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Social and economic system of region: concept, elements, a role and significance

Management of social and economic systems for today represents an actual and demanded direction modern ekoyonomicheskoj sciences. However formation and formation in this area of the uniform scientifically-reasonable approach is hindered by complexity and mnogoaspektnostju poyonjatija «social and economic system» (SES) which research tselesoyoobrazno to begin with the theory of systems.

In the book A.A.Bogdanova who is considered as the founder of the theory of systems, generalises results of researches of difficult social systems, from the point of view of two approaches: static and dynamic, bases and zakonomeryonosti developments of difficult systems [33] are designated.

First half of last century has been marked by occurrence of the theory of open systems of L.Fon Bertalanfi [29, 30]. The Substantial contribution such researchers have introduced to development of these ideas as M.Mesarovich, I.Takahara [113, 114], J van Gig [50], I.Prigozhin [161], etc.

Basic questions of the theory of systems (conceptual bases, terminology, laws of occurrence and development of difficult systems) in rosyosijskoj to an economic science at the development initial stage attended the scientists who have offered of some variants of the theory of systems: I.V.Blauberg [31], A.I.UyoYomov [210], J.A.Urmantsev [213, 214], V.S.Tjuhtin [189, 209], V.N.Sadovsky [172].

In our opinion, both in theory sphere sisyotem, it is impossible to consider methodology, and terminology completely settled. The most studied and proraboyotannymi questions in a general theory of systems it is possible to consider conditionally questions of management as the most simple (from the point of view of definiteness of management) sisyotemami - technical and sotsiotehnicheskimi. Results of given researches,
In our opinion, rather ogranichenno basic theoretical positions, metoyodologija can be applied in an economic science [15, 16], however, methods and terminology of the theory of systems can and should actively primeyonjatsja and economists.

Base aspect in a general theory of systems is the concept of system. The general definition of system is resulted in the Big Soviet Encyclopedia: «the System is an objective unity of subjects naturally connected with one another, javyoleny, and also knowledge of the nature and company» [34].

From the mathematical point of view the system «represents kvaziustoj - chivuju set of elements and communications between them or some number vzaiyomosvjazannyh the elements (subsystems) having properties, not reduced to the sum of properties of separate elements or subsystems» [210, with. 15].

From the physical point of view the system is «a certain area of the Universe, kotoyoraja from different directions is captured by environment» [238, with. 40].

Generalisation of results of research of concept "system" has allowed us to reveal three groups of definitions of system: ontologic (directed on vyyojavlenie essence), gnoseological (caused by research problems) and cybernetic (the managements caused by problems of systems) [172, with. 93-99, 210, with. 103-118, 168, with. 316-318].

The dual status of concept "system" characterises unity ontologiyocheskogo and methodological (gnoseological) aspects of system knowledge. In drawing 1 the base characteristics inherent in any system are presented.

According to V.N.Volkovoj, as a whole "system" is a category of the theory of knowledge thus «at different stages of submission of object in the form of system, in different concrete situations it is necessary to use different definitions of the given concept. In process of clarification of submissions about system or at transition to other stage of its research definition of system not only can, but also should be specified. The choice of definition of system reflects accepted kontsepyotsiju and actually is the modelling beginning» [290, with. 421-422].

------------------------- ►! Availability of set of elements and parts

------------------------- n Availability of stable relationships between them

------------------------- ►! Availability integrativnyh the properties inherent in it as whole

------------------------- n the Complete method of existence and development

Drawing 1 - the Basic characteristics of system [168, with 316]

In the special literature there is a set of classifications of systems depending on various signs.

It is necessary to notice that fact, that classifications are always relative. Certainly, the system can be simultaneously characterised several signs that allows it to find a place simultaneously in different klassifikatsiyoonnyh groups.

So the social and economic system can be characterised as live, natural, material, constant, samoorganizujushchajasja, dinamicheyoskaja, purposeful system.

Thus, systems are divided into classes to various signs and depending on a solved problem it is possible to choose different classification signs. Interaction of different classes of systems extremely difficult also requires special research. As it has been established, each class of systems podrazyodeljaetsja on the various subclasses which are in certain hierarchical subordination one another.

