4.2, 2.4

Rasprostrannenost other groups of defects makes 7 % and more low. We have evaluated the transferred defects the best point - 10, which

It is accepted in FMEA for an estimation of the most widespread defects. The second group on prevalence included defects which at least on one region have received prevalence of 8 %. This significance is answered with four groups of defects:

5.2, 2.3,4.12, 4.1

It is necessary to note, what exactly these groups of defects were included into number of the most significant by results of analysis Pareto as additional for separate regions (fig. 2.1 - 2.4).

Therefore we have evaluated the given group of defects following the best point by American technique FMEA - 7.

Х On other parametres of risk In, E work was conducted exclusively with set forth above vosemju the most widespread groups of defects, instead of with all groups as it is accepted in FMEA.

Х In - the parametre of weight of consequences of defect for the consumer in FMEA is an expert judgement marked usually on 10 - a ball scale. We evaluated the given parametre also an expert method, was thus considered, that under foreign standards the importance of critical defects is evaluated by the best point (100 or 10), significant - polovinnym significance of the best point (50 or 5) and insignificant - the tenth share of the maximum point (10 or 1).

Groups of defects 2.2, 4.8, 4.2, 4.12 are evaluated by experts as critical, it pirates the best point - 10.

Groups of defects 2.4, 5.2, 2.3 are evaluated as significant, it pirates a point - 5.

Х E - the parametre of probability of detection of defect is defined not ekspernym a method as it is recommended FMEA, and with use of experience of Quality Department of the enterprises of the shoe industry. The best point - 10 evaluates by us latent defects which cannot be revealed before consequences:

2.2, 4.8, 4.2.

It is necessary to notice, that in production, services of Quality Department would not manufacture these critical defects if at the moment of acceptance of production of Quality Department they were appreciable from the enterprise. Above in section 2.2 of the given work

It was informed, that occurrence of the given defects occurs in sphere tovarodvizhenija and the reasons were called.

Following the best point - 3 defects are evaluated slabozametnye at the moment of acceptance of Quality Department:

4.12

Following a mean score - 1 defects are evaluated clearly appreciable at the moment of acceptance of Quality Department:

2.4, 5.2, 4.1, 2.3

Х Results of account of consumer risks by the stated technique are resulted in tab. 3.2.

Х According to FMEA defects with the greatest parametre of risk of consumers RPZ> 100 points are subject to removal first of all. Them first of all include in the program of working out of preventive actions for the prevention of defects.

From tab. 3.2 it is visible, that such defects are:

2.2, 4.8, 4.2, 4.12.

Then actions for the prevention of defects of an average risk with which it agree FMEA should be developed are with RPZ < 100 до 40 баллов включительно. »з табл. 3.2 видно, что такими дефектами €вл€ютс€:

2.4, 4.1.

The following develops actions for the prevention of defects of small risk with RPZ to 100 points. Therefore they should be included in the prime program of working out of preventive actions for the prevention of losses of production in addition to already named defects such: 2.2, 4.2, 4.12. (Defects with and 4.8 are similar) (tab. 3.2).

Thus, defects:

2.2, 4.2, 4.12, and, and, in, with, with

Are defects of the raised risk and require immediate preventive measures of konstruktorsko-technological character. All transferred defects have been mortgaged in a production cycle by the imperfect technological techniques which have been incorrectly picked up by materials etc., but have emerged later in distribution and operation sphere when production has started to be exposed to intensive physicomechanical effects.

Technology FMEA of the analysis recommends to consider adjustment actions for decrease RPZ in the following sequence:

From

1. To exclude the reason of occurrence of defect. It is carried out by means of change of technological process, a design of an item or its material (the parametre decreases).

2. To prevent defect occurrence. It is carried out by means of statistical regulation of technological process (the parametre decreases).

3. To lower defect influence (the parametre decreases). Influence of display of defect on the customer with allowance for changes of warranty periods and expenses decreases.

4. To facilitate and raise reliability of revealing of defect (the parametre decreases).

On degree of influence on item improvement of quality adjustment actions place as follows:

1. Change of structure (design) of object.

2. Change of process of functioning of object (packages of materials, their comparability).

3. Improvement of system of quality.

With allowance for adjustment actions the potential settles up

RPZ. If not it is possible to lower it to comprehensible limits: small risk RPZ

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A source: Jampolskaya Natalia Jurevna. Development of a competitive product release strategy. Thesis for the degree of candidate of economic sciences. 2000

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