1.3 Theoretical aspects of research of strategic management of processes of regional development

Management of processes of regional development at the state level is carried out on the basis of system of the actions developed within the limits of economic policy, corresponding to changed environmental conditions.

The term «politike» (grech.) it is transferred as a management skill by the state. In the Philosophical encyclopaedic dictionary it is underlined, that the policy is a superstructure over economical basis, but at the same time it has active effect on economy and other parties of company [117].

More developed concept of a policy is resulted in other source [11] where the policy is marked that, first, system of measures on efficient control company and the state, and, secondly, system of measures on efficient control any social system (the scientific policy, social policy, economic policy, a financial policy etc.).

Within the limits of the system approach the state is considered as social and economic system, to operate which it is necessary by means of working out of economic policy, etc. its kinds. The modern economic dictionary treats concept "economic policy" as conducted by the state, the government a general line of actions, system of measures in the field of management of economy, giving of a certain orientation to economic processes according to the purposes, problems, interests of the country [84].

The state policy will be directed on consolidation of the purposes and efficiency increase if government programs are focused on formation of mechanisms of support of competitive advantages of regions with allowance for their investment in the general dynamics of development. Therefore it is necessary to establish the general indicators and accurate standards for monitoring and an estimation of results of government programs of regional development.

The regional policy in the Russian Federation as the state policy component, should be integrally entered in system of achievement of the purposes and problems of long-term social and economic development of the Russian Federation. The purposes and problems of a regional policy are co-ordinated with the purposes and problems of other directions of a state policy in the Russian Federation, including on development of individual industries of economy and social sphere.

Regional development as well as any other process should be operated. Management of development can be carried out by means of a diverse spectrum of strategy, programs, concrete actions and disposable administrative decisions. [33]

As V.E.Seliverstov marks, successful transfer of the Russian social and economic system in a new condition is impossible without realisation of the strategic management which major function is strategic planning on federal, inter-regional,
Regional and local levels. [138] in the Modern economic dictionary the concept "management" is treated as process of purposeful effect on system (mechanical, technological, biological, social) in which result its orderliness is reached, development according to objects in view. [122]

The concept «strategic management» is entered in the late sixties for the purpose of division of processes operative by management on a level of production and the management which are carried out top-level. In the early seventies it began to be considered as a logic consequence of development of the theory of management.

Economists consider as a key component of considered concept strategy. According to M.Portera, strategy represents creation by means of diverse actions of a unique and valuable item [115]. Having considered sights of various scientists at a definition "strategy", V.A.Nikulina unites them in three groups, representing strategy as: the developed and comprehensive plan of action of the organisation; a choice of a certain direction of development of the organisation, competitiveness methods, and also its items in environment; the system of the measures supplying achievement of the scheduled main purpose of the organisation calculated for long-term prospect - missions, and its other purposes and problems. [101]

There is variety of scientific schools which have developed the basic items of designing and use of strategy. In our opinion, three of them most are worthy. At the planning school which founder is I.Ansoff, the basic model of strategic planning which is realised as accurate sequence of certain stages is developed. Thus the major components of strategic planning, according to Ansoffa, are stsenarnoe planning and the strategic control which gives the chance revision and updating of the developed strategy. The basic defects of such approach to strategic planning
Excessive formalisation of stages of working out of strategy and, the main thing, division of processes of working out and realisation of strategy is.

These defects by representatives of school of the training which founders are K.Bejk, J are eliminated. Kuinn, etc. the major postulates are: 1) connection of processes of working out of strategy and its realisation; 2) communication reunion between «thoughts and actions». Defect of this school is that, first, in its frameworks has not been created high-grade and operational model of training to process of formation of strategy, secondly, representatives of the given school actually deny the control.

Representatives of school of a configuration (A.Chandler, G.Mintsberg, D.Miller, R.Majlz and K.Snou) represent itself as «reconciling symbiosis» for representatives of other schools of strategic planning. Following positions became the major achievements of this school: the large part of time the organisation is represented as a stable configuration with a set of strategy; the concept of life cycles of the organisation is allocated; preservation of viability of the organisation during the transformation periods; all schools of construction of strategy represent certain configurations; strategy resultants act in the form of plans, schemes, items, prospects. [90]

Development of the theory of strategic management at spatial or regional level in Russia have continued A.G.Granberg, V.E.Seliverstov, etc. At the present stage the regional government is understood as the government which is carried out by public authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation which strategic target is the satisfaction of social and economic requirements on the basis of complex development.

To strategic level in management of development of regions carry:

- Formation of the purposes;

- Definition of the basic directions of development and activity kinds;

- Definition of possibilities and threats, strong and weaknesses;

- Definition of competitive advantages and ways of their use.

The urgency of strategic management for today is defined by such factors as occurrence of essentially new problems caused by necessity of transition to an innovative way of development; development of processes of globalisation; increase of instability of the environment increasing level of uncertainty.

