2. Tehniko - business factors of development of cellular communication.

analyzing various systems of cellular communication or characterising features of separately taken markets, often there are mentions of replaced generations of cellular communication. Despite rather short history of development of cellular communication, in it three generations of systems [1.11] differ:
1) the First generation - the analogue systems which are gradually handing over in one regions and completely lost items in others, having given way to systems of the second generation.
Initially given systems were used only for a voice transfer, and only a few later they have received some base services;
2) the Second generation - the modern digital systems covering already more of 90 % of the world market and continuing confidently to extend. They grant the improved quality of a voice transfer and protection of the transmitted information, set of various services and services and nizkoskorostnuju data transfer [IV.31]. In technology of modern electric communication transition to a digital method of signalling instead of analogue was revolutionary break;
3) Right after occurrences of systems of the second generation, in particular the standard of communication GSM, have begun workings out of standards of the third generation. The third generation (3G - 3 Generation) - universal systems of the near future, which shape is fast formed today largely on the basis of systems of the second generation. The important feature of systems of the third generation is use of cellular communication for data transfer, and with much bolshej in the speed, than at use of other kinds of communication.
Before to start the detailed analysis of used standards in communication systems of different generations, we will stay on ranges of frequencies used in cellular communication and names of systems (standards) of cellular communication.
For, for example, such skandinavsko-European standard as NMT-450 it is accepted to believe, that a used range of frequencies - 450 MHz. However, the given standard takes strips 453-457,5 and 463-467,5, in other countries these strips a little bit others; standard С-450 - strips of 451-456 and 461-466 MHz. In a range of 800 MHz - in North American AMPS (it is more exact - strips of 824-849 and 869894 MHz, in them work also standards DAMPS-800 and CDMA-800).
Apparently, names 450 MHz and 800 MHz are conditional enough, with the same success they could be called, for example, 400 MHz and 850 MHz, and the similar situation takes place and concerning other ranges and communication standards. Nevertheless, these conventions are standard, and we will adhere to them.
As to the names of systems of cellular communication usually used in the form of English-speaking abbreviations in the majority they are conditional in even bolshej degrees, than the name of frequency ranges. Therefore, though we also will result further decodings of these abbreviations and their transfers on Russian, it is not necessary to give to them of excessively big semantic significance. We will notice also, that in application to cellular communication of concept "system" and "standard" are often used as synonyms though sometimes the name "standard" is used and for a designation of the document regulating the characteristics of corresponding system.
There are some standards of the first generation.
The first generation as already it was mentioned above, make the analogue systems which roots leave in 70-e - the beginning of 80th In all systems the same method of plural access - with frequency division of channels (Frequency Division Multiple Access - FDMA) was applied. Standards of the first generation concern: • AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service - the advanced mobile telephone service) - is applied almost all over the world, except the Western Europe and Japan. The first automatic commercial system of cellular communication of standard AMPS has started to be maintained in Chicago in October, 1983 by [1.10] company operator American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T). It is the first standard of cellular communication taken on operation by commercial communication statements. In the standard a number of the original technical decisions directed on is used
Maintenance of qualitative communication at minimum cost of the equipment. A serious problem of the given standard for today is granting to subscribers of various not vocal services, somehow data transfer, an exit in the Internet, etc. Exists only one completely the ready decision a-packet transmission of data in Cellular Networks, however it needs to be introduced into already existing network that requires not small investments.
TACS (Total Access Communications System - a popular communication system) - extended in the Great Britain, Italy, Spain, Ireland, Australia and some other countries.
