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3.1 System model of management of innovative projects of development of the budgetary organisation

The system model of management of innovative projects of development which can be applicable for the budgetary organisations of space branch, represents the curtailed tree of redundant (complete) set of problems and procedures which can be carried out at management of innovative projects of development.

This concept has distinctive feature what completeness of model defines character of construction of organizational structures and business processes at realisation of innovative projects of development. The structure of system model of management innovative development projects - Ieper - includes three groups of components traditional for any design activity: subjects of management, objects of management and managerial processes. We will consider each component with reference to Ieper.

Subjects of management Ieper are the active participants of design process interacting at development and acceptance of administrative decisions in the course of realisation of the innovative project of development. Within the limits of considered branch as subjects of management can act: GK "Roskosmos" (as the curator of the project), management TSPK (as the project leader), other participants of design activity (a project command).

As objects of management act: programs (when the group of the projects connected by one purpose, unites in the program); projects; contracts; realised in the organisation; phases of life cycle IIR (the concept, working out, realisation, end). The innovative project of development according to the procedures accepted in design activity
Breaks into life cycle phases, i.e. on a set of logically interconnected works after which end the concrete result of a certain stage of works is reached. At definition of phases of life cycle Ieper following moments are considered:

- Life cycle phases Ieper should be strictly standardised, i.e. correspond to standards (international, branch, etc.) for projects with similar characteristics;

- Each phase is finished by a control point in which the result defined by the purposes and results of the project should be received;

- The innovative project of development should have own plan system and the control, allowing to allocate certain phases of life cycle, to define results corresponding to these phases.

Life cycle of the innovative project of development should be connected with life cycle of a created product or service. Its basic difference consists in it from traditional design activity in which project life cycle directly is connected with object of design activity.

Innovative projects of development have a wide spectrum of unique qualities which are characteristic only for the certain project. Besides, even within the limits of one kind of activity depending on applied technologies and requirements of the control from the organisation various models of life cycles of the project can be applied. For example, for the project considered in item 2.2, on working out of a new training apparatus for preparation of cosmonauts, following models of life cycles can be used:

- The cascade model - consecutive fulfilment of all stages of life cycle of the project with possibility in case of occurrence of problems to return on any of previous phases of the project;

- The V-shaped model (verification and certification) - for each result received in a control point is made check on its conformity as to specification requests, and requests of the customer;

- The iterative model - issue is carried out in a kind (is consistently iterative) improved and developed versions (a breadboard model, a prototype, the pilot version, etc.).

Managerial processes Ieper are classified in two directions - on a field of knowledge and a management stage. Area of knowledge of management of the innovative project of development are a knowledge and practical tools of management of the project, grouped and formalized in terms of processes making it. Management stages the innovative project of development are groups of managerial processes by the project, corresponding to the basic components of a standard cycle of management.

Structure of managerial processes by the innovative project of development the following: [81]

- Management of a subject domain Ieper;

- Management of the project on time and cost parametres;

- Quality management of design works;

- Risk-management of the project;

- Management of staff and communications;

- Management of changes.

Managerial process stages the innovative project of development the following:

- Initialization - project start;

- Planning, the organisation and the control of fulfilment of works within the limits of the project;

- Project closing.

In a time cut Ieper it is possible to present management levels as follows:

- Strategic level covers all life cycle of the project from the moment of origin of idea, preparation and start of the project till the moment of its closing;

- Annual level of management covers those kinds of works of the project which date of performance is planned within a calendar year;

- Quarter level of management considers kinds of the works which performance is planned for a quarter;

- Operative level of management covers the works which performance is carried out during operative term (month, decade, week, the days, several hours).

All time levels of management set forth above the innovative project of development can be characterised as tajming the project. Thus, managerial process by the project includes straight lines and feedback between subjects and objects of management by means of levels of management, managerial processes, management functions, etc. (drawing 19).

Drawing 19 - System model of management of the innovative project

Developments

Source: it is made by the author

In the presented drawing it is possible to allocate following elements of system model:

- Objects of management (projects, programs, portfolios of projects, contacts);

- Subjects of management;

- Control command Ieper (the curator of the project, the project leader, the manager of the project, functional managers, etc.);

- Life cycle phases (the concept, working out, realisation, end);

- Management functions (integration, management of the contents, management of terms, managements in cost, quality management, management of staff, management of communications, management of risks, management of deliveries);

- tajming the project (time) (strategic, annual, quarter, operative);

- Key participants (the investor, the customer, the general counteractor (GK Roskosmos), a prime contractor, executors);

- Stages of management of the project (initsiatsija, planning, performance, the control, management, closing).

