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3.1 Features of the regional organisation of a transport complex of the Kaliningrad area

One of the basic branches defining specificity of the Kaliningrad region, the transport branch is.

Owing to the geographical position Kaliningrad oblast і, is the active participant of external economic relations and international trade.

Thus transport is "carrier" of these relations, moving material streams. The volume of foreign trade of the Kaliningrad area has made 2,2 mlrd, US dollar in 2002г., 0,5 bln. dollars of the USA from which export of goods and services makes, 1,7 bln. dollars of the USA - import.

Following types of transport (Appendix) enter into a transport complex of the Kaliningrad area:

- Automobile,

- Marine,

- River,

- Air,

- Railway,

- The pipeline.

The motor transport is one of the major components of transport system of the Kaliningrad area (the Appendix, table 4, drawing 19). The Motor transport transports consignments and passengers on short and average distances, including executes intracity and intraindustrial carriages. It has rather high cost price of carriages consignments, but differs high manoeuvrability owing to what acquires great value for Калининірадской oblasn і, having rather small territory and, accordingly, distances of internal carriages.



Among branches of economy specific weight of faulty cars makes: in the industry of 21,7 %, in agriculture of 28,8 %, on transport of 15,4 %, in building of 6,4 %, in a forestry of 3,0 %. One of the reasons of a low technical condition of a cargo motor-vehicle pool is operation of motor vehicles sosrokom services of 8 and more years which make 76,1 % of all cargo motor vehicles. Hardly there is more than quarter of cargo motor vehicles it is possible to consider obsolete since their age exceeds 13 years.

The quantity of the enterprises and the organisations having in the property over 10 lorries makes 24 % from total of averages and major concerns. The basic share is taken by the organisations having on the average 1-9 lorries (75,6 %).

In structure of passenger carriages the basic specific weight (92,7 %) is necessary on the intracity message (bus 99,1 %, taxi 0,9 %), the suburban message makes 5,3 %, interurban 1,9 % and the international 0,1 % from total amount of transported passengers.

The Kaliningrad area possesses the developed network of highways. The ground area taken by roads and road structures makes 7205 hectares. 65 % of all highways are necessary on territorial roads, 4 % - federal, 31 % - departmental. In a network of highways of area the arranged most well are road of the general use, being in the federal property. Under the basic qualitative characteristic of roads - to availability of firm cover the Kaliningrad area is in the lead among other regions of Russia - 302 km on 1000 sq. km of territory, that in 10 times more, than across Russia (30 km). From 1121 settlements of area 1094 have motor transportation communication on roads with firm cover with a network of roads of the general oplzovanija or railway station, marine, river port, the airport. Indicators of activity of motor transport are presented in table 4.

Basis of transport system of the Kaliningrad area the sea transport which is applied to mass carriages consignments to external and internal messages, and also for passenger carriages (makes drawing 20). The basic lines - profitability and productivity.

Drawing 20 - Structure podotrasli a sea transport Kaliningrad

Areas.

The sea transport of the Kaliningrad area is characterised by availability of a powerful port complex which bases on three basic ports - trading, fish and marine - and is connected with Baltic sea 42 kilometre channel. Depth of the channel makes 10 m on an input in it about the seas and 8,1 m on port water area. A designed capacity of ports - 16 million t. Consignments in a year. Now capacities are loaded on 30 %. Distribution of volumes of consignments on ports following the results of 2002г. It is presented in drawing 21.

The marine trading port takes in the lead items on volumes gruzoperevalki among oegalnyh ports of the Kaliningrad area. Now its activity sorientirovana on service export ірузопотоков which share makes 83 % in total amount of served consignments. The marine trading port has potential of escalating of volumes of processed consignments at the present volumes of processing in 2.3 million tons (drawing 22) as its predicted capacity makes 8 million sink in a year at an existing level of development infrastrukgury. Capacities of the Kaliningrad marine fish port are loaded on 25 % at design tons into 3 million. In communication by sharp recession of extraction of fish - the main kind іруза port - conducts works on creation

Corresponding capacities for expansion of the nomenclature processed ірузов: the complex on иереірузке bulk consignments is constructed, lines of transhipment loose ірузов are entered, the terminal for work with courts of type RO-RO, berth for work with ferries, terminals for storage of fertilizers is constructed, tanks for storage of petroleum are reconstructed.

Drawing 21 - Dynamics gruzopererabogki ports for 1997-2002гг.