NMT-450 And NMT-900 (Nordic Mobile Telephone - the mobile phone of northern countries) - is used in Scandinavia, in many countries Western and the Eastern Europe. Dignities NMT-450 in much bolshej in comparison with other standards the area of service of one base station at ready smaller expenses; small attenuation of a signal on open spaces. For networks NMT-450 the big range - possibility of use of communication on distance in some tens kilometres from base station is characteristic. The signal is fixed even outside of a cover warranty limit if the subscriber can connect highly effective external systems of a signal transmission. Probably on these reasons NMT-450 - one of the first standards of cellular communication whom have started to maintain in Russia. Defects of the given standard are the weak noise stability, vulnerability from listening, and also inconvenience of mobile stations dimensions, weight and consumption of energy of telephone sets 10 times more, than in digital systems.
• a number of other standards, such as NTT, С-450, RTMS, R-2000, Comvic ASC, introduced basically in each concrete country and not leaving for its limits.
Distinctive lines of the first stage of development of cellular communication are:
Use of the analogue equipment of radio telephone communication with technology of frequency division of channels (FDMA)
Application of strips of frequencies according to requests of Regulations of a radio communication for corresponding area and the equipment, as a rule, the national manufacturer
Granting mainly services of vocal telephone service
Low level of an indicator of penetration, in connection with orientation to a narrow segment of representatives of business sphere (the maximum level was observed in Sweden - 6 % of the population).
There is enough high bid for user's terminals and mobile communication services.
Systems of the first generation which practical application has begun in 1980-1986, are used till now, though peak of their development already behind. In the beginning of 90th it on change digital systems of the second generation which make now overwhelming majority of user's base have come. Absolute recession of an analogue part of the world market has begun in 1998 In 2001-2002 analogue systems basically have terminated the existence in the Western Europe, and in 2004-2006, under forecasts of experts, and in the world in whole (fig. 7).
Distinctive feature of systems of the second generation a-communication of information in the digital form, in a combination to corresponding methods of coding and modulation. Digital standards of communication concern:
DAMPS (Digital AMPS - digital AMPS) - the digital standard, is used in the same countries where and AMPS though degree of its advancement in the different countries is rather various, in many of them (including the USA) transition from analogue to figure occurs slowly and difficultly, inertia of use of the analogue standard is great; on an extent approximately 10 years standard DAMPS has passed through some stages of development and has considerably changed, in particular, there was a version for a range of 1900 MHz, not so compatible with AMPS. Feature of the given standard is high, concerning any analogue standard, the capacity of networks. In DAMPS/AMPS the user has an opportunity phone operation, both in digital, and in an analogue mode.
GSM is the all-European digital standard of a range 900 Mgts, accepted by the European institute of standards in the field of communication (ETSI). From the beginning of its application in 1991г. It has received a wide circulation and now its share all over the world makes 77,7 % of the general number of users cellular communication. IV. 19] Already in 90th updatings have been developed: DCS-1800 (Digital Cellular Systems) and PCS-1900 (Personal Communication Service), applied in the USA and other countries of America. Considering this circumstance, abbreviation GSM originally formed of the first letters of the name of special group (Groupe Speciale Mobile), is deciphered now as Global System for Mobile Communications - global system of a mobile communication. The share of the given standard in the Western Europe makes 96 % of total of subscribers. A range of frequencies of standard GSM-900 of base stations - 935-960 Mgts, mobile stations - 890-915 Mgts; Standard GSM-1800 accordingly 17101785 and 1805-1880 Mgts [1.10]. Main dignity of standard GSM - smaller in comparison with analogue standards the sizes and weight of telephone sets at bolshem an operating time without accumulator additional charge. It becomes possible at use of equipment of base station which constantly analyzes level of the signal, an accepted subscriber's station. When it above required, automatically decreases radiated capacity. Rather high capacity of a network, low level of hindrances, and also high enough degree of protection against listening have supplied to the given standard of communication wide to distribution worldwide. • CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access, the name - on a method of plural access with code division of channels which it differs from all other digital standards)-was developed in the USA as alternative DAMPS-800. For the given standard excellent quality of a sound and low level of background noise are characteristic. The raised capacity of system which in 10 times above than at AMPS and in 3-5 times more than at GSM, is defined by the greatest possible quantity of active users of system in territory of a zone of its service. CDMA improves a communication quality in overpopulated areas, and districts with a hilly relief where there are hindrances from the reflected signals.