It is possible to present managerial processes in the form of three-dimensional space on which axes of co-ordinates the certain measurements characterising the innovative project of development are postponed. Each point of this space represents elementary managerial process, for example «quality assurance of design works» (drawing 20).

At project planning such subset of managerial processes that it covered requirements of all phases of life cycle of the innovative project of development should be chosen. Besides, at a choice of managerial processes it is necessary to make the account of their logic
Interrelations. For example, planning of risks assumes process of reaction and neutralisation of risks. For convenience of management all

Introduction of the following formalized classification is offered:

- Principle of axis H;

- Principle of axis Y;

- Principle of axis Z.

Let's consider an essence of such formalisation on an example of "a principle of axis H». In our case is tajming the project. Within the limits of procedure all functions concern only any one function of management, for example to function of management by changes. The given function interacts with other functions and is subject to the description by references to the corresponding procedures constructed by a principle of axis Y and Z. We will notice, that, as

82Туккель I.L.method and management tools innovative development of industrial enterprises/I.L. Tukkel, S.A.Golubev, A.V.Surin, N.A.Tsvetkova/under the editorship of I.L.Tukkelja. - SPb: BHV - Petersburg, 2013. - 208 with

Principle of axis H - in our case tajming the project the given procedure is described during strictly certain time period (for example, calendar year). The procedure contents covers all questions of management within the limits of the given function (change management) at all stages of life cycle of the project and at realisation of all stages of management.

In table 12 the example of specialised procedure of management Ieper, constructed on time and cost parametres is resulted.

Table 12 - Construction of procedure of management on time and cost parametres Ieper

Phase of life cycle Ieper Management function
Management on cost parametre Management on the time

To parametre

Initsiatsija Definition of the general budget

IEPER

Definition of time frameworks

IEPER

Planning Cost definition

Design works

Cost definition

The detailed works

Definition of the general

The project planned schedule

(Diagramme G anta)

Choice of contractors Formation of the detailed plan of a concrete stage

Fulfilment Definition of an effective cost of the executed works The account of expenses of working hours on stages

Change of the status of works/stages

The control Comparison of real data to the budget of the project and the mortgaged resources on fulfilment of works Initsiatsija and a substantiation

Changes in the project budget

Comparison of the planned

The work schedule and a real condition of the status of works

Stage/project

Revealing of deviations

Initsiatsija and a substantiation

Necessary changes in

Project planned schedules

End Report formation on

To end of works with a substantiation of a deviation of the cost

Characteristics

Formation of the certificate of end of works/stages

Project end

Source: it is made by the author

Thus, the chosen separate processes in aggregate form management procedure by the innovative project of development, which
Can be formalized by a principle of axes H, Y and Z. The description of similar design procedures makes a basis of the standard of design activity.

The standard of design activity is the complex document in details describing all procedures of management on all phases of life cycle of the project. For this reason exists defined etapnost, allowing to conduct design works within the limits of the standard of the innovative project of development. Such etapnost represents consecutive detailed elaboration of works, including working out of the concept of the project and methodical bases of management of the project (drawing 21).

Drawing 21

Formalisation stages

The management standard

The innovative project of development

Source: it is made by the author

Necessity of use of model of open innovations for the high technology budgetary organisations, in particular in space branch has been above reasonable. We will consider formation of business model which is the necessary factor of advancement of a new product on the market on the basis of introduction of system of open innovations.

Innovations come "from the outside" if the organisation uses not own ideas, technology or intellectual property in development and kommertsializatsii. Table 13 illustrates process
Strengthenings of the importance of external sources for strengthening of business processes

The organisations. Innovations arise "from within" At sale Or
Licensing The organisation The own Technologies Or
The intellectual Properties, In particular What Not

Are used by the organisation.

Let's consider variants of innovative projects of development of organisations GK "Роскосмос". We will notice, that in many respects are budgetary organisations, since time of the basis working exclusively within the limits of the state task, using internal innovative potential, own ideas and workings out, and also workings out of partners within the limits of joint research works.