In this case, a studying subject are not so especially ekonomicheyoskie, and social and economic systems.

In our opinion, the given tendency is caused by attention strengthening sovreyomennyh scientists not only to effect and influence of the population on economic activities, but also a little bit other judgement of the scale purposes and problems eko -

nomiki as the basic system, allowing to supply ability to live cheyolovechestva.

Let's analyse the term contents «social and economic system». Duly scientists differently approach to interpretation of the given concept purchasing the special importance in the course of economic researches.

Concept SES can be considered in wide and narrow senses. In a broad sense uniform concept SES is represented fundamental, soyoderzhashchej the whole complex of the questions interfaced to studying and construction of systems. In narrow significance concept SES is considered like set of interacting components and the submissions having integrity for consideration of the certain phenomena [24, with. 30-39].

The concept analysis of "social and economic system» allows to allocate some approaches which are reflected in conceptual sights otechestvenyonyh and foreign researchers: functional, structural and dialekticheyosky.

Despite various approaches to interpretation SES, modern ucheyonye allocate some base properties of the given category, which priobretayojut the special importance and importance in the course of economic researches. So, the analysis of the economic literature has allowed us to reveal a certain set of the properties characterising SES which can be united in some groups (drawing 2).

Concretising results of the conducted generalisation, it is possible to assert, that the majority of authors attributes SES following properties:

1) properties of essence and structure - integrity, hierarchy SES;

2) methodological properties - dynamism, controllability SES;

3) properties of functioning and development - adaptability SES.

Group of properties SES, harakteristi ki Set of properties SES concerning given group The authors allocating concrete properties SES
Mosalyov Badlueva The coastal Kazachenko
Properties of essence and structure (primacy whole, hierarchy, dimension, complexity of structure, plurality of the description) Integrity - underlines the importance of each element SES. Thus change of any component of system leads to significant changes of system as a whole. It is marked emerdzhentnost systems as the maximum display of integrity SES - + + +
Hierarchy of structure (polistrukturnost) - indicates distinction of an order of elements SES from lower to higher + + - +
Availability of lines both natural, and artificial systems + - - -
Mass character of economic events and processes in SES - - + -
Methodological properties (purposefulness, reliability, emerdzhentnost, interdependence with an environment) Change of some environmental conditions (contingency and uncertainty / dynamism) in development of economic events - SES will be organised in the course of constantly varying, exclusively unstable factors of an environment + + + +
Controllability (purposeful behaviour) SES - is meant availability in SES the elements of a feedback necessary for removal of failures of system + + - +
Integrativnost SES - means, that the system as a whole has the properties which are absent at its elements separately - + - +
Stability - means, that elements SES are in interdependence and interdependence - - - +
Properties of functioning and developments (adaptability) Application of the tool of adaptation as structural reorganisation (active reaction to appearing new factors / mobility SES) - means availability in SES abilities in time and with an advancing to react to effects of negative factors and to eliminate various failures + + + -

Drawing 2 - the Set of the properties characterising SES [it is made by the author on the basis of Mosalyova A.I., Badluevoj M. P, Beregovoj I.B., Kazachenko L.D.'s researches]

Besides SES has a certain set of properties, it neizyobezhno is localised in time, in space, in relation to it alternativyonym to variants, therefore SES has certain borders: geographical, etyonicheskie, political, economic, spiritual and historical.

The availability of borders at SES in turn means, that it can voploshchatyosja in concrete state-political formations or in the form of others, smaller on scale, the socially-economic organisations [28].

Important significance in that communication, that SES can be shown in a kind razyolichnyh formations, associations, the organisations, acquire, so-called, sistemoobrazujushchie factors SES (drawing 3).

Sistemoobrazujushchie factors SES

The external The internal
The target The target
The time The strategic
The spatial Obshchekachestvennye
Tendentsionalnye Cause and effect
The political The complementary
The economic The stabilisation
The financial With an elm the exchange
The social The functional
The legal The artificial
T ehnicheskie
The organizational
The retrospective

Drawing 3 - Groups and kinds sistemoobrazujushchih factors SES

For increase of efficiency of managerial process SES usloviyoem acceptance in attention of influence of the named groups of factors on SES depending on their level and a class is important.