Within the limits of accepted by Ministry of Transport of Russia and Ministries of Railways of Russia of measures on an establishment of competitive tariffs for carriage Russian export ірузов in ports of the Kaliningrad area are cancelled discounts from tariffs for carriage consignments on the Russian railways (RZHD) in a direction of port Klaipeda, an establishment of the lowering factor 0,8 on carriage consignments but RZHD on the Kaliningrad direction has given a gain of volumes of crossing of consignments in marine trading port of Kaliningrad almost on 29 % for the first 5 months 2002 but to comparison with the similar period of 2001. However capacities of port on - former are loaded only on 40 %.

The Kaliningrad river port has two cargo areas on the marine channel: in Kaliningrad and Light. Processed consignments: coal, coke, scrap metal, mineralno-building materials. Design possibilities of port - 4 million tons of bulk cargoes. Port elevator consists of three cases the general capacity of 46 thousand tons of wheat. Daily productivity makes 3000 tons of grain of wheat. neftspsrsvalochnyj the complex is focused basically on

Export of petroleum. Berthing structures allow to serve simultaneously two tankers with osadkoj to 8,5 m and length to 200м.

The basic function of a river transport in its general display - carriages consignments and passengers on averages and a long distance in areas of gravitation to river ways. The Kaliningrad area that area is not, but, nevertheless, has river transport and a network of internal water navigable waters which have additional and auxiliary to a sea transport character and thereof shpegrirovany in the general system of a sea transport. Length of internal water navigable waters of the Kaliningrad area with navigability signs - 108 km that makes 30,3 % in total length of internal water navigable waters. Length of the cargo mechanised river and lake berthes of the general use - 1.1 km. From the point of view of passenger carriages the river transport of the Kaliningrad region is used basically in the tourist purposes for kruiznyh carriages. Indicators of activity of a sea transport are presented in table 4.


The air transport of the Kaliningrad area has not received significant development. Now has the following structural organisation (drawing

Passengers, consignments, mail, and also a number of works and services; which obligatory fulfilment ensures safety of flights around the airport, also grants air service of planes.

Under the authority of Open Society "Калининградавиа" are: air terminal with throughput of 400 passengers at an o'clock, samolenyj park, and also flight and technical structures. The air group attends to service and operation of the plane park consisting of 10 planes of type THOSE 134А and 2 planes of type ТУ154М. For maintenance of planes with Open Society "Калининградавиа" fuel Joint-Stock Company "Aviapetroleum" has been created. Under the authority of GP "Kaliningradavia" are: take-off - landing strip, allowing to accept air vessels with take-off weight to 100 tons, the radio lighting equipment, rulezhnye paths, platform, a boiler-house, heat - vodo - electrosupply.

Management of flights is in state management, therefore for the purpose of such management in region Kaliningrad branch GUDP źSevero - the Western Air navigation╗ has been created.

Special purpose air transport (for example, club ROSTO), and also a network of the airdromes which are in management with the Ministry of Defence, concern transport of not general use and, accordingly, are not exposed to consideration.

Indicators of activity of an air transport of the Kaliningrad area (tab. 4) tend to decrease that is caused by decrease in amounts of works of Open Society and GP "Kaliningradavia". The Principal cause consists in significant wear and tear of park of air courts.

It is difficult to overestimate significance in TSK the railway transportation which use is a component of the transport chain executed under the scheme:

1) production, preparation of the goods for shipment,

2) transportation by rail "manufacturer-iort",

3) processing (unloading) in port,

4) transportation by a vessel (sea),

5) an unloading in port, preparation for shipment to the address of the recipient,

6) transportation by rail źport - the recipient╗.

Significance of a railway transportation for region economy raises from items of consideration of the Kaliningrad area as parts of the scheme of development transvropejskih corridors at which successful realisation the region is integrated into a transportation network of Europe, realising, thereby the transit potential.

Globalisation economy! And developments of the foreign trade exchange accompanying her require new approaches to transport development, search of new technologies and rational ways of development of conveyances of passengers and consignments. For increase of efficiency of commercial relations the international organisations both the interested European and Asian countries have started formation of system of the international Euroasian transport corridors.

At II All-European conference on transport (Crete, Greece) in March 1994г. The directions of transport communications characterised by large both stable passenger and cargo streams have been defined. Directions have defined nine Transeuropean transport corridors, three of which - №1, 2 and 9 - partially pass on territory of Russia and include the Russian transport communications.

However this system of Pan-European corridors not completely is equitable to geopolitical and economic interests of Russia as not obespechivaeg transport approaches to a number of regions - large participants of foreign trade activities, and also economic ties with one of the world centres of activity - Asian-Pacific region, does not allow to use actively transport communications of Russia for maintenance of the international transcontinental communications.

