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1,2. Significance of innovations in social and economic development of company

In a modern market economy of technology play the central role. With market development, expansion of market forms of managing znannja and technologies turn to the goods. Technologies form new types of economic relations and give advantage in competition.

More thoroughly economists began to study a role of engineering and technology in economy development only in 60 judah. Until then the technology as the factor of economic growth was box Pandory (a black box). Denisona E.F.'s attempt fllOJ to prove was the Most recognised in this area, that the economic digs is defined by four factors: work, the capital, the earth (other natural resources) and scientific and technical progress. The contribution of first three factors to economic growth is quantitatively easily measured. Using metol production functions, he has established a role of these factors in economic growth. The rest has attributed to the technician and ' to technologies. Certainly, it is an indirect method.

New technologies revolutionise economy structure, lead to dying off old, condition for updating of production, economic growth. According to researchers, from periodically arising crises the economy was removed by technical updatings. Investments into engineering updating, production of new engineering gradually recover economy, lead to the EC to lifting. Duration of such cycle averages 10 years. The engineering becomes outdated also an economic crisis gives a new push to engineering and technology development. The technology as one of recurrence factors was evaluated by Kondratyev N [42], the author of the theory so-called dltslnyh cycles waves of development of economy. Kondratyev has made the statistical analysis of history of development of inventions and innovations, engineering and technology alternations of generations and on the basis of results of researches has established, that duration of a cycle makes 50 years.

Innovations - the term occurring from English innovation production of something new [115, .358]. In connection with the foreign
Concept origin, in Russian it found various significances. ' Gik, according to definition of the Organization of economic complementation and development, an innovation - technological introduction, the appendix scientific and the knowledge, leading to success in the market is new. Titov A.B. [97, S.Z] is convinced, chgo the innovation - is faster the economic and social term, than technical. It should not be something technical, and in general, chs.m material (for example, sale of the goods has on credit changed I blow trade sphere). Many scientists I hold opinions, that the innovation (innovation) - total result of creation and development (introduction) of essentially new or modified means (innovation), satisfying konkretne public requirements and a giving number of effects (economic, social, ecological) * is obviously necessary To us dobavitg, and such kinds of effects, as moral, psychological and others, not having economic benefit in in view of the various reasons, for example, moral obsolescence of the decision, but bringing satisfaction to the researcher completeness, completeness of work.

In more developed definitions podcherkivasgsja difficult, system character of an innovation as process including a number of the interconnected stages. In this sense the technological innovation is considered as set of the technical, derivative and commercial actions resulting on the markets new both improved industrial products and supplying commercial use of new and improved productions and the equipment.

[57]

However, in the English-speaking scientific literature and. Unfortunately, after it in many domestic transferable and original works as terms "innovation", "innovation" creation and introduction process novoju, and its concrete result that leads to mess in concepts is designated also. Researchers of the given phenomenon [99] define an innovation, as the object introduced into production as a result of carried out scientific research or made opening, qualitatively distinct from previous analogue and. The innovation is characterised by higher technological level, new

Titov L.B. [97, C.4J suggests to consider the term "innovation", "innovation", first of all, as process, in a course kotoroju scientific idea is possible to a stage of practical use and starts to give economic benefit, that is acquires the economic contents, and its result finished to a stage of commercial use and recognised the market, to designate the term "innovation". That is "innovation" are new in relation to existing in the given system methods, an order, a subject which are introduced into practice for satisfaction concrete vennyh requirements.

In our opinion, such approach is erroneous, so in the nature of special terminology the innovation (English) has Russian significance "innovation". The difficult nature of this term, is caused by historical evolution of company from simple concept something new to results which it can have povoe in market conditions, in modern postindustrial company. In the researches Titov of L B has not reached an essence of occurrence of the term, its nature defined by the previous researches.