At the second stage of development of a cellular mobile communication there was following in comparison with the first stage of change:
Transition to digital systems of a mobile communication with use of technology of time division of channels (TDMA), an in the end of this stage - and on technology with code division of channels (CDMA) is carried out
Besides services of vocal telephone service to subscribers began to grant a number of additional services (nizkoskorostnaja data transfer, service of short messages sms etc.)
Cellular communication services had been captured a significant part of the population of many countries of the world. In some advanced countries level of penetration of cellular communication comes nearer to a mark of 100 %, and the question on lead of the given kind of communication in comparison with the traditional fixed telephone service has been removed in 2001
Orientation to the advanced standard of mobile communication GSM became priority
There were multiband networks and the multiband telephone sets GSM 900/1800/1900, allowing to realise global roaming in territory of countries of Western Europe and the North America.
The prices, both in the market of services, and in the market of the equipment of a mobile communication at the expense of development of the mass markets and production scales were considerably reduced.
So, systems of cellular communication of the second generation have practically started to be used in first half 90th and by 1998 have taken a leading position in the market. Within the limits of the second generation there were so-called systems of personal communication which for a while applied for an independent niche, but as a result were entered in numbers of systems of the second generation. As standards of personal communication understand "European" GSM-1800 which commercial use has begun in 1993 of System of the second generation continue to develop and extend, peak of their development still ahead. But on their basis contours of systems of the third generation already start to appear.
The standard formal definition of systems of the third generation while is not present, as there is no complete clearness and concerning principles of their construction and number of possible standards. However attempts to make such definition were. For example, most often system of the third generation define as a network in which data transfer prevails over a voice transfer. As a matter of fact systems of the third generation are unanimously enough evaluated as system of a mobile communication with all diverse types of service, including multimedia, with global roaming, with use of land and satellite segments. The beginning of operation of systems of the third generation took place in the Western Europe - 2003, in America - in 2004 In Japan now some years there are commercial networks of the third generation IV. 15].
It is necessary to notice, that though many analysts of the market of communications connect the future of services of the third generation, basically, with addition of multimedia services in telephone mobile systems, their possibilities only one it are not limited. Probably, the potential of communication of the third generation is significant only for the portable computer engineering. The mobile phone having the small 5-lower case display, is suitable only for dispatch and reception of short text messages or viewing of the simple text information, for example, stock quotes, weather forecasts etc. Nevertheless, all these services are stimulus for reorientation to communication systems of new generation.
Until recently the traditional voice transfer was a major factor defining development of mobile communications. However introduction of new technologies of high-speed data transfer, including GPRS (General Packet Radio Services a-method of a packet transmission of data) and EDGE (Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution - technology of the third generation for networks GSM), and evolutions to systems UMTS/WCDMA (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System - the Universal system of a mobile communication - system of a mobile communication of third generation/Wideband CDMA - Broadband CDMA - a method is literally (and the standard) CDMA for a wide strip of frequencies) will allow operators of cellular communication to grant unlimited quantity of wireless multimedia services, for example, an exchange of electronic cards, viewing of Web-pages, access to corporate networks, etc. [11.23]
Working out of the third generation has begun for a long time, in the mid-eighties, practically in parallel the International union of electric communication (ITU - International Telecommunications Union) system FPLMTS, in 1995 renamed in IMT-2000, and the European institute of standards (ETSI - European Telecommunications Standarts Institute) - system UMTS. In June, 1998 MSE has accepted offers from the various regional organisations of standardization of a mobile communication. In the same 1998 ESTI has accepted the standard broadband CDMA as technology for service UMTS.