Development SES is under the influence of pulse effects with storoyony business, the state, institutes of civil company and other subjects of regional economy [188, With. 94].

In turn, association of elements and subsystems in SES, are carried out at all levels by uniform principles (drawing 4).

Functional principle Subsystems are intended and supply with the criterion functions, i.e. Integrated directions of activity and results, realisation of the global purpose of system.
The organizational

Principle

Subsystems are connected organizational and co-ordinated so. In the best way to supply main purpose realisation.
The resource

Principle

Subsystems are supplied by all necessary resources (material and non-material) for fulfilment of the functions and connected by resource streams.
T ehn (a logic principle Subsystems have own technologies for functionally necessary transformation of resources; subsystems are connected obshchesistemnymi by the technological transformations of resources necessary for realisation of the purposes.

Drawing 4 - Principles of association of elements SES [it is made by the author on osyonove Beregovoj I.B.'s researches]

Hence, principles of association of elements (subsystems) form four basic types of structural communications in SES: functional, organizatsiyoonnuju, resource and technological configurations of communications [28, с.9].

Having considered various approaches to treatment SES, properties, borders, sisteyomoobrazujushchie factors SES, principles of association of elements of subsystems and a configuration of structural communications in SES, we synthesised data harakteriyostiki, basing on the presented theoretical aspects of research SES, have applied the synthetic approach to own interpretation SES.

In our opinion, SES is complete and ierarhichnaja set reyosursov, the public and economic subjects, formed under vozdejstviyoem sistemoobrazujushchih the factors, having certain borders and vzaimodejyostvujushchaja with an environment, performing functions of creation, distribution, an exchange and use of products and the services necessary for company, and obladajuyoshchaja properties of dynamism, controllability and adaptability.

Social and economic systems are classified on several priyoznakam. On the basis of generalisation of existing groups and kinds SES allocated with various authors, classification SES made by us is presented in drawing 5.

Drawing 5 - Classification SES [it is made by the author on the basis of Beregovoj I.B.'s researches]

Considering classification SES, in particular on hierarchical priznayoku, it is necessary to notice, that in modern works on the given subjects, teoretiko-practical questions funktsioni - 18 are most in details studied and generalised

rovanija and managements such SES, as the managing subject (different level and in different lines of business), that is local SES.

It is necessary to notice, that region SES management (SESR) continues ostavatyosja one of most challenges of the theory and management practice, that preyodopredeljaet our scientific interest to research SESR, dictated vysoyokoj value of consideration of features of management SESR, both with issledovayotelskoj, and with administrative the points of view.

It is necessary to underline, that the concept "region" ambiguously and is treated by scientists in the most various aspects: economic, administrativnoyopravovom, political, geographical, territorially-branch, prirodyono-resource, structurally-vosproizvodstvennom, functional, etc.

At the moment total about 100 interpretation of concept "region".

Making definition it is incorrect to concept "region" to take into consideration only economic aspects, such as its branch specialisation, ratsioyonalnost placings of productive forces, development integration protsesyosov etc., it is necessary to consider interests of the population as sotsialnoyoterritorialnoj a generality, and also various social factors [60, with. 32].

In modern scientific practice region as sotsioekonomicheskaja the category is in most cases considered from the point of view of four cores poziyotsy (drawing 6).

Generalisation of theoretical approaches to concept "region" confirms rayotsionalnost region submissions as SES. In the scientific literature usually among regional SES the Russian Federations allocate four basic types: makroregional - nye, inter-regional, regional and local [60, with. 33]. Foreign and oteyochestvennye approaches to structurization SESR are presented in the Appendix 1.

Our scientific interest is represented by social and economic system reyogiona. In the developed scientific practice allocate three basic approaches to opreyodeleniju concepts SESR coinciding with indicated earlier conceptual sights - functional, structural and dialectic (the Appendix 2).

Drawing 6 - the Basic approaches to concept "region" [it is made by the author on

To basis of researches of Zhelaevoj S.E., Smirnova V.V.]