The term "innovation" (innovation) is put into circulation J.Shumpeterom (122) who defines innovations, changeable process of introduction new kombinatsi ' in five following cases:

- Introduction novoju the goods, i.e. the goods tic familiar to consumers, or a new kind of the goods;

- Introduction of a new method of production, i.e.metoda, which else practically it was not used in the given industry;

- Opening of the new market on which the given industry of the given country has not been presented earlier (at a breakage not important, whether there was a market earlier or not);

- Gain of a new source of raw materials or half-finished products, also disregarding earlier vovakkja this source;

- Introduction povoj organizational structure in any branch
The industries. For example, in connection with strengthening of a monopolistically situation or on the contrary - se liquidation.

Fridmen K has added to these kinds of innovations social innovations. Denisov G, L, etc. [24, .8] suggests to classify innovations as follows. See Table 2.

Pas our sight, the presented classification though npastsja in the basis to have basic construction according to estimations of the experts, to those nanoseconds less, has a number of essential defects. The fio-first, basic kinds of innovations on spheres (areas) are mixed: technical, organizational, economic, social, ecological, financial, legal. Organizational, economic, financial, social concern one science - economy. Their division in a similar way, attracts a number of the subsequent discrepancies requiring clarification. As the second kind management is resulted opt; in subspecies - new methods, forms of the organisation, management in social sphere - in examples - the Automated control systems (the MANAGEMENT information system - public health services, the MANAGEMENT information system - pensions). We believe erroneous communication the organisation (management) - with subspecies new methods in social sphere in consideration separately or an economic kind of an innovation. Besides, in one kind the MANAGEMENT information system example carry the gay to organizational methods, in other - to economic. I at last, in a social kind in subspecies are resulted: formation, public health services, culture, rest and social security. kinds do not reach social sphere.

Most full the innovation is classified in work Introduction in the theory of innovations [41, With. 38 - 391, representing result of the analysis of works of some researchers but to the given direction. Depending on technological parametres of an innovation are subdivided on grocery and process. Grocery innovations include application new.materialov, new half-finished products and accessories; reception essentially new

Table 2. Classification of innovations by spheres (areas) of application and results

Vilm Subspecies Examples
1, Technical 1.1. The new goods

1.2. New means of labour

1.3. New kinds of energy

1.4. New materials

1.5. New technologies

1.6. New communications

Electromobile

Plasma svarochnyj the device

Nuclear, plasma

Silopor

Biotechnologies, microtechnologies

The Internet

Z.Orgaiizapionnye,

The administrative

2.1. New methods, forms of the organisation, management in sphere

.materialnogo productions

2.2. New methods, forms of the organisation, research and development management

2.3. New methods, forms of the organisation, management in the social

To sphere

2.4. New methods, forms of the organisation, management in financial,

Bank spheres

MANAGEMENT information system-SCIENCE SAPR

MANAGEMENT information system - public health services

To/moustache - pensions

MANAGEMENT information system - the finance

3. Economic 3.1. New methods of forecasting of economy

3.2. New methods of planning

3.3. New methods, forms of development of the markets

3., new methods of the account

Commodity futures, Purchase and sale about

dajn

MANAGEMENT information system - the account

4. Social 4. [. Methods of a development of education, training of personnel

4.2 methods [kpvitnja public health services

4.3. Methods of development of culture

4.4. Methods of improvement of rest

4.5. Methods of improvement of social security

5. Ecological 5.1. New methods openki rjaznenik environment I [rimeienne a method "inputs - outputs"

Estimations of an integrated damage

5.2. methods of maintenance of safety of environment 1 (alog League, ecological licences
6. Financial 6.1. New methods of formation and performance of budgets. Exchequer system it is executed!
Off-budget funds The budget
6.2. New categories of credit, forms to crediting methods Credits for paid training the student about
6.3. Improvements in monetary sphere Euro, ecash
6.4. Improvement of accounts
6.5. The new goods in the financial markets, perfection Derivatives
The financial markets Insurance from elektronsh^h
6.6. New methods of insurance of services, insurance methods Computer crimes. Has sold

Insurance services through Ingerneg

7. Legal 7.]. Introduction of new norms and rules

7.2. Lawmaking improvements

7.3. Perfection of performance of laws

7.4. New methods of arbitration activity

New methods lawyer

Products, Process innovations mean new methods of the organisation of production and technology. Process innovations mo at g bi are connected with creation of new organizational structures as a part of firm (enterprise) or the organisation.