The intermediate stage, so-called 2,5G (fig. 3). Technology EDGE also,
As well as GPRS it is possible to carry to systems the second and a half
Generations . For operators network operation 2,5G it is significant
More cheaply in comparison with expansion polnoformatnyh systems
3G. Systems 2,5G are traditional networks on which are imposed
Data transfer possibilities. Speed of connection mobile
gelefona with the Internet on technology GPRS even at the beginning
oudet very high - to 64 Kbit/with, and in the long term will be
To be reached speed 172,8 Kbit/with. Expansion EDGE raises
This threshold to 384 Kbit/with [11.29].
As soon as possible development of the markets of cellular communication in the world
oudet to be characterised by strengthening of opposition of two families
3G technologies: GSM/GPRS/UMTS and cdmaOne/cdma2000.
From the moment of issue in Finland first three licences on
Services of a cellular mobile communication of the third generation 3G/UMTS in
1999 has passed more than 6 years. Now despite
Some financial problems and complexities of licensing of a network
3G develop in the majority of the countries dynamically enough and
Totals more than 65 million subscribers that makes about 5 % of the general number of subscribers of cellular communication. From the general number of subscribers of networks 3G more than 97 % are users of networks of standard CDMA2000 and 3 % - standard W-CDMA (UMTS). Among the various countries of the world the leader on number of subscribers are: South Korea and Japan - 36,9 % and 17,2%о accordingly.
Essential factors in success CDMA2000 are ease of modernisation of networks and the inverse compatibility, allowing to carry out bezrazryvnyj roaming between 2G and 3G networks CDMA, and also low prices for user's terminals are more white. Key item of success CDMA2000 in comparison with others 3G technologies is that CDMA2000 requires essentially smaller resources for improvement of possibilities of networks at their modernisation for data transfer. So, for example, in Japan it is required to operator KDDI for construction of network CDMA2000 1X/EV-DO on 25 % of less investments, than to operator NTT DoCoMo on creation of network WCDMA/UMTS. Similarly in the USA: the analysis shows, that it is required to company Sprint PCS on support CDMA2000 1X/EV-DO 8 dollars ssha on one data link for service of the subscriber while other operators should spend three times more for transition in WCDMA [Item 7]. Thus, networks CDMA2000 leave on an item of the world legislator of services of a mobile communication of the third generation.
In Russia, also since 2003 active opposition of technologies GSM/GPRS/UMTS and CDMAOne/CDMA2000 in the basic regional markets of cellular communication is expected. In territory of our country at present new services in standard IMT MS - 450 (CDMA2000-lx in a range 450
The MHz) which supplies high-speed data transfer, is granted by 11 operators.
Leading Russian operators of networks GSM introduce technology of a packet transmission of data GPRS (fig. 6). Company "Vympelcom" the first (on April, 1st, 2002) from the Russian cellular operators has started in commercial operation a network of wireless data transfer (GPRS). The network covers Moscow and a part of the Moscow area [IV.37].
The largest Russian operator of cellular communication "MTS" together with company Motorola in September, 2000 declared the beginning of work of network GPRS first in Russia in to Moscow, however terms of the beginning of commercial operation of this network were constantly transferred. The company has started in test operation of service on the basis of technology GPRS in June, 2002 in following regions: Moscow and the Moscow area, Kostroma, Smolensk, Tver and Yaroslavl areas. Commercial realisation GPRS in the Moscow region has begun in I quarter 2003 (fig. 4). In pre-production operation there are also networks of affiliated companies of MTS: a Telecom XXI (St.-Petersburg) and ССС-900 (Novosibirsk).
On April, 1st, 2002 the operator "Megaphone" has started in commercial operation network GPRS in the Moscow region, and in 2003 in St.-Petersburg.