Strategic management, in our opinion, is the process supplying a sustainable development of social and economic regional system, directed on satisfaction sotsialnoyoekonomicheskih requirements of the population, on the basis of rational spatially-economic structure and complete use of the resource potential, allowing to achieve competitive advantages and to cope with external calls.

Toolkit for realisation of the actions provided within the limits of the regional policy in the Russian Federation, is introduction of uniform system of the state strategic planning. Strategic planning is carried out by working out of the co-ordinated concepts, strategy, programs and schemes of development of various branches and lines of business and territories.

Within the limits of development strategy actions at level of branches of economy and social sphere which should be co-ordinated with is strategic the important, priority directions of development of regions are planned. In this connection by working out of strategy of development of branches of economy and social sphere the regional cut should be provided. Its availability will allow to carry out an accurate binding of all planned program actions to regional features that will supply the coordination of strategy of development of branches and social sphere with documents of strategic planning of territorial development.

Thus, duly and qualitative working out of programs is necessary for a sustainable development of regions sotsialnoyoekonomicheskogo developments as the countries as a whole, groups of regions and separate regions. It is thus important, that the regional programs acting as methods of the decision of local problems of social and economic development, first, were within the limits of federal purpose-oriented programmes and programs makroreginov, and, secondly, corresponded to possibilities of regions. Though programs as the tool of the target decision of problems, certainly do not replace indicative planning [45].

Formation of system of regional strategic management is realised at four levels: federal, inter-regional (macroregions and federal districts), regional and local. The significant place in system of strategic regional development at the present stage is taken by strategy of social and economic development of federal districts. They are directed on coordination of directions of development of a federal, regional and municipal infrastructure with allowance for distributions of resource base of regions, a rational division of labour and inter-regional economic integration [54].

To strategic management of development of macroregions now, in our opinion, it is not given due attention. Though bases for working out of programs of strategic development of group of the regions entering into macroregions or large economic region, enough enough, as they are united on set of the important signs, such as about identical level of economic development which the prirodno-resource potential largely influences.

By working out of strategy of social and economic development at level of separate regions very important there is an association of resources and mechanisms of development which is possible for the account diversifikatsii economy and employment structures. Working out of programs for group
The regions similar on level of economic development and properties prirodno - resource potential will promote formation importozameshchajushchih and eksportoorientirovannyh productions, to creation of functionally balanced systems of support of attraction of the investments interconnected with federal mechanisms and supplementing them with allowance for of regional specificity.

For the accelerated balanced development of regions it is necessary to use all available organizational-economic forms and institutes, and not just traditionally and in large quantities involved. Academician A.G.Aganbegjan notices, that only search of new forms and institutes presumes to make jerk in social and economic development and to new quality of growth, and to higher competitiveness of regions [3].

Formation of favorable conditions for development of regions A.I. Tatarkin sees at the expense of complete realisation of available potential and possibilities at development of inter-regional and international cooperation and integration. It is for this purpose necessary:

- Estimation of economic possibilities of different institutes of the property at development of different branch and territorial structures;

- Inter-regional and intraregional integration with use klasterov, technoparks, the centres of a transfer of technologies, state-private partnership, etc.;

- Formation at regional level of the state corporations, a basis, for formation and which development there can be industrial-territorial corporations, regional development funds of a social infrastructure, agrarian and industrial complex, a transport infrastructure, etc. [140]

Social and economic transformations to the Russian economy have caused necessity of perfection of a control system
Economic development of regions on the basis of proportional and balanced development of all components of regional economy. Efficiency of the government economic development of region assumes research of interrelation of regional economy and the regional policy. [12; 27; 42; 44; 74; 85].

The first decade of 2000th years some economists name «time of the missed possibilities», giving reason for this thesis change of raw model of economy has not occurred that during the favorable period of growth of economic indicators in the country re-structuring (structural reorganisation) has not been finished, significant successes in the industry [169] have not been reached.

In the Concept of long-term social and economic development of the Russian Federation a number of problems (calls) which the Russian economy has faced is underlined the period till 2020. In particular, one of the first allocates a problem of exhaustion of potential is export - raw model of economic development which bases on the forced escalating of fuel and raw export.

As a development direction in the Concept it is scheduled structural diversifikatsija economy on the basis of innovative technological development. As the driver of economic development of Russia in the Concept innovations [77] are defined. The state regional policy according to the Concept acts as the basic tool of management of regional development [104; 132]. Thus the main objective defines increase of equation of regional development at the expense of creation of conditions for complex development and increase of competitiveness of economy, maintenance of a worthy standard of living of citizens.