Oozes of innovations can be classified:

On novelty ooze

- New to branch in the world;

- New to branch in the country;

- New to data lrelnrijat ija (organisations);

? 11 to a place in system

- Innovations on an enterprise input (changes in a choice and use of raw materials, materials, cars and the equipment, the information, etc.);

- Innovations on an enterprise exit (items, services, technologies, information, etc.);

- Innovations of system structure of the enterprise (administrative, industrial, technological);

> Depending on depth of introduced changes allocate innovations

- Radical (base);

- The improving;

- Modification (private).

Prigozhin A.I. classified innovations to 5 signs:

1. On prevalence: individual, diffuznye.

2. On at in a production cycle: raw, supplying (connecting), grocery.

3. On the successive! And: the replacement, cancelling, returnable, opening; rstrovvedenija.

4. On coverage expected doll the market: local, system, strategic.

5. On innovative potential and novelty degree: radical,
Combinatory, improving. [80, S.270-2751

Innovative activity is predetermined by concrete stages which lead in the issue to transfer deed tehntjugnn - to transfer-reception process:

- Information on fundamental science achievements - laws, theories, opening;

- Results of applied researches - applied workings out, patents, licences;

Results of design and developmental works of innovative projects, breadboard models, engineering specifications, skilled and head samples, a know-how;

- Information on consumer properties, technological characteristics of innovations (see table 3).

Let's consider the transfer deeds of technologies necessary for realisation of each stage of innovative activity.

1. That were successful applied NIR (e. That there were inventions, innovative offers) applied scientific research institutes, should be known fundamental opening, laws, achievements fundamental and applied science (transfer deed 1) and, secondly, achievements in the given area of innovative activity (technological characteristics, consumer properties, the prices made in the given country and in other countries of innovative production) (transfer deed 16).

2. Authors of inventions (PII, ) receive pateshy. For toju. That the invention could be realised, the enterprise, the organisation which is carrying out innovative activity should familiarise with the patent and receive to (purchase) the licence for partial use and complete transfer the rights (transfer deed 2);

3. Scientific research institutes, research divisions of the enterprises carry out on the basis of results own NIR or patents (inventions) applied workings out. They should be

Table 3. Transfer deed subjects, suppliers n consumers of technologies

Groups Subjects Suppliers Intermediaries
1 And. Scientific znannja, teor ;], othrytija,

Fundamental science achievements

To the technician-economic

Characteristics made in the given

To the country and abroad the goods, engineering,

Materials. Organisation methods

Applied technologies

Fundamental pike

(Centres of science, scientific research institute,

laboratorn ), separate scientists,

High school science (the comment

Ours - BALES)

Applied science (scientific research institute.

Divisions the enterprise),

Separate inventors; economy

The countries, the population (the social

Sphere) - (our comment - KNI)

Scientific and technical

bnbliogskn, the centres;

Sphere of services - (our comment

- KII)

Information tsstgtry;

The organisations. Carrying out

Examination of friends

About Patents, whether yens zi and, offers

And jubrechzgtelen, applied NIR

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE,

The enterprises,

The attending

It is investigated ijamn

Divisions

Inventors,

The applied

Applied science (scientific research institute,

Divisions of the enterprises),

Separate inventors; Elonomkka

The countries, the population (the social

Sphere) - (our comment - KII)

The patent organisations.

