1.1 Concept and essence of strategic management.

The research devoted to a problem of formation of functional strategy, we will construct on a logic chain, in which basis scientific positions of the theory of management, essence and process of strategic management, concept and kinds of strategy.
Such approach allows the author of dissertation as a result of discussion with known scientific economists to allocate functional strategy, to develop methodical bases of their working out, including with allowance for features pivobezalkogolnoj the industries. Occurrence of the theory of management as sciences concerns the end of 19 centuries and the beginning of 20 centuries. Till this time of the complete theory of management was not, work of the engineer, the manager was faster the art based on intuition. Rapid development of new technologies, increase in volumes of production have raised the question about formation of the scientific management methods solving concrete practical problems. Not casually, that bases of the theory of management have been mortgaged by the people knowing thoroughly technology of industrial enterprises and feature of mutual relations between workers and chiefs, made management of sphere of the professional work. The author of dissertation considers basic ideas of classics of the theory of management as, to understand that represents modern strategic management and what its methodology, it is necessary to show, that was a management science source as that. The management science founder F.Taylor by right is considered. In its book "Principles of scientific management ' ^ 147], have been stated main principles of the effective industrial organisation which are recognised today by classical, it: the work organisation, motivation of the worker and formation of problems of management. F.Taylor has suggested to divide labour operations, for the first time has applied timing to definition of the time Characteristics of labour operations, has established performance standards, and also paid the big attention to cooperation between administration and workers. Managers should separate scheduling от* its direct fulfilment and reserve the right a choice of methods of performance of a specific target. Analyzing all stages of working process, and creating standards for each of them, they could define the best method of fulfilment of the problem, guaranteeing peak efficiency. Thus, proceeding from the analysis of the classical theory of F.Taylor, the author does a conclusion, that the scientist represented management in aspect of the rational organisation of production - division of production into separate operations and functions for the purpose of reception of the greatest effect from enterprise activity. A merit of this school is working out of the list of labour operations, their strict regulation and the control over fulfilment. The problem of scientific management was extended and in Europe. The big investment in the further working out of principles of the classical theory was introduced by outstanding French engineer A.Fajol [147]. It has defined the basic functions of management: technical, commercial, financial, legal, administrative. A.Fajol one of the first has formulated also five basic elements, making each function of management: a prediction, planning, the organisation, co-ordination and the control. In parallel scientific universal principles of management have been developed, following which the chief of any organisation irrespective of the purposes, the sizes and patterns of ownership could expect for enterprise optimum performance.
Generalisation of works in the field of the classical approach to management (F.Taylor, A.Fajol, G.Emerson, G.Gait) has allowed the author of dissertation to draw a conclusion that defect of the classical theory is accentuation of attention on labour operations and organizational structure, management procedure at ignoring of a role of the human factor. Following important stage in management science development during the period with 1930 on 1950 of became occurrence of school of human relations which considered the human factor as a management efficiency basic element. Founders of this school are M.Follet, E.Mejo, F.Rotlisberger [50,73,134]. The person, according to supporters bihevioristicheskoj schools, always aspires to coexistence with other people, here again imperative to supply complete interaction and mutual understanding of people in each separate working group, i.e. social stability. It the administration by orientation of the activity first of all per capita, the decision of its problems also should achieve. It is necessary to notice, that problems of the person and a management of staff make only one part of the theory of management, bihevioristicheskaja the theory does not consider such functions as planning, the organisation and the control, that is the understanding of the organisation is excluded as unit which workers influence also which in turn influences them. In it, according to the author of dissertation, defect of the given approach to management consists. Under the influence of technical development and production integration in management sphere, in second half of 20 centuries the school of social systems [6] has started to develop. The Mainstream of this school consists that the social organisation is considered as the complex system consisting of a number of interconnected subsystems: the individual, formal and informal structures, a physical environment. A main parcel of this school is maintenance of regular effect of these subsystems on the basis of designing of so-called binding processes, i.e. the main thing is construction and interaction of organizational structure of the enterprise. One of the largest representatives of school of social systems-C.Bornard [6] has defined a number of principles of an establishment of communications in organizational systems which allow to accept the silt, based on a system analysis and system designing is decided:? Clear split of responsibilities, the rights and responsibility in management personnel that allows to create the formal organisation;? Achievement of frankness and brevity of communications that supplies efficiency of decisions and reduces quantity of errors;? Continuity of action of the established communications, despite time absence of this or that official;? Maintenance of sufficient level of the competence of the administrative board, i.e. professionalizatsija. Each official within the limits of the competence acts within the rights and responsibilities. Defect of the given school, according to the author, management consideration through a prism of the decision-making, based on studying of organizational structure, disregarding management as the process consisting of functions is. Dialectic development of various schools of management, and also significant complication of a market situation, have caused occurrence of the system approach to the management, considering the enterprise as the open structure consisting of interconnected systems, forming a unit and having a general purposes [134].odnovremenno changes in the external and internal environment of the enterprise