The primary goals of regional development indicated in the Concept, concern as a problem of alignment of conditions for development of regions (to render a financial backing to lagging behind regions), and realisation of administrative strategy of "growth points» (to stimulate the centres
Advancing development in regions, turistsko-recreational zones), and also introductions of new forms of the organisation of the industry (to form territorial and production klastery) and infrastructure developments (to promote industrial and social infrastructural security of territories to form large transportnoyologisticheskie knots) [1; 23; 127].

For realisation of the purposes delivered in the Concept and creations of the conditions promoting the beginning of process structural diversifikatsii of economy an emphasis it is necessary to do on the regional structural policy that confirms the majority of scientists-regionalistov [54; 73; 135]. Problems of realisation of the purposes scheduled in the Concept are connected with necessity of the account of features of a condition and development of the regions entering as subsystems in uniform social and economic system of the Russian Federation. Thus, as a rule, in regional aspect coordination questions at federal and regional levels of priorities of a structural policy are most sharply shown.

Working out and guarantee of fulfilment of the positions declared in the Concept, structural deformations concerning overcoming and raw orientation of economy, is the general purpose of transformation of the Russian economy, but requires working out of the general model of long-term actions on transformation of structure of the Russian economic complex, that is construction of a tree of the purposes.

The specifying purposes of a regional structural policy formulated by the Russian scientists-regionalistami, sometimes enter contradictions. So, V.S.Antonjuk and E.R.Vansovich mark, the structural policy «should have such regional branch shifts which increases diversifikatsii productions by stimulation of the innovative promote progressive changes of branch structure of region in directions of formation V and VI technological ways,
Changes »[43]. This purpose considers diversifikatsiju only from items of a variety of production.

At the same time I.N.Shokin notices, that the essential reason of structural deformations and social pressure is the obsession about construction possibility monoukladnogo a method of production or even monoukladnoj economic system. Thus indicated idea extends on economic and technological ways. He asserts, that «structural optimisation under no circumstances cannot and should not be shown to the next acceleration scientifically - technical progress. Formation of a hi-tech nucleus of economy should have« a back »in the form of development economic (and technological!) mnogoukladnosti» [37].

As to transition of economy from a raw orientation to innovative S.A.Logvinov and E.G.Pavlova notice, that «in the conditions of a global competitiveness Russia will receive the best chances only developing simultaneously both raw and innovative economy». The Another matter, that a parity of raw and innovative components should be other, than at the present stage. In this occasion the indicated authors suggest «concrete proportions to regulate purposefully in the course of strategic planning of structural shifts with allowance for long-term national interests» [126].

From our point of view, possibility of development of multistructure economic system with parallel development of raw orientation and innovative economy also corresponds structural diversifikatsii the economy indicated in the Concept long-term socially - economic development of the Russian Federation for the period till 2020 as development of agriculture and the extracting (raw) industry also is impossible without innovations.

Necessity of realisation of re-structuring of regional economy is confirmed with opening of difficult economic problems, on
Which are indicated by the Russian economists, since obshchesistemnyh («all negative displays are a derivative not so much global crisis, how many crisis of structure of the Russian economy» [138]), finishing concrete (the developed spatial structure of the Russian economy is characterised by overwork concentration of many productions, narrow specialisation of regions, existence of monofunctional regions [43])

The territorial division of labour which has developed with allowance for qualities of prirodno-resource potential for which account possibility of decrease in expenses for production of this or that production has been reached, has generated placing of productive forces and has defined specialisation of separate regions [70; 78; 79]. As a result

Territorial division of labour the system of the branch complexes which efficiency is defined by level of a gross regional product was generated.

Regional development not only in the past, but also depends now on prirodno-resource potential of regions owing to advantages of specialisation and possibilities of its rational use [101; 141]. The opinion of domestic economists that such approach continues to keep the Russian economy in mainly raw orientation, and does not allow to develop innovative, in our opinion, is true only as a whole for the country. For regions in which territory the rare (unique) natural resources are possessed, the expressed opinion is disputable enough as innovations in such branches of economy are very claimed and are regularly introduced. [61; 149].

The problem of working out of spatially-economic structure of the regions approached to rational parametres in the conditions of complex use of prirodno-resource potential is actual and requires detailed study.

Drawing 1 - Conceptual positions of development of social and economic system of macroregion on the basis of formation new spatially - economic structure

Conceptual positions of development of social and economic system of macroregion on the basis of formation new prostranstvennoyoekonomicheskoj structures are presented on fig. 1.

The researches devoted to indicated problems, are conducted by experts of different level and on an example of various regions, but on the basis of development of inter-regional and intraregional integration not enough attention is given to questions of working out of the general policy of development of group of regions.

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A source: GRIGORYAN DIANA ROBERTOVNA. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT of DEVELOPMENT of MACROREGION ON THE BASIS OF NEW SPATIALLY-ECONOMIC STRUCTURE. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Stary Oskol - 2019. 2019

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