Patent and scientific and technical

bnb. npgski, nstgtry;

Sphere of services - (our comment

-KNI)

Information centres;

The organisations which are carrying out

Examination of the goods

3 workings out

,

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE,

The enterprises.

-Attending

Workings out

L

Divisions

Inventors,

The applied

The design. The design

The organisations, divisions

The enterprises '

The Scientific and technical centres,

Incubators,

menedzheri, technological

Brokers, agencies on

To transfer deed of technologies

4 Innovative projects proemnaja, design

The organisation, division

The enterprises

It is skilled-ekspernmentalnye factories,

Divisions of the enterprises

The innovative centres

5 Pre-production model Skilled-experimental

Factory, division

The enterprises

6 The head sample ò Ie And OGOVIGSL

goloznogo it is figurative

7 Engineering specifications The enterprises manufacturing

Experimental batches

8 Know-how The enterprise, the organisation,

Possessing know-how

9 The information about

, _ehniko-economic

Characteristics iinopatskonnoj

Production

The enterprise manufacturing

Innovative production

10 The information on behaviour

Innovative production in

Operation, its dignities and

Defects, the reasons of failure,

Durability, operational

Characteristics (sm 16)

The enterprise, the organisations,

Citizens - potrebzheli

Innovative production


The enterprise 1 H1V Ͳ GO

It is figurative

The enterprises manufacturing

Experimental batches

1 IJA, you start-up, poshi

Innovative production

The enterprise. The manufacturing

Innovative production

The enterprises, the organisations, citizens

- Potential consumers

Innovative produ boil

The information trading

tsentri, you a camp kn, advertising

The organisations, brokers

Prsdprija gi ja-manufacturers

Innovative production. Scientific research institute.

KB. Designing

Production

The general on consumers:

The organisations which are carrying out

Examination of the goods; the trading

The organisations; io

To quality of the goods


Are transmitted (are sold) the design, design organisations, divisions of the enterprise (organisation) for working out of innovative projects (transfer deed 3);

4. Innovative projects are transmitted opmtno-ekslsrim to other factories, divisions of the enterprises and the organisations for manufacturing of pre-production models (transfer deed 4);

5. Pre-production models are transmitted to the enterprises to the organisations for manufacturing of the head sample (transfer deed 5);

6. Head samples are transmitted to the enterprises or the organisations for issuing activity of experimental batches of innovative production (transfer deed);

7. The engineering specifications developed with allowance for of issue of experimental batches, will be transmitted to the enterprises n to the organisations for the organisation of a batch production of innovative production (transfer deed 7);

8. To develop the "know-how" of innovative production, in some cases it is not enough to acquire the patent. Happens still the information necessary for realisation of the invention, io is issued with items of patent requests is necessary. That is except the patent it is necessary to receive to (acquire) a know-how (transfer deed 8);

9. The enterprises which have run in issue of innovative production, inform potential consumers the information on it potrebitelnyh properties, technological characteristics, advantages (transfer deed 9);

10. Manufacturers of innovative production should receive the information from consumers of this production about behaviour of production while in service (uses), about reliability of those or other knots, about an estimation of production consumers, about operation characteristics (transfer deed 10), This information is necessary for working out of the new project and development of issue of more perfect production (transfer deed 16).

Depending on a method of advancement of innovations transfer deeds are divided on vertical and horizontal. If all innovative activity on working out and production new-goods or services is carried out at one enterprise (organisation), pss the transfer deeds supplying this innovative activity - vertical. If working out and production
It is carried out by the different enterprises (organisations) transfer deeds will be horizontal.

On coverage of the countries a transfer gy are divided into the international and internal transfer deeds.

1. Significant it is frequent the international transfer deeds it is necessary on a share transnational the companies (multinational corporation). On a multinational corporation share it is necessary about 80 % of all patents and licences for the new engineering, technology. Their significant part moves between the countries in the form of transfer deeds of technologies between the companies entering into the multinational corporation. One of the reasons which were taking place in last 1˪ significant akgivizatsii of the merges of the large companies - transfsrgy technologies for expansion of scales, acceleration innovative activity and increase of efficiency of innovations - sinergetichesky effect.