Introduction of technology GPRS by leading operators of the cellular
Communications of Russia, the beginning of 2003 the Source: [IV.30] Thus, transition to networks of the third generation is
The important stage in development of all branch of communication. With approach of an era
The mobile Internet, the cellular telephone becomes integral
Part of a life and work of millions people in the world. From the mobile
Phone people can learn that information, which it
It is necessary at present. In daily work, various
Business trips phone can replace the personal computer,
Fax and other systems. And in a usual life or travel it
There are the irreplaceable assistant, in search, for example, hotels,
Restaurant, vacation spot, etc.
Thus, the third stage of development of cellular communication is characterised:
• Use of exclusively digital communication facilities with
The in the lead technologies, capable to supply
High-speed data transfer
Granting as base service - data transfer; transfer of vocal messages will be one of versions of base services
Granting of services in any place and at any time
Maintenance of practically complete coverage with the population with services of networks of cellular communication to that there corresponds level of penetration of 100 %
To development of all kinds of electric communication in the world including cellular, the powerful electrical industry favoured. Manufacturers of equipment and the cellular communication equipment - the companies, as a rule, national on the roots, but international on many other things to indicators: to seller's markets, industrial cooperation, availability of branches, branches or affiliated companies in other countries. Most a vivid example in this respect is company Ericsson presented in the markets of all regions of the world, including in rather appreciable degree - in the developed market of the USA where it competes to American company Motorola. American company Motorola has manufactured the first-ever commercial portable cellular telephone more 20 years ago in March 1983 g [IV.29].
Three largest manufacturers of terminals of cellular communication Nokia, Motorola and Samsung - supervise about 60 % of the world market [11.33], and it is important to notice, that all three companies do not make now the equipment for analogue systems. Company Nokia takes strong in the lead position, having overtaken in 1998 Swedish Ericsson and in 1999 American Motorola. The major prominent feature of company Nokia is carefully thought over market strategy. In particular expenses for research and development make annually about 3 billion euro, or
10 % of a turn-over of the company [11.32] that grants the company right to consider the leader on introduction of various innovations with sphere of production of mobile devices. However now the relation to lead of the Finnish company in the world ambiguously. A number of observers underline, that after practically undivided domination already more than 5 years in the market of means of mobile telephony Nokia have appeared in the face of at once several serious threats - development of multimedia technologies, high degree of saturation of the market, discontent with its power from operators and necessity of opposition to attacks of more and more numerous competitors (tab. 1).
Table 1.
Distribution of deliveries of user's terminals of cellular communication on to the basic companies-manufacturers. № the company (country) Cellular devices, million pieces

199820002004 1 Nokia (Finland) 33,5 128,0 207,6 2 Motorola (USA) 36,8 60,1 104,5 3 Ericsson (Sweden) 24,3 43,3 86,4* 4 Panasonic (Japan) 12,5 21,5 49,4 ** 5 Alcatel/Sharp (France, Japan) 6,6 9,7 44 4 *** 6 Others 46,3 52,8 172,0 Only 160 205 664,4 * - Samsung, ** - LG Electronics, ***-Siemens
Source: it is made by the author according to [1.10,11.33]
The market of a mobile communication following the results of 2004, no less than on indicators of 2003 confirms the status of one of most fast growing. In 2003 by various estimations of experts it has been sold about 520 million subscriber sets (the gain has made 10 %). In 2004 rapid growth (to 664 million pieces) has been noted even more, at level of a gain about 30 %. However, for the sake of justice it is necessary to notice growth only on 21,6 % in 2005 that is hardly more low than indicators 2004 [11.35]. As a whole, the signs of the crisis which has scheduled in the beginning of XX century, remained behind. According to experts of sale of cellular devices in the world in 2008 about twice can exceed level of 2003 and reach 1,1 mlrd piece Major factors of activization of demand in 2004 experts consider favorable enough condition of economic and large-scale filling of the market by devices with the built in camera. So, demand in the market of the Western Europe is supported by the consumers which have purchased first phones in 2000-2001 and wishing to replace them with devices of the smaller size with a colour screen and the built in cameras, which steels are accessible on ready more to low prices. In the market of Latin America the leader there was Brazil, in Mexico active growth of demand also was marked. In the North America the break-even sales level of the equipment for replacement before acquired was high enough as operators subsidised the prices for more functional models of devices, especially with the built in cameras.