In territory of Russia the system of the international transport corridors (MTK) which urged to create favorable conditions for attraction on national transport communications of transit freight traffic and improvement of the transport message in the country is formed, is more complete and effekgivno udovlegvorit of requirement of economy for services transport, and also to expand foreign economic relations, to raise competitiveness of the Russian commodity producers and transport agencies on world commodity and freight markets.

The territory of the Kaliningrad area owing to the geographical position is separated from other territory of the Russian Federation. Nevertheless, it is a part of two transevroiejskih transport corridors: №1 and 9.

- Pan-European corridor №1 (РЕ1). The basic direction: Helsinki - Tallinn - Riga - Vilnius - Warsaw. Branch: Riga - Kaliningrad - Gdansk. Railway route PE1R: Sovetsk (border with Lithuania) - Kaliningrad - Mamonovo (border with Poland). Automobile route РЕ1А: Sovetsk (border with Lithuania) - Tal paki - Kaliningrad - Mamonovo (border with Poland).

- Panevropsjsky corridor №9 (РЕ9). The basic direction: Helsinki - Sankt-Petersburg - Moscow - Ukraine (Kiev). Branches: OS - Petersburg - Belarus - Ukraine (Kiev - ports of Black sea), 2) Ukraine (Kiev) - Belarus (Minsk) - Lithuania (Vilnius) - Kaliningrad. Railway routes PE9R (ocnoBiioft): Moscow - Bryansk - Suzsmka (border with Ukraine), PE9R2 (branch): S.-Petersburg - the Bottom - Zavsrezhe (border with Belarus), PE9R4 (branch): Kaliningrad - Nesterov (border with Lithuania). Automobile route РЕ9А (basic): Moscow - Kaluga - Bryansk - Troebortnoe (border with Ukraine), РЕ9А1 (branch): Moscow - Tula - the Eagle - Kursk - Belgorod - nehoteevka (border with Ukraine), РЕ9А2 (branch): S.Peterburg - Pskov - Lobok (border with Belarus), РЕ9А4: Chernyshevsky (border with Lithuania) - Kaliningrad.

Now the railway transportation of the Kaliningrad area has the following structural organisation (drawing 23).

The Kaliningrad railway represents set of a rolling stock, 1361 km of a rail way, 47 railway stations, and also other systems, cars and the equipment, prednaznachannogo for realisation of carriages consignments, passengers, mail. The railway line, railway stations, etc. systems and the equipment are in management FGUP źthe Kaliningrad railway╗, a rolling stock - under the authority of FGUP źKaliningrad lokomativnos depot╗.

Drawing 23 - the Structural organisation podotrasli a railway transportation of the Kaliningrad area.

The qualitative characteristic of railways of area - low. The length elektrofitsirovannyh ways makes 16,6 % of the general extent of tracks of the general use. The majority of railways of area (83,4 %) - with diesel draught, while a share elektrofitsirovannyh plots on railways of Russia - 46,2 % that exceeds a similar indicator of the Kaliningrad area in 2,8 times. In zavisismosti from volumes of cargo and passenger carriages the track is divided into 5 classes. Railways 1 and 2 classes are characterised by high speeds, the big throughput, the strengthened top structure, at repair the newest materials are used. In the Kaliningrad area 2 classes concern roads a railway plot Kaliningrad - Kibartaj. In area there are lines with various width of a track. Extent of roads with width of a track (Russian) 1520 mm 725,5 km, length of roads with width of a track make 1435 mm (European) - 104,7 km.

Intraregional railways transport the greatest quantity of consignments (table 4). They represent developed enough system, however its use is not optimum. The basic volume gruzoperevorzok between the Kaliningrad area, on the one hand, both Lithuania and Russia, with other, occurs on a highway Kaliningrad - Chernyakhovsk - Nesterov - Kaunas - Minsk - Moscow. Northern line Kaliningrad - Sovstsk - SHauljaj - Riga practically is not used for carriages.

Pipeline transport of the Kaliningrad area is presented by a network gazo - and oil pipelines is one of economic and productive types of transport. It is intended for mass carriages liquid, gaseous and some other consignments pneumatic and hydraulic by methods. Submission of the review of a condition of the given type of transport inconveniently as at attempts of realisation of the analysis such there are difficulties of information character, namely: availability, sufficiency and value of the information.

The Kaliningrad area possesses developed enough transport complex which on the one hand, is branch - the intermediary, and with other - is allocated in independent branch of economy of region. As branch - the intermediary transport executes binding functions between other branches of region, carrying out transportation of resources, half-finished products, finished goods. Development of the large centres of the industry and transport communications connecting them vzaimoobuslovleno: without availability of the developed system of transport in region there will be no major concerns, and after their occurrence there is a requirement for development of new transport possibilities, i.e. transport acquires the increasing significance.