Table 13 - Principles of innovations

The closed innovations Open innovations
Talented people in our sphere work on us It is necessary to work with talented people both in our organisation, and in the foreign organisations
To secure the profit from research and development, the organisation independently should do opening, develop them and introduce External researches and development also create value and, to apply for a part of this value, our organisation should attend too to researches together with external partners or acquire these researches
If to make opening it is possible to seize the first the market It is unessential to carry out researches independently to receive from them profit
If the majority of ideas in branch is ours, we will win The prize will be on our party if we effectively use as the, and another's ideas
Our organisation should supervise our innovative process that competitors could not use our ideas It is necessary to secure the profit from

Uses by other organisations of results of our innovative

Activity, but also our organisation it is necessary to acquire innovations if it corresponds to our interests and produces a profit

Source: it is made by the author on the basis of [83]

Now before GK "Roskosmos" the priority problem of a gain of a significant share of the world market hi-tech is delivered

83Остервальдер A.Postroenie of business models: the Reference book of the strategist and the innovator/and. Ostervalder, And.

Pine: the Lane with English - 3 izd. - M: ALPINA PABLISHER, 2013. - 288 with. - With. 117
Production. In rigid competitive conditions the unique model which can supply innovative break on foreign markets - model of open innovations is possible.

Within the limits of such model instead of increase in budgetary appropriations at own workings out it is possible to offer construction of the new innovative culture supplying transition from orientation to internal workings out to open process of innovative design activity. It is possible to name the main thesis «partnership and development», directed on use of external partner communications. We will notice, that many workings out of space branch have strategic character, however, first, output and rendering of services of double appointment is possible, secondly, the large strategic project can be broken into a number of subtasks, fulfilment of separate parts can not be a confidential problem, however is possible privnesenie new ideas and workings out from a foreign market in the strategic project.

So, initiative decisions can be integrated into industrial chains as at a stage of creation of a space technology and technologies, and at a stage kommertsializatsii possibilities of orbital groupings. It is possible to allocate following directions of interaction: new program decisions in the field of geoinformatics, constructional materials, industrial technologies, various components of space vehicles, including the microcompanions, new platform and system decisions.

To connect internal resources and available workings out with an environment, use of three innovative tools is possible: technological business, Internet platforms, work with persons of the senior generation. We will consider more in detail the indicated tools (drawing 22).

If to speak about the mechanism of similar model it consists in the following. Leading scientists of the hi-tech budgetary

117 organisations which attend to an establishment of partner relations with leading high schools of the country and world leaders, and also other companies, act in a role of original "selectors" of ideas and workings out.

Drawing 22 - Model of the open innovations, allowing to involve foreign ideas and developers for the organisations of space branch

Source: it is made by the author

They trace processes occurring in an external world, trace performances at leading thematic conferences and the publication in scientific and practical journals. Thus search of new ideas and workings out, and also revealing of new talents is conducted. Besides, for search of external partners probably creation of a modern Internet platform on which problems which are necessary for deciding within the limits of innovative design activity will give all the best. Through such platform search of interested researchers which wish to solve non-standard problems will be carried out and applications do not find of the knowledge and ideas at the enterprise (university). One more interesting tool attraction of scientists can be,

Being now on pension. Such scientists working earlier in branch or allied industries, have huge luggage of knowledge and skills, however owing to age restrictions it is difficult to them to be on jobs. However they can solve certain design problems within the limits of work under the agreement. Such approach, first, will allow to solve a problem of attraction of competent experts with smaller expenses, in - the second, will allow people of advanced age to make use of the accumulated experience with the maximum return.

Use of the toolkit offered in given model will allow to reduce costs to working out of innovations considerably. As fairly spoke A.D.Lefli, general director P&G: «We long time preferred to do all, but now have started to search for sources of innovations everywhere - both in the company, and behind its limits».

However the companies of space branch have a huge reserve of results of intellectual activity which can be used on double appointment, in the civil purposes. Therefore for the organisations of space branch it is possible to offer also use of model of realisation of innovations «internal use». Such model means formation of a pool of innovative workings out which can be used in civil sector. Such innovative workings out can to be realised through the Internet platform offered above in the open market. Besides, probably further maintenance service of use of the given workings out by the enterprises of space branch.

Generalising the aforesaid it is possible so to describe two models of realisation of innovative design activity offered business - in space branch.