In Market ATR in the tideway of seasonal tendencies the sales volume has a little decreased. In such mature markets as Taiwan, Singapore and Australia, consumers abstained from acquisitions of new devices in hope to wait the further reduction of prices or increase of grants. Asian-Pacific region in whole and the Peoples Republics of China, in particular, are rather perspective markets for the western producers of mobile phones. The share of the Chinese firms for 2004, a component of 50 % has fallen to 38 % because of inability to manufacture phones with the built in cameras and colour displays and accordingly to compete to the western manufacturers under the price and quality. [11.22] Peoples Republics of China remain the major market for the first six world companies-manufacturers of the equipment for cellular networks.
A number of experts marks now the following tendency of distribution of a share of the market among manufacturers of the equipment. Probably, that a significant share the Japanese corporations, such as NEC Corp in the near future can seize. And Matsushita Electric Industrial Co Ltd, known at us in the country brands Panasonic and Technics. [IV.37] somewhat it can be changed and a share of leaders of the market of mobile phones. So, Finnish Nokia and American Motorola will undergo bolshemu to pressure from the basic competitors - German Siemens AG and South Korean Samsung and LG. Similar tendencies can be tracked already now - for example the unconditional leader of the last years Nokia with 2002 (35,9 %) has lost 1,7 % of the market, and in 2004 The company share has made all no more than 30 % from total amount of sales [11.22] However, we are assured, that at a present alignment of forces among manufacturers of equipment for cellular networks, and also at present competent strategy of production the Finnish company will remain still for a long time the world leader.
Now competition between the companies manufacturers of the equipment of cellular networks has entered the new phase of the development characterised by a pursuit of quantity and functionality of models, instead of competition in a dumping of the prices for them.
One of the most essential business factors defining a state of the art and the tendency of development of the market of cellular communication in the world is the general crisis of telecommunication branch which should mention the cellular communication market. Saturation of the market of the developed countries of the West, and also the huge means enclosed in acquisition of licences for granting of a telecommunication service of the third generation, have forced to search the companies-operators for new decisions for profit taking. Besides granting of the big set of services of one of the basic tendencies in the cellular communication market creation of alliances between the various companies in the given sphere is. Various aspects of association of the companies-operators, and also the companies of producers of the equipment will be considered in III head of the present work.
<< | >>

More on topic 2. Tehniko - business factors of development of cellular communication.:

  1. 3. Socially - economic preconditions and factors of formation of cellular communication.
  2. 1. The ancestor of cellular communication - the North America, a cellular communication place in region telecommunications.
  3. 1. Geographical conditions of development of cellular communication.
  4. 2.2. Tools of development of the market of cellular communication
  5. 4 Features of development of cellular communication in the Russian Federation.
  6. 3.3. Prospects of development of the market of cellular communication in economy of Russia
  7. 3.2. Model of development of the market of cellular communication in competitive
  8. 3.1. Perfection of strategy of development of the enterprises of cellular communication in the conditions of competitive market
  9. 1. Influence of processes of globalisation and transnatsionalizatsiimirovogo economy on cellular communication development.
  11. nevenchannyj Alexander Aleksandrovich. MANAGEMENT of DEVELOPMENT of the MARKET of SERVICES of CELLULAR COMMUNICATION., 2006
  14. 3. Structure of cellular communication of China.
  15. 1.2 Contents and properties of services of cellular communication.
  16. 2. Geographical features of cellular communication of the world.
  17. 1.2. Features of the Russian market of cellular communication
  18. 2. Formation of systems of cellular communication in the Western Europe.
  19. 2.2 Classification of additional services of cellular communication.
  20. 2.1. Monitoring of stability of subjects of the local markets of cellular communication.