The analysis of theoretical approaches to SESR has allowed us to establish, that poyomimo presented functional, structural and dialectic podhoyodov, there is a ripened necessity to allocate, at least, two more approaches. The given circumstance is dictated by that fact, that some sushcheyostvujushchie cannot be carried interpretations SESR accurately and particularly to one of presented above conceptual approaches.

Thus, we suggest to add existing approaches to opreyodeleniju SESR episistemnym and combined by approaches. Episistemnyj the approach considers SESR as a part of systems of higher order. KombiniYOrovannyj the approach, in turn, means a combination in treatment SESR of two and more presented above approaches.

Episistemnyj the approach is reflected in interpretations SESR of Timofeeva R. A, Shlychkova V.V. And Alafuzova I.G., and also Damdinovoj C.B.

So, from Timofeeva R. A, Shlychkova V.V. item. And Alafuzova I.G. SESR is a territorially-administrative and social and economic subsystem of a national economy [204, with. 66].

Damdinova C.B. makes following definition SESR is osnovopolagajuyoshchy an element of social and economic system of the country, representing system which consists of the big number of the elements, influencing against each other and the interacting among themselves, forming economic forming set economic, social economic, social, ecological relations which purpose is as much as possible the effective utilisation of regional potential for maintenance ekonoyomicheskogo growth in region and improvements of well-being of the population [60, with. 33].

Thus, in the given interpretations it is paramount the instructions on SESR as on part SES of higher order - subsystems nayotsionalnogo economy, a country SES element are traced. Considering the given circumstances, we consider, that episistemnyj the approach has under itself a scientific substantiation and vozyomozhnost practical application.

The combined approach is realised in definitions SESR such issledoyovatelej, as Smirnov V.V., Novakovsky Island A and Mitjuhin D.S.

In V.V. Smirnova's SESR works it is defined as the system, the making which elements having the structures, functions, interrelations with an environment form the complete organisation on a basis sinergeticheskih communications, and consists of several subsystems: resource, industrial, rynochyonoj, investment, social, institutsionalnoj, cultural and organiyozatsionnoj [295, with. 25].

Novakovsky Island A and Mitjuhin D.S. make constructive definition SESR as which suggest to understand localised on defined teryoritorii set social, economic, and also sotsialnoyoekonomicheskih institutes, which, interacting among themselves on purpose udovyoletvorenija both social, and economic requirements of the population in proyotsesse vosproizvodstvennogo a cycle [125, with. 132].

Analyzing presented treatments SESR, it is possible to track odnovreyomennoe availability in them both functional, and structural making conceptual sights on SESR. Taking into consideration the designated facts,
We consider, that the combined approach is given scientifically reason and can be isyopolzovan in practice.

Thus, we suggest to allocate five basic approaches to interyopretatsii SESR (drawing 7).

Drawing 7 - the Basic conceptual approaches to definition SESR

The analysis of various approaches to definition of essence SESR shows, that the uniform understanding of essence, and with other - vazhyona a fragmentariness of judgements that is the objective reason of application of the synthetic approach [148, on the one hand, is necessary, with. 74].

For formation of an author's sight concerning interpretation SESR, we will address to structure SESR.

From an item of the system approach the region is SES, as consists of set of the interconnected elements (subsystems, components), acting as certain integrity [172, with. 103-118].

We share P.A.Minakira's opinion that studying SESR is possible only on the basis of structurization, that is allocation of the subsystems which joint functioning defines dynamics of development SESR. Opinions issleyodovatelej concerning structure SESR it is separated, thus in structure SESR vydeljayoetsja from two to eleven subsystems [116].

Thus, it is possible to notice, that each author has a point zreyonija on structure SESR, each of which has the right to existence and, bezyouslovno, deserves a recognition.

However, in our opinion, structure SESR most substantially and layokonichno is presented to Uskovoj T.V.'s monographies «Management stable razyovitiem region». The given structure most logically and accurately characterises soyostav entering in SESR subsystems. The closest to our item is Uskovoj T.V.'s opinion that in region structure it is possible to allocate three podsisyotemy: economic, social and ecological [215].