2. The international transfer deeds of technologies are carried out at fulfilment international scientific and technical , the international investment projects.

3. The important role in the international transfer deeds of technologies is played by the international organisations. [24, with. 25-281

The basic tool in increase of innovative activity is knowledge, and the education system becomes the major component of national innovative system (NIS). At formation NIS it is necessary to consider, that the formed labour is the precondition of hi-tech production, that is creation and development of the highest technology. Level of erudition of company has following purposes:

1. Innovative technologies require highly-skilled personnel of manufacturers and businessmen;

2. Innovations require special vysokoorganizovannogo the consumer;

3. Innovative products require perfection, requiring corresponding razvishja the population.

4. Innovative projects require a reshaping of shots of experts in connection with varying specificity of economy.

Not fulfilment of these conditions mozheg to cause the contradiction between high-efficiency innovative products and a low educational level kadrop, that can entail social "explosion", aspiration to destroy technological products (the goods and services). On this important factor pays both Kssria A and Koljaeva I [41, With, 56] heap effectively functioning the market and an education system and training of personnel are necessary For preservation and improvement of quality prudovyh resources. Discrepancy of a supply and demand of a labour on a labour market will cause unemployment strengthening. The structural unemployment presents supplementary claims to educational and professional training of workers. The lowered competitiveness on a labour market, caused by a low educational level and professional training, loss of qualification because of long absence of work or a prepension age supersedes searching for work on a work secondary market, generates long unemployment. For social groups there is a danger of professional and social degradation. Successful realisation of structural adaptation and strengthening of the international competitiveness in significant a Mercedes is defined by an active policy of the state on a labour market, aimed on adekpatnoe use and development of manpower resources.

In modern conditions and in the near future the unique factor of the economic growth, which development has an extensive resource both on is qualitative-quantitative parametres, and on time - the human capital. Economists have revealed direct dependence between an educational level and gross national product level, and the increase in public and personal expenses for education supplies more than half of gain of gross national product. Thus, the human capital average ability to work receives not only qualitative and quantitative definiteness in the form of higher, than. On this basis the additional revenue which is sobetennostju both the worker, and the employer, and the states is formed. The methodology of an estimation of the human capital is supplemented with the concept of a money value of a national wealth developed by the World bank [112]. This concept as national wealth elements evaluates human, reproduced and
The natural (natural) capital. Accounts of experts of the World bank show, that in national wealth structure the human capital making nearby 2/3 from it tegovoj estimations dominates. Boles that, in the developed countries it reaches % of the general size national bogastva. Thus, the thesis is confirmed, that in the XXI-st century not accumulation of material resources, and increase of the contents of knowledge, experience, abilities, health and other characteristics kachest for a population life becomes a reproduction primary factor.

Traces (NP . 1, a basis of a cost-saving of production and improvement of quality of the goods and services are new technologies. In a modern market economy of technology the central role. With market development, expansion of market forms of managing of knowledge and technology turn to the goods. New technologies revolutionise economy structure, lead to dying off old, condition for updating of production, economic growth. Dynamics of change of technology is realised through an innovation - an innovation.

The basic tool in development of innovative activity is knowledge, and the education system becomes the major component of national innovative system (NIS). At formation NIS it is necessary to consider, that the formed labour is the precondition of hi-tech production, that is creation and development of high technologies.

Thus, perfection of technologies is carried out by means of innovations which in turn present increased requirements to system of knowledge, retraining and improvement of professional skill as manufacturers, and consumers of the innovative goods and services,

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A source: KONOVALOVA HOPE IONOVNA. INNOVATIVE FORMS of GRANTING of SOCIAL SERVICES to the POPULATION. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Moscow -. 2009

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