have found reflexion in use of a situation analysis which allows to evaluate as the same function of management are realised in various concrete situations. Thus, the short review of various schools of the theory of management shows, that there is a significant number of principles and management methods, various theories of management. However dynamism of company, development of production and technologies, complication of social problems require the further study of a technique of management for the purpose of them Applications at the enterprises and receptions of the maximum effect from industrial activity. Development of various schools of the theory of management predetermine also heterogeneity of treatments concerning concept "Strategic management". Some definitions of strategic management are resulted in table 1. The strategic choice based on comparison of own resource potential of the enterprise with possibilities and threats of an external environment in which it acts is. 5 Boumen To. "Bases of strategic management" TH.: Banks and exchanges, 1997. [16] Strategic management - is activity on the strict management, connected with statement of the purposes and problems of the organisation and to maintenance of some mutual relations between the organisation and an environment which give the chance to it to achieve the purposes. SHendel D and Hatten A understand as strategic management process of definition and an establishment of communication of the organisation with its environment; Glinn D, Markova V, Perki not D mean by the given term managerial process for the purpose of realisation of mission of the organisation and acceptance of strategic decisions. According to Popova S.A. strategic management is necessary for maintenance of adaptation of the enterprise to environment changes. Trajnev V. A, Vihaisky Island S represent strategic management as symbiosis of intuition of the top management and professionalism of employees of the enterprise. According to Boumsna K strategic management is intended for realisation of the strict control over realisation of objects in view. Research of concepts of strategic management with allowance for economy developments has given the basis to the author of dissertation to suggest to consider in interpretation of the given concept following aspects:? Basis of strategic management are strategy;? Formation and realisation of strategy in managerial process is carried out on corresponding information base. As a result of the analysis of the various points of view concerning concept "strategic management", the author makes its following definition: "strategic management - is process of working out of strategy which is carried out on the basis of the information streams allowing chiefs to generate idea, to make strategic decisions with allowance for of risks of change of an environment." As a result of the analysis of works domestic and foreign Economists! 1,7,32,33,34,46,56,68,88] the author allocates following basic stages of strategic management:? Formation of mission and the enterprise purposes;? The strategic analysis;? Choice of strategy; • formation of strategy; ? Realisation of strategy and the strategic control. In formation of strategic management deepening of classifications of the purposes and formation of concept mission proceeds. Researches of the author in the field of strategic management for conditions of Russia allow to assert, that mission, general purposes save influence on activity of the enterprise and it causes necessity of clarification of their interpretation. Mission definitions are resulted in table 2. 3 Fathutdinov P.A. "Innovative management" M.Biznes school Intel Synthesis, 1999. [150] Mission-it basic appointment of the organisation which it differs from other organisations in which frameworks character of operations 4 Prykin B.V. is defined, Eriashvili N.D. "The general rate of management in Tables and schedules ".-М.: Banks ibirzhi, JUNITI, 1998. [1061 Mission - accurately expressed reason of existence of the organisation with a substantiation of its "niche" in the market 5 Boumen K "Bases strategic msnedzhmenta" TH.: Banks and exchanges, 1997. [16] Mission is a general purposes of the organisation, its mission. It is formulated first of all from the point of view of increase of a social role of the organisation the Given definitions it is possible to break into some groups, namely mission is characterised as the purpose (Boumen K,), an image the companies (X.), a line of business (Thomson A.A., Striklend A.D.), basic appointment of the company and the existence reason (Fathutdinov P.A., Prykin B.V., Eriashvili N.D.). We support mission definition as image of the company, line of business, basic appointment of the company. We offer substantially with allowance for features of the Russian economy the following treatment of mission: "lshesmja-it the distinctive characteristic of the enterprise in the field of an end result of its activity in the competitive environment". It is theoretically proved, and we use this position in the work, that mission is shown in practical sphere of strategic operation of business, through general purposes by a quantitative and time estimation of each direction of activity of the enterprise. Definitions of concept "purpose" are presented in table 3. Purpose definitions. Table 3. The author «a source the Formulation of the purpose 1 Thomson A.A, Striklend A.D." Strategic management ", M.:Банки and Exchanges, JUNITI, 1998. [137] Purpose-it a reference point on which quality of work and progress of the organisation 2 Gsrchikova I.N."Management".-М.:Банки ibirzhi are traced, 1997. [41 1 Purpose of-firm defines its concept of development and the basic directions of activity to 3 Time of M. L, Jakutin J.V. "The organisation Management ". M.ekonomika and a life, 1994. [127] purpose-it a desirable condition of system an ideal, mental anticipation of result of activity and ways of its achievement by means of certain means. In table 4 classification of the purposes of the enterprise [41] is considered. Classification of the purposes of the enterprise. Table 4. Criteria of classification of Group are more whole the establishment Period Strategic, tactical, operative the Contents Economic, organizational, scientific, social, technological, political Structural Marketing, innovative, personnel, industrial, financial, administrative the Environment Internal, external Prioritetnost especially priority, priority, other Measurability Quantitative, qualitative Repeatability Repeating, single Hierarchy the Organization, divisions the Stage of life cycle Designing and object creation, object growth, an object maturity, end of life cycle of object the carried out research forms a basis for approach formation to working out of functional strategy of the brewing enterprises, presented in item 3.1. Further we will consider kinds of strategy.
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A source: Averin Oksana Vitalevna. Scientific and methodological aspects of the formation of functional strategies of the enterprises of the beer and soft drinks industry / Thesis / Moscow. 2003

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