Nevertheless, the transport complex of the Kaliningrad area is expedient for investigating and as the independent branch taking a certain place in creation of region VRP. Especially actual last becomes from items of prospects of development of the Kaliningrad area as one of the transport centres of transit freight traffic. Great value from this point of view acquire podotrasli marine, railway and motor transport which already have some infrastructural base for active sharing in the integrated transport process, however, still are far from conformity to the all-European norms and standards of rendering of transportation services.

Ministry of Transport of Russia and administration of the Kaliningrad area attend to fulfilment of some the actions promoting overcoming of transport isolation of region from other Russia, to increase of competitiveness of a transport complex of area on the basis of simplification of procedures of customs registration of means of transport and consignments, an establishment of the rational

Railroad rates for the Kaliningrad direction. Significant development of a transport infrastructure of region is provided by federal purpose-oriented programmes "Modernization of transport system of Russia" and "Development of the Kaliningrad area for the period till 2010". Transport problems of area become priority within the limits of the created Allied state Russia - Belarus, and also in questions of mutual relations with Lithuania and Poland.

At the same time, in close interaction with controls of transport of the Kaliningrad area it is necessary for branch services and corresponding divisions of the Ministry to speed up work on creation of constant and reliable transport communication of region with territory of other Russia, thus the special attention requires the decision of questions of the organisation of a marine avtomobilyju-railway ferry line of the Ust-meadow - Baltiysk - ports of Germany, the coordination with corresponding structures of Lithuania, Poland and Belarus the simplified order of transit of consignments and passengers in/from Kaliningrad area through territories of these countries, reconstruction of the international automobile check points and a mode of their work, an estimation of possibility of building of alternative communications for maintenance of ability to live of the Kaliningrad area.

The Kaliningrad region owing to the geographical position has a number of competitive advantages before other transport knots of Baltic: the affinity to transport corridors, nonfreezing port, etc. However these advantages have been mortgaged in the given territory a priori, and productivity increase, their further working out, and also formation of new competitive advantages of regional transport system and expansion of its reference points on the external transport markets becomes the primary goals now. For the most successful implementation of such prospects and creation of models of development of transport system formation of the complex approach to definition of a place and significance of a transport complex in region economy, to definition of its competitiveness on vneshneregionalnyh the markets and to influence on competitiveness of region as a whole, to revealing of problems and factors is necessary

Functioning of transport system and to development and realisation of the co-ordinated, consecutive and rational decisions at all its levels.

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A source: Naidyonova Anna Gennadevna. ESTIMATION of COMPETITIVENESS of the SUBSYSTEM of TRANSPORT AS ELEMENT of REGIONAL ECONOMY (on an example of the Kaliningrad area). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Kaliningrad - 2004. 2004

More on topic 3.1 Features of the regional organisation of a transport complex of the Kaliningrad area:

  1. 3.23 Organizational - economic actions of increase of competitiveness of a subsystem of a regional transport complex of the Kaliningrad area
  2. 3.2.1 Account of factor of elasticity of regional economy on transport for the Kaliningrad area
  3. Naidyonov Anna Gennadevna. the ESTIMATION of COMPETITIVENESS of the SUBSYSTEM of TRANSPORT AS ELEMENT of REGIONAL ECONOMY (on an example of the Kaliningrad area). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Kaliningrad -,
  4. 3.2.2 Account of rates of competitiveness of a transport subsystem of the Kaliningrad area
  5. the Appendix 11 Basic indicators of regional development of the Kaliningrad area
  6. 3.2 Realization of experimental accounts by definition of competitiveness of a transport subsystem of the Kaliningrad area
  7. Chapter 3 Practical aspects of functioning of a transport subsystem and management of its competitiveness on an example of the Kaliningrad area
  8. Features of epidemic of a HIV-infection in the Kaliningrad area
  9. 3.1. Features of an epidemic situation on a tuberculosis in the Kaliningrad area
  10. Features of a combination of a tuberculosis and a HIV-infection in the Kaliningrad area
  11. 1.2 Transport complex as an element of regional economic system
  12. 4.2 Kaliningrad area (a special economic zone)
  13. the Appendix 4 Basic indicators of agriculture of the Kaliningrad area
  14. the Kaliningrad area - cooperation region., with. 22
  15. the Source: the Basic social and economic indexes: Russia and the Kaliningrad area., с.54
  16. Appendices the Appendix 1 Regulatory legal acts regulating investment activity in territory of the Kaliningrad area
  17. 2.3 Role OEZ in economy of the Kaliningrad area