However we suggest to concretise the substantial characteristic of the given subsystems and we consider as the most correct to allocate in structure SESR a prirodno-ecological subsystem, a social subsystem and finansovoyoekonomicheskuju a subsystem as they more full and precisely reflect the essence.

From our point of view, the approaches presented above to structurization SESR, do not contradict that structure which we as each of the subsystems transferred by authors can be carried in quality sistemoobrazujushchego an element of one of subsystems allocated with us adhere: prirodnoyoekologicheskoj, social, financial and economic in structure SESR.

Confirming to the given fact it is possible to result H.Bosselja's opinion, kotoyoryj indicates that allocated with it in territorial systems (in our case SESR) six subsystems can be aggregated in three subsystems: obshchestyovennuju (social), maintenance (financial and economic) and ecological (prirodno-ecological) [36].

Besides, enough the point of view, in chastnoyosti, in works of such scientists as I.I.Sigov [183], A.I.Tatarkin [203], that SESR the nature - the population - an economy »and sootyovetstvujushchuju to it an operating subsystem (governing bodies) represents a triad of subsystems« is widespread. InyYOmi words, the nature is a prirodno-ecological subsystem, the population - soyotsialnaja, an economy - financial and economic subsystem SESR.

Summarising, we suggest to allocate in structure SESR three cores podyosistemy, such as:

1) a prirodno-ecological subsystem;

2) a social subsystem;

3) a financial and economic subsystem.

Having designated own item concerning structure SESR, we can pass directly to the author's formulation of concept SESR.

With allowance for concepts SESR considered before definitions, kontseptualyonyh approaches to them and structural structure SESR, and also accepting in vnimayonie main principles of a state policy of regional development KonYOtseptsii of long-term social and economic development Russian FederaYOtsii for the period to 2020 [7], having applied the synthetic approach, we offer author's interpretation SESR in the following treatment.

SESR is a basic element of social and economic system of the country, presented in the form of set prirodno-ecological, sotsialyonoj and the financial and economic regional subsystems consisting from mnozheyostva of components and directly contacting among themselves in the course of occurrence of mutual relations, directed on creation it is maximum blagoyoprijatnyh conditions for complex social and economic development regioyona.

In this case creation of as much as possible favorable conditions for komyopleksnogo social and economic development of region, proceeding from main principles of a state policy of regional development, assumes maintenance of the conditions allowing region to have necessary and sufficient resources for maintenance of worthy living conditions of citizens, complex razyovitija and increases of competitiveness of economy of region.

Thus, we consider, that a main objective of functioning SESR is region maintenance with necessary and sufficient resources for dosyotojnogo a standard of living of citizens, complex development and strengthening konkurentoyo
Abilities of regional economy. Proceeding from it, the role and significance SESR in region economy is difficult for overestimating.

From that, it will be how much effective to function SESR and each of its subsystems, depends not only economy development, but also development of many druyogih the major spheres of a public life of region.

Important role SESR plays at maintenance of following directions razyovitija region:

1) satisfactions of requirements of the population of the given territory and others reyogionov in the necessary goods and services;

2) maintenance of financial soundness and formation financial isyotochnikov territory self-development (increase of level budgetary samoobespeyochennosti);

3) creations of conditions for preservation both the expanded reproduction naseyolenija and labour potential in territory;

4) creations of conditions for satisfaction social and sotsialnoyokulturnyh requirements of the population, increase on this basis of level and kachestyova lives, preservations of cultural and national traditions, maintenance of sotsiyoalno-political stability in territory;

5) creations economic and institutsionalnyh conditions for preservation and improvement of a condition of environment, maintenance ecological bezopasnoyosti productions and increases on this basis of quality of a life of the population [72, with. 118].

Thus, research SESR allows to establish all its importance and the importance in development of economy of region and other spheres public zhizyoni, that requires enough a wide tooling effective upravyolenija SESR for the purpose of maintenance of its necessary level of development for osushcheyostvlenija main objectives of functioning SESR [96, with. 142].

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A source: KELESH JULIA VADIMOVNA. Design management of social and economic development of region. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Kursk - 2019. 2019

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