1. Model «external attraction» - attraction of external ideas and workings out. The foreign organisations representing absolutely other branches, can offer valuable decisions, knowledge, patents or ready
Decisions. These are so-called key partners or partners in innovations. Besides, such set of innovative decisions the research community can have.

Use of foreign innovative knowledge and workings out requires certain actions for an establishment and correlation maintenance between external sources both internal business processes and research groups. Differently, there is a research network which requires certain administrative effects (search, management, secondary market use, etc.). In the offered model such item is parametre «key actions».

For use of advantages of foreign innovations it is necessary to have special resources for adjustment of communication channels with external research networks. Within the limits of parametre «key resources» it is necessary for organisation to have possibilities for search of innovations and to have access to a network of innovations, i.e. to use the platform offered above the Internet-.

For reception of innovations from external sources the necessary financial resources. But at use of external knowledge and the advanced research programs the organisation can reduce time for working out of an innovative product and its advancement, thereby increasing efficiency of own research division. Thus, the parametre "cost structure" will include making the circulation to external sources and costs for development.

The motto of such business model of realisation of the innovative project of development can become «we Purchase innovations».

2. Model «internal use» - advancement of the internal innovative workings out belonging to the organisation, on a foreign market.

The organisations of space branch intensively attending to innovative activity, often do not use to the full available mental potential, knowledge, technologies and intellectual property. Because of orientation to primary activity some of these assets remain dead.

Part of results of intellectual activity of the organisation, not used in the course of activity, for the strategic or operational reasons to be offered a foreign market. Such innovative workings out, considering specificity of space branch, can have an appreciated value for the organisations and the companies in other branches. Once again we will make the clause, that speech does not go about the strategic closed workings out. In the given model it is necessary to speak about possibility of use of separate innovative workings out in the civil purposes, for example, by analogy of use of navigating systems in civil sphere.

Because the organisation of space branch should leave on a foreign market with the innovative workings out, that, under business laws, it should generate the valuable offer for the client, allowing last to understand, how it can is effective and with profit to use the offered innovative workings out.

It is necessary to carry to consumer segments: a secondary market of innovative workings out, holders of licences and consumers of innovations.

As trade channel of such innovative workings out the Internet - a platform acts.

Granting other organisations to use not used innovative workings out of the organisation additional streams of receipt of incomes can receive possibility. If to speak about streams of receipt of incomes of sale of results of intellectual activity them concern asset sale, a payment for licences, small
The innovative enterprises, technological business (startapy).

It is possible to consider as the motto of such business model of realisation of innovative projects of development the slogan «we Sell innovations».

The generalised description of open business model for the enterprises of space branch is presented in table 14.

Table 14 - Open business model of innovative activity in

Space branch

Item The description
Context Resources, researches, workings out and key kinds of activity are concentrated basically in branch and the separate organisations:

- Ideas are born only in the organisations

- Results are used only in a branch cut

Problem Research and development the expensive (vysokozatratnye) and-or

Efficiency falls

The decision Internal resources, workings out and activity

Are redistributed including foreign partners. Results of research and development will be transformed to the valuable offer and addressed to interested consumers by means of an Internet platform

Substantiation Acquisition of foreign innovations more zatratno, but considerably reduces a time cycle of realisation

The innovative project. Not used innovations can bring in the income if will be offered external users or foreign partners

Source: it is made by the author

Generalising the aforesaid, it is necessary to notice, that the space branch was until recently a classical example of the closed branch in which, despite high concentration of innovative workings out, they were used exclusively in the internal purposes, or laid «the dead consignment». The request on an exit on vnutristranovoj and the world market has delivered before branch a problem of search of new model of use of own innovations and realisation of innovative projects. Therefore within the limits of the offered system model of management of innovative projects of development use of the offered business models sees expedient.

3.2

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A source: KHARLAMOV MAXIM MIHAJLOVICH. MANAGEMENT of INNOVATIVE PROJECTS of DEVELOPMENT of the BUDGETARY ORGANIZATION of SPACE BRANCH. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Moscow - 2018. 2018

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  4. KHARLAMOV MAXIM MIHAJLOVICH. MANAGEMENT of INNOVATIVE PROJECTS of DEVELOPMENT of the BUDGETARY ORGANIZATION of SPACE BRANCH. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Moscow - 2018, 2018
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